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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for sar (redhat section 1)

SAR(1)				       Linux User's Manual				   SAR(1)

NAME
       sar - Collect, report, or save system activity information.

SYNOPSIS
       sar  [ -A ] [ -b ] [ -B ] [ -c ] [ -d ] [ -H ] [ -h ] [ -i interval ] [ -q ] [ -r ] [ -R ]
       [ -t ] [ -u ] [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -w ] [ -W ] [ -y ] [ -n { DEV | EDEV | SOCK | FULL } ] [  -x
       {  pid  | SELF | SUM | ALL } ] [ -X { pid | SELF | ALL } ] [ -I { irq | SUM | PROC | ALL |
       XALL } ] [ -U { cpu | ALL } ] [ -o [ filename ] | -f [ filename ] ] [ -s [ hh:mm:ss ] ]	[
       -e [ hh:mm:ss ] ] [ interval [ count ] ]

DESCRIPTION
       The  sar  command  writes  to standard output the contents of selected cumulative activity
       counters in the operating system. The accounting system, based on the values in the  count
       and  interval  parameters,  writes information the specified number of times spaced at the
       specified intervals in seconds.	If the interval parameter is set to zero, the sar command
       displays  the  average  statistics  for the time since the system was started. The default
       value for the count parameter is 1. If its value is set to zero, then reports  are  gener-
       ated  continuously.   The collected data can also be saved in the file specified by the -o
       filename flag, in addition to being displayed onto the screen. If filename is omitted, sar
       uses the standard system activity daily data file, the /var/log/sa/sadd file, where the dd
       parameter indicates the current day.

       The sar command extracts and writes to standard output records previously saved in a file.
       This file can be either the one specified by the -f flag or, by default, the standard sys-
       tem activity daily data file.

       You can select information about specific system activities using  flags.  Not  specifying
       any  flags  selects only CPU activity.  Specifying the -A flag is equivalent to specifying
       -bBcdqrRuvwWy -I SUM -I PROC -n FULL -U ALL.

       The default version of the sar command (CPU utilization report) might be one of the  first
       facilities the user runs to begin system activity investigation, because it monitors major
       system resources. If CPU utilization is near 100 percent (user + nice + system), the work-
       load sampled is CPU-bound.

       If  multiple samples and multiple reports are desired, it is convenient to specify an out-
       put file for the sar command.  Run the sar command as a background process. The syntax for
       this is:

       sar -o data.file interval count >/dev/null 2>&1 &

       All data is captured in binary form and saved to a file (data.file).  The data can then be
       selectively displayed with the sar command using the -f option. Set the count parameter to
       select  records	at  count second intervals. If this parameter is not set, all the records
       saved in the file will be selected.  Collection of data in this manner is useful to  char-
       acterize system usage over a period of time and determine peak usage hours.

       Note:	 The sar command only reports on local activities.

OPTIONS
       -A     This is equivalent to specifying -bBcdqrRuvwWy -I SUM -I PROC -n FULL -U ALL.

       -b     Report I/O and transfer rate statistics. The following values are displayed:

	      tps
		     Total  number of transfers per second that were issued to the physical disk.
		     A transfer is an I/O request to the physical disk. Multiple logical requests
		     can  be  combined	into  a single I/O request to the disk.  A transfer is of
		     indeterminate size.

	      rtps
		     Total number of read requests per second issued to the physical disk.

	      wtps
		     Total number of write requests per second issued to the physical disk.

	      bread/s
		     Total amount of data read from the drive in blocks per second.   Blocks  are
		     equivalent to sectors with post 2.4 kernels and therefore have a size of 512
		     bytes. With older kernels, a block is of indeterminate size.

	      bwrtn/s
		     Total amount of data written to the drive in blocks per second.

       -B     Report paging statistics. The following values are displayed:

	      pgpgin/s
		     Total number of blocks the system paged in from disk per second.

	      pgpgout/s
		     Total number of blocks the system paged out to disk per second.

	      activepg
		     Number of active (recently touched) pages in memory.  Note that a page has a
		     size of 4 kB or 8 kB according to the machine architecture.

	      inadtypg
		     Number of inactive dirty (modified or potentially modified) pages in memory.

	      inaclnpg
		     Number of inactive clean (not modified) pages in memory.

	      inatarpg
		     "Inactive target" number of pages. This field is a 1-minute floating average
		     of the number of pages the system needs to "steal" every second in order  to
		     satisfy memory demand.

       -c     Report process creation activity.

	      proc/s
		     Total number of processes created per second.

       -d     Report  activity	for  each block device (kernels 2.4 and later only). When data is
	      displayed, the device specification dev m-n is generally used ( DEV column).  m  is
	      the major number of the device, whereas n is a distinctive number.

	      tps
		     Indicate  the number of transfers per second that were issued to the device.
		     Multiple logical requests can be combined into a single I/O request  to  the
		     device. A transfer is of indeterminate size.

	      sect/s
		     Number of sectors transferred from or to the device. The size of a sector is
		     512 bytes.

       -e hh:mm:ss
	      Set the ending time of the report. The default ending time is 18:00:00. Hours  must
	      be  given  in 24-hour format.  This option can be used only when data are read from
	      or written to a file (options -f or -o ).

       -f filename
	      Extract records from filename (created by the -o filename flag). The default  value
	      of  the  filename  parameter  is	the current daily data file, the /var/log/sa/sadd
	      file. The -f option is exclusive of the -o option.

       -h     When  reading data from a file, print its contents in a format that can  easily  be
	      handled  by  pattern  processing	commands like awk.  The output consists of fields
	      separated by a tab. Each record contains the hostname of the  host  where  sar  was
	      run, the interval value (or -1 if not applicable), the timestamp (UTC value - Coor-
	      dinated Universal Time) in seconds from the epoch, the device name  (or  -  if  not
	      applicable), the field name and its value.

       -H     When   reading  data from a file, print its contents in a format that can easily be
	      ingested by a relational database system. The output consists of	fields	separated
	      by  a  semicolon.  Each record contains the hostname of the host where sar was run,
	      the interval value (or -1 if not applicable), the sar timestamp in  a  form  easily
	      acceptable  by  most  databases,	and additional semicolon separated data fields as
	      specified by other sar command line options.  Note that the timestamp is	displayed
	      in  UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) unless option -t is used. In this latter case,
	      the timestamp is displayed in local time.

       -i interval
	      Select data records at seconds as close as possible to the number specified by  the
	      interval parameter.

       -I irq | SUM | PROC | ALL | XALL
	      Report statistics for a given interrupt.	irq is the interrupt number. The SUM key-
	      word indicates that the total number of interrupts received per  second  is  to  be
	      displayed.  The  ALL keyword indicates that statistics from the first 16 interrupts
	      are to be reported, whereas the XALL keyword indicates  that  statistics	from  all
	      interrupts,  including potential APIC interrupt sources, are to be reported.  Last,
	      if you use the PROC keyword, the number of interrupts per second received  by  each
	      processor is displayed.

       -n DEV | EDEV | SOCK | FULL
	      Report network statistics.

	      With  the  DEV keyword, statistics from the network devices are reported.  The fol-
	      lowing values are displayed:

	      IFACE
		     Name of the network interface for which statistics are reported.

	      rxpck/s
		     Total number of packets received per second.

	      txpck/s
		     Total number of packets transmitted per second.

	      rxbyt/s
		     Total number of bytes received per second.

	      txbyt/s
		     Total number of bytes transmitted per second.

	      rxcmp/s
		     Number of compressed packets received per second (for cslip etc.).

	      txcmp/s
		     Number of compressed packets transmitted per second.

	      rxmcst/s
		     Number of multicast packets received per second.

	      With the EDEV keyword, statistics on failures (errors) from the network devices are
	      reported.  The following values are displayed:

	      IFACE
		     Name of the network interface for which statistics are reported.

	      rxerr/s
		     Total number of bad packets received per second.

	      txerr/s
		     Total number of errors that happened per second while transmitting packets.

	      coll/s
		     Number of collisions that happened per second while transmitting packets.

	      rxdrop/s
		     Number  of received packets dropped per second because of a lack of space in
		     linux buffers.

	      txdrop/s
		     Number of transmitted packets dropped per second because of a lack of  space
		     in linux buffers.

	      txcarr/s
		     Number  of  carrier-errors that happened per second while transmitting pack-
		     ets.

	      rxfram/s
		     Number of frame alignment errors that happened per second on received  pack-
		     ets.

	      rxfifo/s
		     Number of FIFO overrun errors that happened per second on received packets.

	      txfifo/s
		     Number  of FIFO overrun errors that happened per second on transmitted pack-
		     ets.

	      With the SOCK keyword, statistics on sockets in use are  reported.   The	following
	      values are displayed:

	      totsck
		     Total number of used sockets.

	      tcpsck
		     Number of TCP sockets currently in use.

	      udpsck
		     Number of UDP sockets currently in use.

	      rawsck
		     Number of RAW sockets currently in use.

	      ip-frag
		     Number of IP fragments currently in use.

	      The  FULL  keyword is equivalent to specifying all the keywords above and therefore
	      all the network activities are reported.

       -o filename
	      Save the readings in the file in binary form. Each reading is in a separate record.
	      The  default  value  of  the filename parameter is the current daily data file, the
	      /var/log/sa/sadd file. The -o option is exclusive of the -f option.

       -q     Report queue length and load averages. The following values are displayed:

	      runq-sz
		     Run queue length (number of processes waiting for run time).

	      plist-sz
		     Number of processes in the process list.

	      ldavg-1
		     System load average for the last minute.

	      ldavg-5
		     System load average for the past 5 minutes.

       -r     Report memory and swap space utilization statistics.  The following values are dis-
	      played:

	      kbmemfree
		     Amount of free memory available in kilobytes.

	      kbmemused
		     Amount  of  used memory in kilobytes. This does not take into account memory
		     used by the kernel itself.

	      %memused
		     Percentage of used memory.

	      kbmemshrd
		     Amount of memory shared by the system in kilobytes.  Always  zero	with  2.4
		     kernels.

	      kbbuffers
		     Amount of memory used as buffers by the kernel in kilobytes.

	      kbcached
		     Amount of memory used to cache data by the kernel in kilobytes.

	      kbswpfree
		     Amount of free swap space in kilobytes.

	      kbswpused
		     Amount of used swap space in kilobytes.

	      %swpused
		     Percentage of used swap space.

       -R     Report memory statistics. The following values are displayed:

	      frmpg/s
		     Number  of  memory  pages	freed by the system per second.  A negative value
		     represents a number of pages allocated by the system.  Note that a page  has
		     a size of 4 kB or 8 kB according to the machine architecture.

	      shmpg/s
		     Number of additionnal memory pages shared by the system per second.  A nega-
		     tive value means fewer pages shared by the system.

	      bufpg/s
		     Number of additionnal memory pages used as buffers by the system per second.
		     A negative value means fewer pages used as buffers by the system.

	      campg/s
		     Number of additionnal memory pages cached by the system per second.  A nega-
		     tive value means fewer pages in the cache.

       -s hh:mm:ss
	      Set the starting time of the data, causing the sar command to extract records time-
	      tagged  at,  or  following, the time specified. The default starting time is 08:00.
	      Hours must be given in 24-hour format. This option can be used only when	data  are
	      read from a file (option -f ).

       -t     When  reading  data  from  a  daily data file, indicate that sar should display the
	      timestamps in the original locale time of  the  data  file  creator.  Without  this
	      option, the sar command displays the timestamps in the user locale time.	When this
	      option is used together with option -H, the timestamp is displayed  in  local  time
	      instead of UTC (Coordinated Universal Time).  This option is ignored when option -h
	      is used.

       -u     Report CPU utilization. The following values are displayed:

	      %user
		     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred  while  executing  at	the  user
		     level (application).

	      %nice
		     Percentage  of  CPU  utilization  that  occurred while executing at the user
		     level with nice priority.

	      %system
		     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred while executing  at  the  system
		     level (kernel).

	      %idle
		     Percentage of time that the CPU or CPUs were idle.

       -U cpu | ALL
	      Report CPU utilization for a given processor.  cpu is the processor number. The ALL
	      keyword indicates that statistics are to be reported for all processors. Note  that
	      processor 0 is the first processor.

       -v     Report  status  of  inode,  file and other kernel tables.  The following values are
	      displayed:

	      dentunusd
		     Number of unused cache entries in the directory cache.

	      file-sz
		     Number of used file handles.

	      %file-sz
		     Percentage of used file handles with regard to the maximum  number  of  file
		     handles that the Linux kernel can allocate.

	      inode-sz
		     Number of used inode handlers.

	      super-sz
		     Number of super block handlers allocated by the kernel.

	      %super-sz
		     Percentage of allocated super block handlers with regard to the maximum num-
		     ber of super block handlers that Linux can allocate.

	      dquot-sz
		     Number of allocated disk quota entries.

	      %dquot-sz
		     Percentage of allocated disk quota entries with regard to the maximum number
		     of cached disk quota entries that can be allocated.

	      rtsig-sz
		     Number of queued RT signals.

	      %rtsig-sz
		     Percentage of queued RT signals with regard to the maximum number of RT sig-
		     nals that can be queued.

       -V     Print version number and usage then exit.

       -w     Report system switching activity.

	      cswch/s
		     Total number of context switches per second.

       -W     Report swapping statistics. The following values are displayed:

	      pswpin/s
		     Total number of swap pages the system brought in per second.

	      pswpout/s
		     Total number of swap pages the system brought out per second.

       -x pid | SELF | SUM | ALL
	      Report statistics for a given process.  pid is the process  identification  number.
	      The  SELF  keyword indicates that statistics are to be reported for the sar process
	      itself, whereas the ALL keyword indicates that statistics are to	be  reported  for
	      all  the system processes.  When the SUM keyword is used, the total number of minor
	      and major faults made by the system is reported. All  these  statistics  cannot  be
	      saved  to  a  file.  So this option will be ignored whenever -o option is used.  At
	      the present time, no more than 256 processes can be monitored simultaneously.

	      When the SUM keyword is not used, the following values are displayed:

	      minflt/s
		     Total number of minor faults the process has made per  second,  those  which
		     have not required loading a memory page from disk.

	      majflt/s
		     Total  number  of	major faults the process has made per second, those which
		     have required loading a memory page from disk.

	      %user
		     Percentage of CPU used by the process while  executing  at  the  user  level
		     (application).

	      %system
		     Percentage  of  CPU  used by the process while executing at the system level
		     (kernel).

	      nswap/s
		     Number of pages from the process address space the system	has  swapped  out
		     per second.

	      CPU
		     Processor number to which the process is attached.

	      When  the  SUM  keyword  is used on the command line, the following values are dis-
	      played:

	      minflt/s
		     Total number of minor faults the system has made  per  second,  those  which
		     have not required loading a memory page from disk.

	      majflt/s
		     Total  number  of	major  faults the system has made per second, those which
		     have required loading a memory page from disk.

	      These last two statistics are consistent only when no  processes	have  terminated.
	      If  a  process  is  killed  during  the  interval, the statistics are not available
	      (marked as ????) and the average number will not be computed.

       -X pid | SELF | ALL
	      Report statistics for the child processes of the process whose PID is  pid  .   The
	      SELF  keyword  indicates that statistics are to be reported for the child processes
	      of the sar process itself, whereas the ALL keyword indicates that statistics are to
	      be  reported  for  all  the child processes of all the system processes.	All these
	      statistics cannot be saved to a file.  So this option will be ignored  whenever  -o
	      option  is  used.  At the present time, no more than 256 processes can be monitored
	      simultaneously.  The following values are displayed:

	      cminflt/s
		     Total number of minor faults the child processes have made per second, those
		     which have not required loading a memory page from disk.

	      cmajflt/s
		     Total number of major faults the child processes have made per second, those
		     which have required loading a memory page from disk.

	      %cuser
		     Percentage of CPU used by the child processes while executing  at	the  user
		     level (application).

	      %csystem
		     Percentage  of CPU used by the child processes while executing at the system
		     level (kernel).

	      cnswap/s
		     Number of pages from the child process address spaces the system has swapped
		     out per second.

       -y     Report TTY device activity. The following values are displayed:

	      rcvin/s
		     Number of receive interrupts per second for current serial line. Serial line
		     number is given in the TTY column.

	      xmtin/s
		     Number of transmit interrupts per second for current serial line.

ENVIRONMENT
       The sar command takes into account the following environment variable:

       S_TIME_FORMAT
	      If this variable exists and its value is	ISO  then  the	current  locale  will  be
	      ignored  when printing the date in the report header.  The sar command will use the
	      ISO format (YYYY-MM-DD) instead.

EXAMPLES
       sar -u 2 5
	      Report CPU utilization for each 2 seconds. 5 lines are displayed.

       sar -I 14 -o int14.file 2 10
	      Report statistics on IRQ 14 for each 2 seconds. 10 lines are displayed.	Data  are
	      stored in a file called int14.file.

       sar -r -n DEV -f /var/log/sa/sa16
	      Display memory, swap space and network statistics saved in daily data file 'sa16'.

       sar -A
	      Display all the statistics saved in current daily data file.

BUGS
       /proc filesystem must be mounted for the sar command to work.

       All  the  statistics  are not necessarily available, depending on the kernel version used.
       In particular, TTY statistics (option -y) are not available in 2.2.x SMP kernels  (with	x
       <=   15),   because   of   an   SMP   race   that   sar	 may  trigger  when  reading  the
       /proc/tty/driver/serial file.

FILES
       /var/log/sa/sadd
	      Indicate the daily data file, where the dd parameter is a number	representing  the
	      day of the month.

       /proc contains various files with system statistics.

AUTHOR
       Sebastien Godard <sebastien.godard@wanadoo.fr>

SEE ALSO
       sadc(8), sa1(8), sa2(8), isag(1), mpstat(1), iostat(1), vmstat(8)

       http://perso.wanadoo.fr/sebastien.godard/

Linux					   OCTOBER 2001 				   SAR(1)


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