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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for ppmtompeg (redhat section 1)

PPMTOMPEG(1)			     General Commands Manual			     PPMTOMPEG(1)

       ppmtompeg - encodes MPEG-1 bitstreams

       ppmtompeg [ options ] parameter-file

       ppmtompeg  produces an MPEG-1 video stream.  param_file is a parameter file which includes
       a list of input files and other parameters.  The file is described in detail  below.   The
       -gop,  -combine_gops,  -frames,	and  -combine_frames options are all exclusive.  This man
       page is probably incomplete.  For complete usage, see the User's Guide.

       -stat stat_file : causes the encoder to append the statistics to the file  stat_file.   In
	      any  case,  the  statistics are output to stdout.  The statistics use the following
	      abbreviations:  bits per block (bpb), bits  per  frame  (bpf),  seconds  per  frame
	      (spf), and bits per second (bps).

       -quiet num_seconds : causes the program to not report remaining time for at least num_sec-
	      onds seconds.  A negative values tells the program not to report at all.	0 is  the
	      default  (reports once after each frame).  Note that the time remaining is an esti-
	      mate and does not take into account time to read in frames.

       -realquiet : causes the encoder to run silently, with the only screen output being errors.
	      Particularly useful when reading input from stdin.

       -no_frame_summary : prevents the program from printing a summary line for each frame

       -float_dct : forces the encoder to use a more accurate, yet more computationally expensive
	      version of the DCT.

       -gop gop_num : causes the encoder to only encode the numbered GOP (first GOP is	0).   The
	      parameter file is the same as for normal usage.  The output file will be the normal
	      output file with the suffix ".gop.<gop_num>"  No sequence info is output.

       -combine_gops : causes the encoder to simply combine some GOP files  into  a  single  MPEG
	      stream.	A  sequence  header/ender are inserted.  In this case, the parameter file
	      need only contain the YUV_SIZE value, an output file, and perhaps a list	of  input
	      GOP files (see below).

       -frames	first_frame  last_frame  :  causes  the  encoder  to  only encode the frames from
	      first_frame to last_frame, inclusive.  The parameter file is the same as for normal
	      usage.   The  output will be placed in separate files, one per frame, with the file
	      names being the normal output file with the suffix  ".frame.<frame  num>"   No  GOP
	      header  information  is  output.	 (Thus,  the  parameter file need not include the
	      GOP_SIZE value)

       -combine_frames : causes the encoder to simply combine some  frames  into  a  single  MPEG
	      stream.	Sequence  and  GOP headers are inserted appropriately.	In this case, the
	      parameter file need only contain the YUV_SIZE value, the GOP_SIZE value, an  output
	      file, and perhaps a list of frame files (see below).

       -nice : causes the program to run any remote processes 'nicely.'  This is only relevant if
	      the program is using parallel encoding.  (see 'man nice.')

       -max_machines num_machines : causes the program to use no more than num_machines  machines
	      as slaves for use in parallel encoding.

       -snr  : print the signal-to-noise ratio.  Prints SNR (Y U V) and peak SNR (Y U V) for each
	      frame.  In summary, prints averages of luminance	only  (Y).   SNR  is  defined  as
	      10*log(variance	of   original/variance	 of  error).   Peak  SNR  is  defined  as
	      20*log(255/RMSE).  Note that the encoder will run a little slower if you want it to
	      print the SNR.

       -mse : computes the mean squared error per block.  Also automatically computes the quality
	      of the images when set, so there is no need to specify -snr then.

       -bit_rate_info rate_file : prints bit rate information into the file rate_file.	Bit  rate
	      info is bits per frame, and also bits per I-frame-to-I-frame.

       -mv-histogram : prints histogram of motion vectors as part of statistics.  There are three
	      histograms -- one for P, forward B, and backward B vectors.  Each  histogram  is	a
	      2-dimensional array, and there is one entry for each vector in the search window.

       The  parameter  file MUST contain the following lines (except when using the -combine_gops
       or -combine_frames options):

	      PATTERN <pattern>

	      OUTPUT <output file>

	      INPUT_DIR <directory>
		     all input files must reside in this directory.  If you want to refer to  the
		     current directory, use '.' (an empty INPUT_DIR value would refer to the root
		     directory).  If input files will be  coming  in  from  standard  input,  use

		     This  line  must be followed by a list of the input files (in display order)
		     and then the line
		     There are three types of lines between INPUT and END_INPUT.  First,  a  line
		     may  simply  be the name of an input file.  Secondly, the line may be of the
			    <single_star_expr> [x-y]
		     single_star_expr can have a single '*' in it.  It is  replaced  by  all  the
		     numbers between x and y inclusive.  So, for example, the line
			    tennis*.ppm [12-15]
		     is replaced by tennis12.ppm, tennis13.ppm, tennis14.ppm, tennis15.ppm.  Uni-
		     form zero-padding occurs, as well.  For example, the line
			    football.*.ppm [001-130]
		     is replaced by football.001.ppm,  football.002.ppm,  ...,	football.009.ppm,
		     football.010.ppm, ..., football.130.ppm.  The third type of line is:
			    <single_star_expr> [x-y+s]
		     Where the line is treated exactly as above, except that we skip by s.  Thus,
		     the line
			    football.*.ppm [001-130+4]
		     is replaced by football.001.ppm, football.005.ppm,  football.009.ppm,  foot-
		     ball.013.ppm, etc.

		     All  the input files must be converted to YUV, JPEG(v4), JMOVIE, PNM, or PPM
		     format.  This line specifies which of the three formats (actually PPM  is	a
		     subset of PNM).  The reason for having a separate PPM option is for simplic-
		     ity.  If your files are RAWBITS ppm files, then use the  PPM  option  rather
		     than the PNM.  Also, depending on the system, file reads will go much faster
		     with the PPM option (as opposed to PNM).

	      INPUT_CONVERT <conversion command>
		     You must specify how to convert a file to the base file format.  In the con-
		     version  command,	each  '*'  is  replaced by the filename (the items listed
		     between INPUT and END_INPUT).  If no conversion is necessary, then you would
		     just say:
		     If you had a bunch of gif files, you might say:
			    INPUT_CONVERT giftoppm *
		     If you have a bunch of separate a.Y, a.U, and a.V files, then you might say:
			    INPUT_CONVERT cat *.Y *.U *.V
			    Input conversion is not allowed with input from stdin.

		     GOP_SIZE <n>
			    n  is  roughly  the  number of frames in a Group of Pictures (roughly
			    because a GOP must begin with an I-frame)

			    n is roughly the number of slices per frame.  Note, at least one MPEG
			    player  may  complain  if  slices do not start at the left side of an
			    image.  To ensure this does not happen, make sure the number of  rows
			    is divisible by SLICES_PER_FRAME.

		     PIXEL <FULL or HALF>
			    use half-pixel motion vectors, or only full-pixel ones

		     RANGE <n>
			    use a search range of +/- n pixels

		     PSEARCH_ALG <algorithm>
			    algorithm  must be one of {EXHAUSTIVE, TWOLEVEL, SUBSAMPLE, LOGARITH-
			    MIC}.  Tells what kind of search procedure	should	be  used  for  P-
			    frames.   Exhaustive  gives  the best compression, but logarithmic is
			    the fastest.  You select the desired combination of  speed	and  com-
			    pression.  TWOLEVEL is an exhaustive full-pixel search, followed by a
			    local half- pixel search around the best full-pixel vector (the PIXEL
			    option is ignored for this search algorithm).

		     BSEARCH_ALG <algorithm>
			    algorithm  must  be  one of {SIMPLE, CROSS2, EXHAUSTIVE}.  Tells what
			    kind of search procedure should be used for B-frames.   Simple  means
			    find  best	forward  and  backward vectors, then interpolate.  Cross2
			    means find those two vectors, then	see  what  backward  vector  best
			    matches  the best forward vector, and vice versa.  Exhaustive does an
			    n-squared search and is EXTREMELY slow  in	relation  to  the  others
			    (Cross2 is about twice as slow as Simple).

		     IQSCALE <n>
			    use n as the qscale for I-frames

		     PQSCALE <n>
			    use n as the qscale for P-frames

		     BQSCALE <n>
			    use n as the qscale for B-frames

			    If ORIGINAL is specified, then the original images are used when com-
			    puting motion vectors.  To be more accurate, use  DECODED,	in  which
			    the decoded images are used.  This should increase the quality of the
			    image, but will take a bit longer to encode.
		     The following lines are optional:

				   This option is  only  relevant  for	parallel  execution  (see
				   below).   It  forces  each  processor  to  encode a block of N
				   frames, where N must be a  multiple	of  the  pattern  length.
				   Since  the  first  frame  in  any  pattern is an I-frame, this
				   forces each block encoded by a processor to begin with  an  I-

       If the BASE_FILE_FORMAT is YUV, then the parameter file must contain:
	      YUV_SIZE <w>x<h>
       where w = width, h = height (in pixels) of image, and
	      YUV_FORMAT <ABEKAS or PHILLIPS or UCB or EYUV or pattern>.
       See the file doc/INPUT.FORMAT for more information.

       If  the	-combine-gops  option  is  used, then only the YUV_SIZE and OUTPUT values need be
       specified in the parameter file.  In addition, the parameter file may  specify  input  GOP
       files  in  the  same  manner  as  normal input files -- except instead of using INPUT_DIR,
       INPUT, and END_INPUT, use GOP_INPUT_DIR, GOP_INPUT, and GOP_END_INPUT.  If  no  input  GOP
       files  are  specified,  then  the  default  is  to  use	the  output file name with suffix
       ".gop.<gop_num>" starting from 0 as the input files.

       If the -combine-frames option is used, then only the YUV_SIZE, GOP_SIZE, and OUTPUT values
       need  be  specified  in	the  parameter file.  In addition, the parameter file may specify
       input frame files in the same manner as normal input files  --  except  instead	of  using
       If no input frame files are specified, then the default is to use  the  output  file  name
       with suffix ".frame.<frame_num>" starting from 0 as the input files.

       Any  number  of	spaces	and tabs may come between each option and value.  Lines beginning
       with '#' are ignored.  Any other lines are ignored except  for  those  between  INPUT  and
       END_INPUT.   This allows you to use the same parameter file for normal usage and for -com-
       bine_gops and -combine_frames.

       The encoder is case-sensitive so, except for file names and directories, everything should
       be in upper case.

       The  lines  may	appear	in any order, except the following exceptions.	INPUT must appear
       before  END_INPUT   (also,  GOP_INPUT  before   GOP_END_INPUT   and   FRAME_INPUT   before
       FRAME_END_INPUT).  All lines between INPUT and END_INPUT must be the frames in play order.

       The encoder is prepared to handle up to 16 B frames between reference frames when encoding
       with input from stdin.  To increase  this  amount,  change  the	constant  B_FRAME_RUN  in
       frame.c and recompile.

       The  encoder  may be run on multiple machines at once.  To do so, add a line "PARALLEL" in
       the parameter file, followed by a listing, one  machine	per  line,  then  "END_PARALLEL".
       Each  of  the  lines should be in one of two forms.  If the machine has access to the file
       server, then the line should be:

	    <machine> <user> <executable>

       The executable is normally ppmtompeg (you may need to give the  complete  path  if  you've
       built  for  different  architectures).	If the machine is a remote machine, then the line
       should be:

	    REMOTE <machine> <user> <executable> <parameter file>

       Full paths should generally be used when describing executables and parameter files.  This
       INCLUDES the parameter file given as an argument to the original call to ppmtompeg.  Also,
       .rhosts files on the appropriate machines should have the appropriate information.

       The encoder will use the original machine for the master and  I/O  server  processes,  and
       uses the listed machines as slaves to do the computation.

       Optional lines are

       RSH <remote shell command>
	      The  encoder  uses  the  remote shell command to start processes on other machines.
	      The default command is 'rsh.'  If your machine supports a different command,  spec-
	      ify it here.

	      n is the number of frames to encode initially on each processor

	      subsequently, each slave processor will be asked to encode for approximately t sec-
	      onds.  Smaller values of <t> increase communication, but improve load balancing.

	      The default values for these two options are n = 3 frames and t = 30 seconds.

	      If this line is present, then scheduling is done on the assumption that  work  dis-
	      tribution  will  be  perfectly  even -- meaning that each machine is about the same
	      speed.  The frames will simply be divided up evenly between the  processors.   This
	      has  the	advantage  of very minimal scheduling overhead, but is obviously wrong if
	      machines have varying speeds, or if the network load makes performance uneven.

       This is version 1.5 it contins new features and bug fixes from version 1.3.

       No known bugs, but if you find any, report them to mpeg-bugs@plateau.cs.berkeley.edu.

       Kevin Gong - University of California, Berkeley, keving@cs.berkeley.edu

       Ketan Patel - University of California, Berkeley, kpatel@cs.berkeley.edu

       Dan Wallach - University of California, Berkeley, dwallach@cs.berkeley.edu

       Darryl Brown - University of California, Berkeley, darryl@cs.berkeley.edu

       Eugene Hung - University of California, Berkeley, eyhung@cs.berkeley.edu

       Steve Smoot - University of California, Berkeley, smoot@cs.berkeley.edu

					 1 February 1995			     PPMTOMPEG(1)

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