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PKCS12(1)				     OpenSSL					PKCS12(1)

       pkcs12 - PKCS#12 file utility

       openssl pkcs12 [-export] [-chain] [-inkey filename] [-certfile filename] [-name name]
       [-caname name] [-in filename] [-out filename] [-noout] [-nomacver] [-nocerts] [-clcerts]
       [-cacerts] [-nokeys] [-info] [-des] [-des3] [-idea] [-nodes] [-noiter] [-maciter]
       [-twopass] [-descert] [-certpbe] [-keypbe] [-keyex] [-keysig] [-password arg] [-passin
       arg] [-passout arg] [-rand file(s)]

       The pkcs12 command allows PKCS#12 files (sometimes referred to as PFX files) to be created
       and parsed. PKCS#12 files are used by several programs including Netscape, MSIE and MS

       There are a lot of options the meaning of some depends of whether a PKCS#12 file is being
       created or parsed. By default a PKCS#12 file is parsed a PKCS#12 file can be created by
       using the -export option (see below).

       -in filename
	   This specifies filename of the PKCS#12 file to be parsed. Standard input is used by

       -out filename
	   The filename to write certificates and private keys to, standard output by default.
	   They are all written in PEM format.

       -pass arg, -passin arg
	   the PKCS#12 file (i.e. input file) password source. For more information about the
	   format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).

       -passout arg
	   pass phrase source to encrypt any outputed private keys with. For more information
	   about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).

	   this option inhibits output of the keys and certificates to the output file version of
	   the PKCS#12 file.

	   only output client certificates (not CA certificates).

	   only output CA certificates (not client certificates).

	   no certificates at all will be output.

	   no private keys will be output.

	   output additional information about the PKCS#12 file structure, algorithms used and
	   iteration counts.

	   use DES to encrypt private keys before outputting.

	   use triple DES to encrypt private keys before outputting, this is the default.

	   use IDEA to encrypt private keys before outputting.

	   don't encrypt the private keys at all.

	   don't attempt to verify the integrity MAC before reading the file.

	   prompt for separate integrity and encryption passwords: most software always assumes
	   these are the same so this option will render such PKCS#12 files unreadable.

	   This option specifies that a PKCS#12 file will be created rather than parsed.

       -out filename
	   This specifies filename to write the PKCS#12 file to. Standard output is used by

       -in filename
	   The filename to read certificates and private keys from, standard input by default.
	   They must all be in PEM format. The order doesn't matter but one private key and its
	   corresponding certificate should be present. If additional certificates are present
	   they will also be included in the PKCS#12 file.

       -inkey filename
	   file to read private key from. If not present then a private key must be present in
	   the input file.

       -name friendlyname
	   This specifies the "friendly name" for the certificate and private key. This name is
	   typically displayed in list boxes by software importing the file.

       -certfile filename
	   A filename to read additional certificates from.

       -caname friendlyname
	   This specifies the "friendly name" for other certificates. This option may be used
	   multiple times to specify names for all certificates in the order they appear. Net-
	   scape ignores friendly names on other certificates whereas MSIE displays them.

       -pass arg, -passout arg
	   the PKCS#12 file (i.e. output file) password source. For more information about the
	   format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).

       -passin password
	   pass phrase source to decrypt any input private keys with. For more information about
	   the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).

	   if this option is present then an attempt is made to include the entire certificate
	   chain of the user certificate. The standard CA store is used for this search. If the
	   search fails it is considered a fatal error.

	   encrypt the certificate using triple DES, this may render the PKCS#12 file unreadable
	   by some "export grade" software. By default the private key is encrypted using triple
	   DES and the certificate using 40 bit RC2.

       -keypbe alg, -certpbe alg
	   these options allow the algorithm used to encrypt the private key and certificates to
	   be selected. Although any PKCS#5 v1.5 or PKCS#12 algorithms can be selected it is
	   advisable only to use PKCS#12 algorithms. See the list in the NOTES section for more

	   specifies that the private key is to be used for key exchange or just signing.  This
	   option is only interpreted by MSIE and similar MS software. Normally "export grade"
	   software will only allow 512 bit RSA keys to be used for encryption purposes but arbi-
	   trary length keys for signing. The -keysig option marks the key for signing only.
	   Signing only keys can be used for S/MIME signing, authenticode (ActiveX control sign-
	   ing)  and SSL client authentication, however due to a bug only MSIE 5.0 and later sup-
	   port the use of signing only keys for SSL client authentication.

       -nomaciter, -noiter
	   these options affect the iteration counts on the MAC and key algorithms.  Unless you
	   wish to produce files compatible with MSIE 4.0 you should leave these options alone.

	   To discourage attacks by using large dictionaries of common passwords the algorithm
	   that derives keys from passwords can have an iteration count applied to it: this
	   causes a certain part of the algorithm to be repeated and slows it down. The MAC is
	   used to check the file integrity but since it will normally have the same password as
	   the keys and certificates it could also be attacked.  By default both MAC and encryp-
	   tion iteration counts are set to 2048, using these options the MAC and encryption
	   iteration counts can be set to 1, since this reduces the file security you should not
	   use these options unless you really have to. Most software supports both MAC and key
	   iteration counts.  MSIE 4.0 doesn't support MAC iteration counts so it needs the
	   -nomaciter option.

	   This option is included for compatibility with previous versions, it used to be needed
	   to use MAC iterations counts but they are now used by default.

       -rand file(s)
	   a file or files containing random data used to seed the random number generator, or an
	   EGD socket (see RAND_egd(3)).  Multiple files can be specified separated by a OS-
	   dependent character.  The separator is ; for MS-Windows, , for OpenVMS, and : for all

       Although there are a large number of options most of them are very rarely used. For
       PKCS#12 file parsing only -in and -out need to be used for PKCS#12 file creation -export
       and -name are also used.

       If none of the -clcerts, -cacerts or -nocerts options are present then all certificates
       will be output in the order they appear in the input PKCS#12 files. There is no guarantee
       that the first certificate present is the one corresponding to the private key. Certain
       software which requires a private key and certificate and assumes the first certificate in
       the file is the one corresponding to the private key: this may not always be the case.
       Using the -clcerts option will solve this problem by only outputting the certificate cor-
       responding to the private key. If the CA certificates are required then they can be output
       to a separate file using the -nokeys -cacerts options to just output CA certificates.

       The -keypbe and -certpbe algorithms allow the precise encryption algorithms for private
       keys and certificates to be specified. Normally the defaults are fine but occasionally
       software can't handle triple DES encrypted private keys, then the option -keypbe
       PBE-SHA1-RC2-40 can be used to reduce the private key encryption to 40 bit RC2. A complete
       description of all algorithms is contained in the pkcs8 manual page.

       Parse a PKCS#12 file and output it to a file:

	openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem

       Output only client certificates to a file:

	openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -clcerts -out file.pem

       Don't encrypt the private key:

	openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem -nodes

       Print some info about a PKCS#12 file:

	openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -info -noout

       Create a PKCS#12 file:

	openssl pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name "My Certificate"

       Include some extra certificates:

	openssl pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name "My Certificate" \
	 -certfile othercerts.pem

       Some would argue that the PKCS#12 standard is one big bug :-)

       Versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.6a had a bug in the PKCS#12 key generation routines. Under
       rare circumstances this could produce a PKCS#12 file encrypted with an invalid key. As a
       result some PKCS#12 files which triggered this bug from other implementations (MSIE or
       Netscape) could not be decrypted by OpenSSL and similarly OpenSSL could produce PKCS#12
       files which could not be decrypted by other implementations. The chances of producing such
       a file are relatively small: less than 1 in 256.

       A side effect of fixing this bug is that any old invalidly encrypted PKCS#12 files cannot
       no longer be parsed by the fixed version. Under such circumstances the pkcs12 utility will
       report that the MAC is OK but fail with a decryption error when extracting private keys.

       This problem can be resolved by extracting the private keys and certificates from the
       PKCS#12 file using an older version of OpenSSL and recreating the PKCS#12 file from the
       keys and certificates using a newer version of OpenSSL. For example:

	old-openssl -in bad.p12 -out keycerts.pem
	openssl -in keycerts.pem -export -name "My PKCS#12 file" -out fixed.p12


0.9.7a					    2001-09-07					PKCS12(1)
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