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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for perltoc (redhat section 1)

PERLTOC(1)				   Perl Programmers Reference Guide				   PERLTOC(1)

NAME
perltoc - perl documentation table of contents
DESCRIPTION
This page provides a brief table of contents for the rest of the Perl documentation set. It is meant to be scanned quickly or grepped through to locate the proper section you're looking for.
BASIC DOCUMENTATION
perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language SYNOPSIS Overview Tutorials Reference Manual Internals and C Language Interface Miscellaneous Language-Specific Platform-Specific DESCRIPTION AVAILABILITY ENVIRONMENT AUTHOR FILES SEE ALSO DIAGNOSTICS BUGS NOTES perlintro -- a brief introduction and overview of Perl DESCRIPTION What is Perl? Running Perl programs Basic syntax overview Perl variable types Scalars, Arrays, Hashes Variable scoping Conditional and looping constructs if, while, for, foreach Builtin operators and functions Arithmetic, Numeric comparison, String comparison, Boolean logic, Miscellaneous Files and I/O Regular expressions Simple matching, Simple substitution, More complex regular expressions, Parentheses for capturing, Other regexp features Writing subroutines OO Perl Using Perl modules AUTHOR perlfaq - frequently asked questions about Perl ($Date: 2002/03/11 21:32:23 $) DESCRIPTION perlfaq: Structural overview of the FAQ. perlfaq1: General Questions About Perl perlfaq2: Obtaining and Learning about Perl perlfaq3: Programming Tools perlfaq4: Data Manipulation perlfaq5: Files and Formats perlfaq6: Regular Expressions perlfaq7: General Perl Language Issues perlfaq8: System Interaction perlfaq9: Networking About the perlfaq documents Where to get the perlfaq How to contribute to the perlfaq What will happen if you mail your Perl programming problems to the authors Credits Author and Copyright Information Bundled Distributions Disclaimer Changes 1/November/2000, 23/May/99, 13/April/99, 7/January/99, 22/June/98, 24/April/97, 23/April/97, 25/March/97, 18/March/97, 17/March/97 Version, Initial Release: 11/March/97 perlbook - Perl book information DESCRIPTION perlsyn - Perl syntax DESCRIPTION Declarations Simple statements Compound statements Loop Control For Loops Foreach Loops Basic BLOCKs and Switch Statements Goto PODs: Embedded Documentation Plain Old Comments (Not!) perldata - Perl data types DESCRIPTION Variable names Context Scalar values Scalar value constructors List value constructors Slices Typeglobs and Filehandles SEE ALSO perlop - Perl operators and precedence SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Terms and List Operators (Leftward) The Arrow Operator Auto-increment and Auto-decrement Exponentiation Symbolic Unary Operators Binding Operators Multiplicative Operators Additive Operators Shift Operators Named Unary Operators Relational Operators Equality Operators Bitwise And Bitwise Or and Exclusive Or C-style Logical And C-style Logical Or Range Operators Conditional Operator Assignment Operators Comma Operator List Operators (Rightward) Logical Not Logical And Logical or and Exclusive Or C Operators Missing From Perl unary &, unary *, (TYPE) Quote and Quote-like Operators Regexp Quote-Like Operators ?PATTERN?, m/PATTERN/cgimosx, /PATTERN/cgimosx, q/STRING/, 'STRING', qq/STRING/, "STRING", qr/STRING/imosx, qx/STRING/, `STRING`, qw/STRING/, s/PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/egimosx, tr/SEARCH- LIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds, y/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds, <<EOF Gory details of parsing quoted constructs Finding the end, Removal of backslashes before delimiters, Interpolation, "<<'EOF'", "m''", "s'''", "tr///", "y///", '', "q//", "", ``, "qq//", "qx//", "<file*glob>", "?RE?", "/RE/", "m/RE/", "s/RE/foo/",, Interpolation of regular expressions, Optimization of regular expressions I/O Operators Constant Folding Bitwise String Operators Integer Arithmetic Floating-point Arithmetic Bigger Numbers perlsub - Perl subroutines SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Private Variables via my() Persistent Private Variables Temporary Values via local() Lvalue subroutines Lvalue subroutines are EXPERIMENTAL Passing Symbol Table Entries (typeglobs) When to Still Use local() Pass by Reference Prototypes Constant Functions Overriding Built-in Functions Autoloading Subroutine Attributes SEE ALSO perlfunc - Perl builtin functions DESCRIPTION Perl Functions by Category Functions for SCALARs or strings, Regular expressions and pattern matching, Numeric functions, Func- tions for real @ARRAYs, Functions for list data, Functions for real %HASHes, Input and output func- tions, Functions for fixed length data or records, Functions for filehandles, files, or directories, Keywords related to the control flow of your perl program, Keywords related to scoping, Miscellaneous functions, Functions for processes and process groups, Keywords related to perl modules, Keywords related to classes and object-orientedness, Low-level socket functions, System V interprocess communi- cation functions, Fetching user and group info, Fetching network info, Time-related functions, Func- tions new in perl5, Functions obsoleted in perl5 Portability Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions -X FILEHANDLE, -X EXPR, -X, abs VALUE, abs, accept NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET, alarm SECONDS, alarm, atan2 Y,X, bind SOCKET,NAME, binmode FILEHANDLE, LAYER, binmode FILEHANDLE, bless REF,CLASSNAME, bless REF, caller EXPR, caller, chdir EXPR, chmod LIST, chomp VARIABLE, chomp( LIST ), chomp, chop VARIABLE, chop( LIST ), chop, chown LIST, chr NUMBER, chr, chroot FILENAME, chroot, close FILEHANDLE, close, closedir DIRHANDLE, connect SOCKET,NAME, continue BLOCK, cos EXPR, cos, crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MASK, defined EXPR, defined, delete EXPR, die LIST, do BLOCK, do SUBROU- TINE(LIST), do EXPR, dump LABEL, dump, each HASH, eof FILEHANDLE, eof (), eof, eval EXPR, eval BLOCK, exec LIST, exec PROGRAM LIST, exists EXPR, exit EXPR, exp EXPR, exp, fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, fileno FILEHANDLE, flock FILEHANDLE,OPERATION, fork, format, formline PICTURE,LIST, getc FILEHANDLE, getc, getlogin, getpeername SOCKET, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpriority WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgr- nam NAME, gethostbyname NAME, getnetbyname NAME, getprotobyname NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID, get- servbyname NAME,PROTO, gethostbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getprotobynumber NUM- BER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent, gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent, sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent STAY- OPEN, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockname SOCKET, getsock- opt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR, glob, gmtime EXPR, goto LABEL, goto EXPR, goto &NAME, grep BLOCK LIST, grep EXPR,LIST, hex EXPR, hex, import, index STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, index STR,SUBSTR, int EXPR, int, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, join EXPR,LIST, keys HASH, kill SIGNAL, LIST, last LABEL, last, lc EXPR, lc, lcfirst EXPR, lcfirst, length EXPR, length, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE, listen SOCKET,QUEUE- SIZE, local EXPR, localtime EXPR, lock THING, log EXPR, log, lstat EXPR, lstat, m//, map BLOCK LIST, map EXPR,LIST, mkdir FILENAME,MASK, mkdir FILENAME, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, my EXPR, my TYPE EXPR, my EXPR : ATTRS, my TYPE EXPR : ATTRS, next LABEL, next, no Module VERSION LIST, no Module VERSION, no Module LIST, no Module, oct EXPR, oct, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR,LIST, open FILE- HANDLE,MODE,REFERENCE, open FILEHANDLE, opendir DIRHANDLE,EXPR, ord EXPR, ord, our EXPR, our EXPR TYPE, our EXPR : ATTRS, our TYPE EXPR : ATTRS, pack TEMPLATE,LIST, package NAMESPACE, package, pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, pop ARRAY, pop, pos SCALAR, pos, print FILEHANDLE LIST, print LIST, print, printf FILEHANDLE FORMAT, LIST, printf FORMAT, LIST, prototype FUNCTION, push ARRAY,LIST, q/STRING/, qq/STRING/, qr/STRING/, qx/STRING/, qw/STRING/, quotemeta EXPR, quotemeta, rand EXPR, rand, read FILE- HANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, readdir DIRHANDLE, readline EXPR, readlink EXPR, readlink, readpipe EXPR, recv SOCKET,SCALAR,LENGTH,FLAGS, redo LABEL, redo, ref EXPR, ref, rename OLDNAME,NEWNAME, require VERSION, require EXPR, require, reset EXPR, reset, return EXPR, return, reverse LIST, rewinddir DIRHANDLE, rindex STR,SUBSTR,POSITION, rindex STR,SUBSTR, rmdir FILE- NAME, rmdir, s///, scalar EXPR, seek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, seekdir DIRHANDLE,POS, select FILE- HANDLE, select, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT, semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS,TO, send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS, setpgrp PID,PGRP, setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shift ARRAY, shift, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS, shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE, shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, shutdown SOCKET,HOW, sin EXPR, sin, sleep EXPR, sleep, socket SOCKET,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, sort SUBNAME LIST, sort BLOCK LIST, sort LIST, splice ARRAY,OFF- SET,LENGTH,LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH, splice ARRAY,OFFSET, splice ARRAY, split /PAT- TERN/,EXPR,LIMIT, split /PATTERN/,EXPR, split /PATTERN/, split, sprintf FORMAT, LIST, format parameter index, flags, vector flag, (minimum) width, precision, or maximum width, size, order of arguments, sqrt EXPR, sqrt, srand EXPR, srand, stat FILEHANDLE, stat EXPR, stat, study SCALAR, study, sub NAME BLOCK, sub NAME (PROTO) BLOCK, sub NAME : ATTRS BLOCK, sub NAME (PROTO) : ATTRS BLOCK, substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH,REPLACEMENT, substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH, substr EXPR,OFFSET, symlink OLDFILE,NEW- FILE, syscall LIST, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, sysseek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE, system LIST, system PROGRAM LIST, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET, syswrite FILEHAN- DLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR, tell FILEHANDLE, tell, telldir DIRHANDLE, tie VARI- ABLE,CLASSNAME,LIST, tied VARIABLE, time, times, tr///, truncate FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, uc EXPR, uc, ucfirst EXPR, ucfirst, umask EXPR, umask, undef EXPR, undef, unlink LIST, unlink, unpack TEMPLATE,EXPR, untie VARIABLE, unshift ARRAY,LIST, use Module VERSION LIST, use Module VERSION, use Module LIST, use Module, use VERSION, utime LIST, values HASH, vec EXPR,OFFSET,BITS, wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS, wantarray, warn LIST, write FILEHANDLE, write EXPR, write, y/// perlreftut - Mark's very short tutorial about references DESCRIPTION Who Needs Complicated Data Structures? The Solution Syntax Making References Using References An Example Arrow Rule Solution The Rest Summary Credits Distribution Conditions perldsc - Perl Data Structures Cookbook DESCRIPTION arrays of arrays, hashes of arrays, arrays of hashes, hashes of hashes, more elaborate constructs REFERENCES COMMON MISTAKES CAVEAT ON PRECEDENCE WHY YOU SHOULD ALWAYS "use strict" DEBUGGING CODE EXAMPLES ARRAYS OF ARRAYS Declaration of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS Generation of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS Access and Printing of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS HASHES OF ARRAYS Declaration of a HASH OF ARRAYS Generation of a HASH OF ARRAYS Access and Printing of a HASH OF ARRAYS ARRAYS OF HASHES Declaration of an ARRAY OF HASHES Generation of an ARRAY OF HASHES Access and Printing of an ARRAY OF HASHES HASHES OF HASHES Declaration of a HASH OF HASHES Generation of a HASH OF HASHES Access and Printing of a HASH OF HASHES MORE ELABORATE RECORDS Declaration of MORE ELABORATE RECORDS Declaration of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS Generation of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS Database Ties SEE ALSO AUTHOR perlrequick - Perl regular expressions quick start DESCRIPTION The Guide Simple word matching Using character classes Matching this or that Grouping things and hierarchical matching Extracting matches Matching repetitions More matching Search and replace The split operator BUGS SEE ALSO AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT Acknowledgments perlpod - the Plain Old Documentation format DESCRIPTION Ordinary Paragraph Verbatim Paragraph Command Paragraph "=head1 Heading Text", "=head2 Heading Text", "=head3 Heading Text", "=head4 Heading Text", "=over indentlevel", "=item stuff...", "=back", "=cut", "=pod", "=begin formatname", "=end formatname", "=for formatname text..." Formatting Codes "I<text>" -- italic text, "B<text>" -- bold text, "C<code>" -- code text, "L<name>" -- a hyperlink, "E<escape>" -- a character escape, "F<filename>" -- used for filenames, "S<text>" -- text contains non-breaking spaces, "X<topic name>" -- an index entry, "Z<>" -- a null (zero-effect) formatting code The Intent Embedding Pods in Perl Modules Hints for Writing Pod SEE ALSO AUTHOR perlpodspec - Plain Old Documentation: format specification and notes DESCRIPTION Pod Definitions Pod Commands "=head1", "=head2", "=head3", "=head4", "=pod", "=cut", "=over", "=item", "=back", "=begin formatname", "=end formatname", "=for formatname text..." Pod Formatting Codes "I<text>" -- italic text, "B<text>" -- bold text, "C<code>" -- code text, "F<filename>" -- style for file- names, "X<topic name>" -- an index entry, "Z<>" -- a null (zero-effect) formatting code, "L<name>" -- a hyperlink, "E<escape>" -- a character escape, "S<text>" -- text contains non-breaking spaces Notes on Implementing Pod Processors About L<...> Codes First:, Second:, Third:, Fourth:, Fifth:, Sixth: About =over...=back Regions About Data Paragraphs and "=begin/=end" Regions SEE ALSO AUTHOR perlstyle - Perl style guide DESCRIPTION perltrap - Perl traps for the unwary DESCRIPTION Awk Traps C Traps Sed Traps Shell Traps Perl Traps Perl4 to Perl5 Traps Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps, Parsing Traps, Numerical Traps, General data type traps, Context Traps - scalar, list contexts, Precedence Traps, General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc, Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps, OS Traps, DBM Traps, Unclassified Traps Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps Discontinuance, Deprecation, BugFix, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, Discontinuance, BugFix, Discon- tinuance, Discontinuance, BugFix, Discontinuance, Deprecation, Discontinuance, Discontinuance Parsing Traps Parsing, Parsing, Parsing, Parsing, Parsing Numerical Traps Numerical, Numerical, Numerical, Bitwise string ops General data type traps (Arrays), (Arrays), (Hashes), (Globs), (Globs), (Scalar String), (Constants), (Scalars), (Variable Suicide) Context Traps - scalar, list contexts (list context), (scalar context), (scalar context), (list, builtin) Precedence Traps Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence, Precedence General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc. Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression, Regular Expression Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps (Signals), (Sort Subroutine), warn() won't let you specify a filehandle OS Traps (SysV), (SysV) Interpolation Traps Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpolation, Interpola- tion, Interpolation, Interpolation DBM Traps DBM, DBM Unclassified Traps "require"/"do" trap using returned value, "split" on empty string with LIMIT specified perlrun - how to execute the Perl interpreter SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION #! and quoting on non-Unix systems OS/2, MS-DOS, Win95/NT, Macintosh, VMS Location of Perl Command Switches -0[digits], -a, -C, -c, -d, -d:foo[=bar,baz], -Dletters, -Dnumber, -e commandline, -Fpattern, -h, -i[extension], -Idirectory, -l[octnum], -m[-]module, -M[-]module, -M[-]'module ...', -[mM][-]mod- ule=arg[,arg]..., -n, -p, -P, -s, -S, -t, -T, -u, -U, -v, -V, -V:name, -w, -W, -X, -x directory ENVIRONMENT HOME, LOGDIR, PATH, PERL5LIB, PERL5OPT, PERLIO, :bytes, :crlf, :mmap, :perlio, :raw, :stdio, :unix, :utf8, :win32, PERLIO_DEBUG, PERLLIB, PERL5DB, PERL5SHELL (specific to the Win32 port), PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS, PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL, PERL_ENCODING, PERL_ROOT (specific to the VMS port), SYS$LOGIN (specific to the VMS port) perldiag - various Perl diagnostics DESCRIPTION perllexwarn - Perl Lexical Warnings DESCRIPTION Default Warnings and Optional Warnings What's wrong with -w and $^W Controlling Warnings from the Command Line -w, -W, -X Backward Compatibility Category Hierarchy Fatal Warnings Reporting Warnings from a Module TODO SEE ALSO AUTHOR perldebtut - Perl debugging tutorial DESCRIPTION use strict Looking at data and -w and v help Stepping through code Placeholder for a, w, t, T REGULAR EXPRESSIONS OUTPUT TIPS CGI GUIs SUMMARY SEE ALSO AUTHOR CONTRIBUTORS perldebug - Perl debugging DESCRIPTION The Perl Debugger Debugger Commands h, h [command], h h, p expr, x [maxdepth] expr, V [pkg [vars]], X [vars], y [level [vars]], T, s [expr], n [expr], r, <CR>, c [line|sub], l, l min+incr, l min-max, l line, l subname, -, v [line], f filename, /pattern/, ?pattern?, L [abw], S [[!]regex], t, t expr, b, b [line] [condition], b subname [condition], b postpone subname [condition], b load filename, b compile subname, B line, B *, a [line] command, A line, A *, w expr, W expr, W *, o, o booloption .., o anyoption? .., o option=value .., < ?, < [ command ], << command, > ?, > command, >> command, { ?, { [ command ], {{ command, ! number, ! -number, ! pattern, !! cmd, source file, H -number, q or ^D, R, |dbcmd, ||dbcmd, command, m expr, M, man [manpage] Configurable Options "recallCommand", "ShellBang", "pager", "tkRunning", "signalLevel", "warnLevel", "dieLevel", "Auto- Trace", "LineInfo", "inhibit_exit", "PrintRet", "ornaments", "frame", "maxTraceLen", "windowSize", "arrayDepth", "hashDepth", "dumpDepth", "compactDump", "veryCompact", "globPrint", "DumpDBFiles", "DumpPackages", "DumpReused", "quote", "HighBit", "undefPrint", "UsageOnly", "TTY", "noTTY", "Read- Line", "NonStop" Debugger input/output Prompt, Multiline commands, Stack backtrace, Line Listing Format, Frame listing Debugging compile-time statements Debugger Customization Readline Support Editor Support for Debugging The Perl Profiler Debugging regular expressions Debugging memory usage SEE ALSO BUGS perlvar - Perl predefined variables DESCRIPTION Predefined Names $ARG, $_, $a, $b, $<digits>, $MATCH, $&, $PREMATCH, $`, $POSTMATCH, $', $LAST_PAREN_MATCH, $+, $^N, @LAST_MATCH_END, @+, $MULTILINE_MATCHING, $*, HANDLE->input_line_number(EXPR), $INPUT_LINE_NUMBER, $NR, $, IO::Handle->input_record_separator(EXPR), $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $RS, $/, HANDLE->aut- oflush(EXPR), $OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH, $|, IO::Handle->output_field_separator EXPR, $OUTPUT_FIELD_SEPARATOR, $OFS, $,, IO::Handle->output_record_separator EXPR, $OUTPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $ORS, $\, $LIST_SEPARA- TOR, $", $SUBSCRIPT_SEPARATOR, $SUBSEP, $;, $OFMT, $#, HANDLE->format_page_number(EXPR), $FOR- MAT_PAGE_NUMBER, $%, HANDLE->format_lines_per_page(EXPR), $FORMAT_LINES_PER_PAGE, $=, HANDLE->for- mat_lines_left(EXPR), $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT, $-, @LAST_MATCH_START, @-, $` is the same as "substr($var, 0, $-[0])", $& is the same as "substr($var, $-[0], $+[0] - $-[0])", $' is the same as "substr($var, $+[0])", $1 is the same as "substr($var, $-[1], $+[1] - $-[1])", $2 is the same as "substr($var, $-[2], $+[2] - $-[2])", $3 is the same as "substr $var, $-[3], $+[3] - $-[3])", HANDLE->for- mat_name(EXPR), $FORMAT_NAME, $~, HANDLE->format_top_name(EXPR), $FORMAT_TOP_NAME, $^, IO::Han- dle->format_line_break_characters EXPR, $FORMAT_LINE_BREAK_CHARACTERS, $:, IO::Handle->format_formfeed EXPR, $FORMAT_FORMFEED, $^L, $ACCUMULATOR, $^A, $CHILD_ERROR, $?, ${^ENCODING}, $OS_ERROR, $ERRNO, $!, %!, $EXTENDED_OS_ERROR, $^E, $EVAL_ERROR, $@, $PROCESS_ID, $PID, $$, $REAL_USER_ID, $UID, $<, $EFFEC- TIVE_USER_ID, $EUID, $>, $REAL_GROUP_ID, $GID, $(, $EFFECTIVE_GROUP_ID, $EGID, $), $PROGRAM_NAME, $0, $[, $], $COMPILING, $^C, $DEBUGGING, $^D, $SYSTEM_FD_MAX, $^F, $^H, %^H, $INPLACE_EDIT, $^I, $^M, $OSNAME, $^O, ${^OPEN}, $PERLDB, $^P, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80, 0x100, 0x200, $LAST_REGEXP_CODE_RESULT, $^R, $EXCEPTIONS_BEING_CAUGHT, $^S, $BASETIME, $^T, ${^TAINT}, $PERL_VER- SION, $^V, $WARNING, $^W, ${^WARNING_BITS}, ${^WIDE_SYSTEM_CALLS}, $EXECUTABLE_NAME, $^X, ARGV, $ARGV, @ARGV, ARGVOUT, @F, @INC, @_, %INC, %ENV, $ENV{expr}, %SIG, $SIG{expr} Error Indicators Technical Note on the Syntax of Variable Names BUGS perllol - Manipulating Arrays of Arrays in Perl DESCRIPTION Declaration and Access of Arrays of Arrays Growing Your Own Access and Printing Slices SEE ALSO AUTHOR perlopentut - tutorial on opening things in Perl DESCRIPTION Open A la shell Simple Opens Pipe Opens The Minus File Mixing Reads and Writes Filters Open A la C Permissions A la mode Obscure Open Tricks Re-Opening Files (dups) Dispelling the Dweomer Paths as Opens Single Argument Open Playing with STDIN and STDOUT Other I/O Issues Opening Non-File Files Binary Files File Locking IO Layers SEE ALSO AUTHOR and COPYRIGHT HISTORY perlpacktut - tutorial on "pack" and "unpack" DESCRIPTION The Basic Principle Packing Text Packing Numbers Integers Unpacking a Stack Frame How to Eat an Egg on a Net Floating point Numbers Exotic Templates Bit Strings Uuencoding Doing Sums Unicode Another Portable Binary Encoding Lengths and Widths String Lengths Dynamic Templates Packing and Unpacking C Structures The Alignment Pit Alignment, Take 2 Alignment, Take 3 Pointers for How to Use Them Pack Recipes Funnies Section Authors perlretut - Perl regular expressions tutorial DESCRIPTION Part 1: The basics Simple word matching Using character classes Matching this or that Grouping things and hierarchical matching Extracting matches Matching repetitions Building a regexp Using regular expressions in Perl Part 2: Power tools More on characters, strings, and character classes Compiling and saving regular expressions Embedding comments and modifiers in a regular expression Non-capturing groupings Looking ahead and looking behind Using independent subexpressions to prevent backtracking Conditional expressions A bit of magic: executing Perl code in a regular expression Pragmas and debugging BUGS SEE ALSO AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT Acknowledgments perlre - Perl regular expressions DESCRIPTION i, m, s, x Regular Expressions [1], [2], [3], cntrl, graph, print, punct, xdigit Extended Patterns "(?#text)", "(?imsx-imsx)", "(?:pattern)", "(?imsx-imsx:pattern)", "(?=pattern)", "(?!pattern)", "(?<=pattern)", "(?<!pattern)", "(?{ code })", "(??{ code })", "(?>pattern)", "(?(condition)yes-pat- tern|no-pattern)", "(?(condition)yes-pattern)" Backtracking Version 8 Regular Expressions Warning on \1 vs $1 Repeated patterns matching zero-length substring Combining pieces together "ST", "S|T", "S{REPEAT_COUNT}", "S{min,max}", "S{min,max}?", "S?", "S*", "S+", "S??", "S*?", "S+?", "(?>S)", "(?=S)", "(?<=S)", "(?!S)", "(?<!S)", "(??{ EXPR })", "(?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)" Creating custom RE engines BUGS SEE ALSO perlref - Perl references and nested data structures NOTE DESCRIPTION Making References Using References Symbolic references Not-so-symbolic references Pseudo-hashes: Using an array as a hash Function Templates WARNING SEE ALSO perlform - Perl formats DESCRIPTION Format Variables NOTES Footers Accessing Formatting Internals WARNINGS perlboot - Beginner's Object-Oriented Tutorial DESCRIPTION If we could talk to the animals... Introducing the method invocation arrow Invoking a barnyard The extra parameter of method invocation Calling a second method to simplify things Inheriting the windpipes A few notes about @ISA Overriding the methods Starting the search from a different place The SUPER way of doing things Where we're at so far... A horse is a horse, of course of course -- or is it? Invoking an instance method Accessing the instance data How to build a horse Inheriting the constructor Making a method work with either classes or instances Adding parameters to a method More interesting instances A horse of a different color Summary SEE ALSO COPYRIGHT perltoot - Tom's object-oriented tutorial for perl DESCRIPTION Creating a Class Object Representation Class Interface Constructors and Instance Methods Planning for the Future: Better Constructors Destructors Other Object Methods Class Data Accessing Class Data Debugging Methods Class Destructors Documenting the Interface Aggregation Inheritance Overridden Methods Multiple Inheritance UNIVERSAL: The Root of All Objects Alternate Object Representations Arrays as Objects Closures as Objects AUTOLOAD: Proxy Methods Autoloaded Data Methods Inherited Autoloaded Data Methods Metaclassical Tools Class::Struct Data Members as Variables NOTES Object Terminology SEE ALSO AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT COPYRIGHT Acknowledgments perltooc - Tom's OO Tutorial for Class Data in Perl DESCRIPTION Class Data in a Can Class Data as Package Variables Putting All Your Eggs in One Basket Inheritance Concerns The Eponymous Meta-Object Indirect References to Class Data Monadic Classes Translucent Attributes Class Data as Lexical Variables Privacy and Responsibility File-Scoped Lexicals More Inheritance Concerns Locking the Door and Throwing Away the Key Translucency Revisited NOTES SEE ALSO AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS HISTORY perlobj - Perl objects DESCRIPTION An Object is Simply a Reference A Class is Simply a Package A Method is Simply a Subroutine Method Invocation Indirect Object Syntax Default UNIVERSAL methods isa(CLASS), can(METHOD), VERSION( [NEED] ) Destructors Summary Two-Phased Garbage Collection SEE ALSO perlbot - Bag'o Object Tricks (the BOT) DESCRIPTION OO SCALING TIPS INSTANCE VARIABLES SCALAR INSTANCE VARIABLES INSTANCE VARIABLE INHERITANCE OBJECT RELATIONSHIPS OVERRIDING SUPERCLASS METHODS USING RELATIONSHIP WITH SDBM THINKING OF CODE REUSE CLASS CONTEXT AND THE OBJECT INHERITING A CONSTRUCTOR DELEGATION perltie - how to hide an object class in a simple variable SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Tying Scalars TIESCALAR classname, LIST, FETCH this, STORE this, value, UNTIE this, DESTROY this Tying Arrays TIEARRAY classname, LIST, FETCH this, index, STORE this, index, value, FETCHSIZE this, STORESIZE this, count, EXTEND this, count, EXISTS this, key, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, PUSH this, LIST, POP this, SHIFT this, UNSHIFT this, LIST, SPLICE this, offset, length, LIST, UNTIE this, DESTROY this Tying Hashes USER, HOME, CLOBBER, LIST, TIEHASH classname, LIST, FETCH this, key, STORE this, key, value, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, EXISTS this, key, FIRSTKEY this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, UNTIE this, DESTROY this Tying FileHandles TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, WRITE this, LIST, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this, LIST, READ this, LIST, READLINE this, GETC this, CLOSE this, UNTIE this, DESTROY this UNTIE this The "untie" Gotcha SEE ALSO BUGS AUTHOR perlipc - Perl interprocess communication (signals, fifos, pipes, safe subprocesses, sockets, and semaphores) DESCRIPTION Signals Handling the SIGHUP Signal in Daemons Named Pipes Deferred Signals Long running opcodes, Interrupting IO, Signals as "faults", Signals triggered by operating system state Using open() for IPC Filehandles Background Processes Complete Dissociation of Child from Parent Safe Pipe Opens Bidirectional Communication with Another Process Bidirectional Communication with Yourself Sockets: Client/Server Communication Internet Line Terminators Internet TCP Clients and Servers Unix-Domain TCP Clients and Servers TCP Clients with IO::Socket A Simple Client "Proto", "PeerAddr", "PeerPort" A Webget Client Interactive Client with IO::Socket TCP Servers with IO::Socket Proto, LocalPort, Listen, Reuse UDP: Message Passing SysV IPC NOTES BUGS AUTHOR SEE ALSO perlfork - Perl's fork() emulation SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Behavior of other Perl features in forked pseudo-processes $$ or $PROCESS_ID, %ENV, chdir() and all other builtins that accept filenames, wait() and waitpid(), kill(), exec(), exit(), Open handles to files, directories and network sockets Resource limits Killing the parent process Lifetime of the parent process and pseudo-processes CAVEATS AND LIMITATIONS BEGIN blocks, Open filehandles, Forking pipe open() not yet implemented, Global state maintained by XSUBs, Interpreter embedded in larger application, Thread-safety of extensions BUGS AUTHOR SEE ALSO perlnumber - semantics of numbers and numeric operations in Perl SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Storing numbers Numeric operators and numeric conversions Flavors of Perl numeric operations Arithmetic operators, ++, Arithmetic operators during "use integer", Other mathematical operators, Bitwise operators, Bitwise operators during "use integer", Operators which expect an integer, Operators which expect a string AUTHOR SEE ALSO perlthrtut - tutorial on threads in Perl DESCRIPTION Status What Is A Thread Anyway? Threaded Program Models Boss/Worker Work Crew Pipeline Native threads What kind of threads are Perl threads? Thread-Safe Modules Thread Basics Basic Thread Support A Note about the Examples Creating Threads Giving up control Waiting For A Thread To Exit Ignoring A Thread Threads And Data Shared And Unshared Data Thread Pitfalls: Races Synchronization and control Controlling access: lock() A Thread Pitfall: Deadlocks Queues: Passing Data Around Semaphores: Synchronizing Data Access Basic semaphores Advanced Semaphores cond_wait() and cond_signal() General Thread Utility Routines What Thread Am I In? Thread IDs Are These Threads The Same? What Threads Are Running? A Complete Example Performance considerations Process-scope Changes Thread-Safety of System Libraries Conclusion Bibliography Introductory Texts OS-Related References Other References Acknowledgements AUTHOR Copyrights perlothrtut - old tutorial on threads in Perl DESCRIPTION What Is A Thread Anyway? Threaded Program Models Boss/Worker Work Crew Pipeline Native threads What kind of threads are perl threads? Threadsafe Modules Thread Basics Basic Thread Support Creating Threads Giving up control Waiting For A Thread To Exit Errors In Threads Ignoring A Thread Threads And Data Shared And Unshared Data Thread Pitfall: Races Controlling access: lock() Thread Pitfall: Deadlocks Queues: Passing Data Around Threads And Code Semaphores: Synchronizing Data Access Basic semaphores, Advanced Semaphores Attributes: Restricting Access To Subroutines Subroutine Locks Methods Locking A Subroutine General Thread Utility Routines What Thread Am I In? Thread IDs Are These Threads The Same? What Threads Are Running? A Complete Example Conclusion Bibliography Introductory Texts OS-Related References Other References Acknowledgements AUTHOR Copyrights perlport - Writing portable Perl DESCRIPTION Not all Perl programs have to be portable, Nearly all of Perl already is portable ISSUES Newlines Numbers endianness and Width Files and Filesystems System Interaction Command names versus file pathnames Interprocess Communication (IPC) External Subroutines (XS) Standard Modules Time and Date Character sets and character encoding Internationalisation System Resources Security Style CPAN Testers Mailing list: cpan-testers@perl.org, Testing results: http://testers.cpan.org/ PLATFORMS Unix DOS and Derivatives Mac OS VMS VOS EBCDIC Platforms Acorn RISC OS Other perls FUNCTION IMPLEMENTATIONS Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions -X FILEHANDLE, -X EXPR, -X, alarm SECONDS, alarm, binmode FILEHANDLE, chmod LIST, chown LIST, chroot FILENAME, chroot, crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT, dbmclose HASH, dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MODE, dump LABEL, exec LIST, exit EXPR, exit, fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, flock FILEHANDLE,OPERATION, fork, getlogin, getpgrp PID, getppid, getpriority WHICH,WHO, getpwnam NAME, getgrnam NAME, getnetbyname NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getprotobynumber NUMBER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, get- pwent, getgrent, gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAY- OPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endpro- toent, endservent, getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob EXPR, glob, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, kill SIGNAL, LIST, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE, lstat FILEHANDLE, lstat EXPR, lstat, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG, msgget KEY,FLAGS, msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS, msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR, open FILE- HANDLE, pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE, readlink EXPR, readlink, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT, semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG, semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS, semop KEY,OPSTRING, setgrent, setpgrp PID,PGRP, setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY, setpwent, setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG, shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS, shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE, shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, sockatmark SOCKET, socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL, stat FILEHANDLE, stat EXPR, stat, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE, syscall LIST, sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, system LIST, times, truncate FILEHANDLE,LENGTH, truncate EXPR,LENGTH, umask EXPR, umask, utime LIST, wait, waitpid PID,FLAGS CHANGES v1.48, 02 February 2001, v1.47, 22 March 2000, v1.46, 12 February 2000, v1.45, 20 December 1999, v1.44, 19 July 1999, v1.43, 24 May 1999, v1.42, 22 May 1999, v1.41, 19 May 1999, v1.40, 11 April 1999, v1.39, 11 February 1999, v1.38, 31 December 1998, v1.37, 19 December 1998, v1.36, 9 September 1998, v1.35, 13 August 1998, v1.33, 06 August 1998, v1.32, 05 August 1998, v1.30, 03 August 1998, v1.23, 10 July 1998 Supported Platforms SEE ALSO AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS perllocale - Perl locale handling (internationalization and localization) DESCRIPTION PREPARING TO USE LOCALES USING LOCALES The use locale pragma The setlocale function Finding locales LOCALE PROBLEMS Temporarily fixing locale problems Permanently fixing locale problems Permanently fixing your system's locale configuration Fixing system locale configuration The localeconv function I18N::Langinfo LOCALE CATEGORIES Category LC_COLLATE: Collation Category LC_CTYPE: Character Types Category LC_NUMERIC: Numeric Formatting Category LC_MONETARY: Formatting of monetary amounts LC_TIME Other categories SECURITY ENVIRONMENT PERL_BADLANG, LC_ALL, LANGUAGE, LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME, LANG NOTES Backward compatibility I18N:Collate obsolete Sort speed and memory use impacts write() and LC_NUMERIC Freely available locale definitions I18n and l10n An imperfect standard Unicode and UTF-8 BUGS Broken systems SEE ALSO HISTORY perluniintro - Perl Unicode introduction DESCRIPTION Unicode Perl's Unicode Support Perl's Unicode Model Unicode and EBCDIC Creating Unicode Handling Unicode Legacy Encodings Unicode I/O Displaying Unicode As Text Special Cases Advanced Topics Miscellaneous Questions With Answers Hexadecimal Notation Further Resources UNICODE IN OLDER PERLS SEE ALSO ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AUTHOR, COPYRIGHT, AND LICENSE perlunicode - Unicode support in Perl DESCRIPTION Important Caveats Input and Output Layers, Regular Expressions, "use utf8" still needed to enable UTF-8/UTF-EBCDIC in scripts Byte and Character Semantics Effects of Character Semantics Scripts Blocks User-Defined Character Properties Character Encodings for Input and Output Unicode Regular Expression Support Level Unicode Encodings Security Implications of Unicode Unicode in Perl on EBCDIC Locales Using Unicode in XS BUGS Interaction with Locales Interaction with Extensions Speed SEE ALSO perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms DESCRIPTION COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS ASCII ISO 8859 Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1) EBCDIC 13 variant characters 0037 1047 POSIX-BC Unicode code points versus EBCDIC code points Remaining Perl Unicode problems in EBCDIC Unicode and UTF Using Encode SINGLE OCTET TABLES recipe 0, recipe 1, recipe 2, recipe 3, recipe 4, recipe 5, recipe 6 IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS CONVERSIONS tr/// iconv C RTL OPERATOR DIFFERENCES FUNCTION DIFFERENCES chr(), ord(), pack(), print(), printf(), sort(), sprintf(), unpack() REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES SOCKETS SORTING Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences. MONO CASE then sort data. Convert, sort data, then re convert. Perform sorting on one type of machine only. TRANSFORMATION FORMATS URL decoding and encoding uu encoding and decoding Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding Caesarian ciphers Hashing order and checksums I18N AND L10N MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS OS ISSUES OS/400 IFS access OS/390, z/OS chcp, dataset access, OS/390, z/OS iconv, locales VM/ESA? POSIX-BC? BUGS SEE ALSO REFERENCES HISTORY AUTHOR perlsec - Perl security DESCRIPTION Laundering and Detecting Tainted Data Switches On the "#!" Line Cleaning Up Your Path Security Bugs Protecting Your Programs Unicode SEE ALSO perlmod - Perl modules (packages and symbol tables) DESCRIPTION Packages Symbol Tables Package Constructors and Destructors Perl Classes Perl Modules Making your module threadsafe SEE ALSO perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules DESCRIPTION PREAMBLE DECOMPRESS the file, UNPACK the file into a directory, BUILD the module (sometimes unnecessary), INSTALL the module PORTABILITY HEY AUTHOR COPYRIGHT perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones DESCRIPTION THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY Pragmatic Modules attributes, attrs, autouse, base, bigint, bignum, bigrat, blib, bytes, charnames, constant, diagnos- tics, encoding, fields, filetest, if, integer, less, locale, open, ops, overload, re, sigtrap, sort, strict, subs, threads, utf8, vars, vmsish, warnings, warnings::register Standard Modules AnyDBM_File, Attribute::Handlers, AutoLoader, AutoSplit, B, B::Asmdata, B::Assembler, B::Bblock, B::Bytecode, B::C, B::CC, B::Concise, B::Debug, B::Deparse, B::Disassembler, B::Lint, B::Showlex, B::Stackobj, B::Stash, B::Terse, B::Xref, Benchmark, ByteLoader, CGI, CGI::Apache, CGI::Carp, CGI::Cookie, CGI::Fast, CGI::Pretty, CGI::Push, CGI::Switch, CGI::Util, CPAN, CPAN::FirstTime, CPAN::Nox, Carp, Carp::Heavy, Class::ISA, Class::Struct, Config, Cwd, DB, DB_File, Devel::SelfStubber, Digest, DirHandle, Dumpvalue, Encode, English, Env, Errno, Exporter, Exporter::Heavy, ExtUtils::Com- mand, ExtUtils::Command::MM, ExtUtils::Constant, ExtUtils::Embed, ExtUtils::Install, ExtU- tils::Installed, ExtUtils::Liblist, ExtUtils::MM, ExtUtils::MM_Any, ExtUtils::MM_BeOS, ExtU- tils::MM_Cygwin, ExtUtils::MM_DOS, ExtUtils::MM_MacOS, ExtUtils::MM_NW5, ExtUtils::MM_OS2, ExtU- tils::MM_UWIN, ExtUtils::MM_Unix, ExtUtils::MM_VMS, ExtUtils::MM_Win32, ExtUtils::MM_Win95, ExtU- tils::MY, ExtUtils::MakeMaker, ExtUtils::Manifest, ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap, ExtUtils::Mksymlists, ExtU- tils::Packlist, ExtUtils::testlib, Fatal, Fcntl, File::Basename, File::CheckTree, File::Compare, File::Copy, File::DosGlob, File::Find, File::Path, File::Spec, File::Spec::Cygwin, File::Spec::Epoc, File::Spec::Functions, File::Spec::Mac, File::Spec::OS2, File::Spec::Unix, File::Spec::VMS, File::Spec::Win32, File::Temp, File::stat, FileCache, FileHandle, Filter::Simple, FindBin, Getopt::Long, Getopt::Std, Hash::Util, I18N::Collate, I18N::LangTags, I18N::LangTags::List, IO, IPC::Open2, IPC::Open3, Locale::Constants, Locale::Country, Locale::Currency, Locale::Language, Locale::Maketext, Locale::Maketext::TPJ13, Locale::Script, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt, Math::Big- Int::Calc, Math::BigRat, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Memoize, Memoize::AnyDBM_File, Memoize::Expire, Memoize::ExpireFile, Memoize::ExpireTest, Memoize::NDBM_File, Memoize::SDBM_File, Memoize::Storable, NDBM_File, NEXT, Net::Cmd, Net::Config, Net::Domain, Net::FTP, Net::NNTP, Net::Netrc, Net::POP3, Net::Ping, Net::SMTP, Net::Time, Net::hostent, Net::libnetFAQ, Net::netent, Net::protoent, Net::ser- vent, O, ODBM_File, Opcode, POSIX, PerlIO, PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint, Pod::Checker, Pod::Find, Pod::Functions, Pod::Html, Pod::InputObjects, Pod::LaTeX, Pod::Man, Pod::ParseLink, Pod::ParseUtils, Pod::Parser, Pod::Plainer, Pod::Select, Pod::Text, Pod::Text::Color, Pod::Text::Overstrike, Pod::Text::Termcap, Pod::Usage, SDBM_File, Safe, Search::Dict, SelectSaver, SelfLoader, Shell, Socket, Storable, Switch, Symbol, Term::ANSIColor, Term::Cap, Term::Complete, Term::ReadLine, Test, Test::Builder, Test::Harness, Test::Harness::Assert, Test::Harness::Iterator, Test::Harness::Straps, Test::More, Test::Simple, Test::Tutorial, Text::Abbrev, Text::Balanced, Text::ParseWords, Text::Soundex, Text::Tabs, Text::Wrap, Thread, Thread::Queue, Thread::Semaphore, Tie::Array, Tie::File, Tie::Handle, Tie::Hash, Tie::Memoize, Tie::RefHash, Tie::Scalar, Tie::SubstrHash, Time::Local, Time::gmtime, Time::localtime, Time::tm, UNIVERSAL, Unicode::Collate, Unicode::UCD, User::grent, User::pwent, Win32 Extension Modules CPAN Africa South Africa Asia China, India, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Singa- pore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand Central America Costa Rica Europe Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom North America Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec, Mexico United States Alabama, California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, ashington, Wisconsin Oceania Australia, New Zealand South America Argentina, Brazil, Chile RSYNC Mirrors Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse Guidelines for Module Creation Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules Guidelines for Reusing Application Code NOTE perlmodstyle - Perl module style guide INTRODUCTION QUICK CHECKLIST Before you start The API Stability Documentation Release considerations BEFORE YOU START WRITING A MODULE Has it been done before? Do one thing and do it well What's in a name? DESIGNING AND WRITING YOUR MODULE To OO or not to OO? Designing your API Write simple routines to do simple things, Separate functionality from output, Provide sensible short- cuts and defaults, Naming conventions, Parameter passing Strictness and warnings Backwards compatibility Error handling and messages DOCUMENTING YOUR MODULE POD README, INSTALL, release notes, changelogs RELEASE CONSIDERATIONS Version numbering Pre-requisites Testing Packaging Licensing COMMON PITFALLS Reinventing the wheel Trying to do too much Inappropriate documentation SEE ALSO perlstyle, perlnewmod, perlpod, podchecker, Testing tools, http://pause.perl.org/, Any good book on soft- ware engineering AUTHOR perlnewmod - preparing a new module for distribution DESCRIPTION Warning What should I make into a module? Step-by-step: Preparing the ground Look around, Check it's new, Discuss the need, Choose a name, Check again Step-by-step: Making the module Start with h2xs, Use strict and warnings, Use Carp, Use Exporter - wisely!, Use plain old documenta- tion, Write tests, Write the README Step-by-step: Distributing your module Get a CPAN user ID, "perl Makefile.PL; make test; make dist", Upload the tarball, Announce to the mod- ules list, Announce to clpa, Fix bugs! AUTHOR SEE ALSO perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl ($Revision: 1.8 $, $Date: 2002/04/07 18:46:13 $) DESCRIPTION What is Perl? Who supports Perl? Who develops it? Why is it free? Which version of Perl should I use? What are perl4 and perl5? What is perl6? How stable is Perl? Is Perl difficult to learn? How does Perl compare with other languages like Java, Python, REXX, Scheme, or Tcl? Can I do [task] in Perl? When shouldn't I program in Perl? What's the difference between "perl" and "Perl"? Is it a Perl program or a Perl script? What is a JAPH? Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms? How can I convince my sysadmin/supervisor/employees to use version 5/5.6.1/Perl instead of some other lan- guage? AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl ($Revision: 1.13 $, $Date: 2002/04/26 16:56:35 $) DESCRIPTION What machines support Perl? Where do I get it? How can I get a binary version of Perl? I don't have a C compiler on my system. How can I compile perl? I copied the Perl binary from one machine to another, but scripts don't work. I grabbed the sources and tried to compile but gdbm/dynamic loading/malloc/linking/... failed. How do I make it work? What modules and extensions are available for Perl? What is CPAN? What does CPAN/src/... mean? Is there an ISO or ANSI certified version of Perl? Where can I get information on Perl? What are the Perl newsgroups on Usenet? Where do I post questions? Where should I post source code? Perl Books References, Tutorials, Task-Oriented, Special Topics Perl in Magazines Perl on the Net: FTP and WWW Access What mailing lists are there for Perl? Archives of comp.lang.perl.misc Where can I buy a commercial version of Perl? Where do I send bug reports? What is perl.com? Perl Mongers? pm.org? perl.org? cpan.org? AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT perlfaq3 - Programming Tools ($Revision: 1.22 $, $Date: 2002/05/06 13:11:13 $) DESCRIPTION How do I do (anything)? How can I use Perl interactively? Is there a Perl shell? How do I debug my Perl programs? How do I profile my Perl programs? How do I cross-reference my Perl programs? Is there a pretty-printer (formatter) for Perl? Is there a ctags for Perl? Is there an IDE or Windows Perl Editor? Komodo, The Object System, Open Perl IDE, PerlBuilder, visiPerl+, OptiPerl, CodeMagicCD, GNU Emacs, MicroEMACS, XEmacs, Elvis, Vile, Vim, Codewright, MultiEdit, SlickEdit, Bash, Ksh, Tcsh, Zsh, BBEdit and BBEdit Lite, Alpha Where can I get Perl macros for vi? Where can I get perl-mode for emacs? How can I use curses with Perl? How can I use X or Tk with Perl? How can I generate simple menus without using CGI or Tk? How can I make my Perl program run faster? How can I make my Perl program take less memory? Don't slurp!, Use map and grep selectively, Avoid unnecessary quotes and stringification, Pass by ref- erence, Tie large variables to disk Is it unsafe to return a pointer to local data? How can I free an array or hash so my program shrinks? How can I make my CGI script more efficient? How can I hide the source for my Perl program? How can I compile my Perl program into byte code or C? How can I compile Perl into Java? How can I get "#!perl" to work on [MS-DOS,NT,...]? Can I write useful Perl programs on the command line? Why don't Perl one-liners work on my DOS/Mac/VMS system? Where can I learn about CGI or Web programming in Perl? Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl programming? Where can I learn about linking C with Perl? [h2xs, xsubpp] I've read perlembed, perlguts, etc., but I can't embed perl in my C program; what am I doing wrong? When I tried to run my script, I got this message. What does it mean? What's MakeMaker? AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation ($Revision: 1.25 $, $Date: 2002/05/30 07:04:25 $) DESCRIPTION Data: Numbers Why am I getting long decimals (eg, 19.9499999999999) instead of the numbers I should be getting (eg, 19.95)? Why isn't my octal data interpreted correctly? Does Perl have a round() function? What about ceil() and floor()? Trig functions? How do I convert between numeric representations? How do I convert hexadecimal into decimal, How do I convert from decimal to hexadecimal, How do I con- vert from octal to decimal, How do I convert from decimal to octal, How do I convert from binary to decimal, How do I convert from decimal to binary Why doesn't & work the way I want it to? How do I multiply matrices? How do I perform an operation on a series of integers? How can I output Roman numerals? Why aren't my random numbers random? How do I get a random number between X and Y? Data: Dates How do I find the week-of-the-year/day-of-the-year? How do I find the current century or millennium? How can I compare two dates and find the difference? How can I take a string and turn it into epoch seconds? How can I find the Julian Day? How do I find yesterday's date? Does Perl have a Year 2000 problem? Is Perl Y2K compliant? Data: Strings How do I validate input? How do I unescape a string? How do I remove consecutive pairs of characters? How do I expand function calls in a string? How do I find matching/nesting anything? How do I reverse a string? How do I expand tabs in a string? How do I reformat a paragraph? How can I access/change the first N letters of a string? How do I change the Nth occurrence of something? How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring within a string? How do I capitalize all the words on one line? How can I split a [character] delimited string except when inside [character]? (Comma-separated files) How do I strip blank space from the beginning/end of a string? How do I pad a string with blanks or pad a number with zeroes? How do I extract selected columns from a string? How do I find the soundex value of a string? How can I expand variables in text strings? What's wrong with always quoting "$vars"? Why don't my <<HERE documents work? 1. There must be no space after the << part, 2. There (probably) should be a semicolon at the end, 3. You can't (easily) have any space in front of the tag Data: Arrays What is the difference between a list and an array? What is the difference between $array[1] and @array[1]? How can I remove duplicate elements from a list or array? a), b), c), d), e) How can I tell whether a certain element is contained in a list or array? How do I compute the difference of two arrays? How do I compute the intersection of two arrays? How do I test whether two arrays or hashes are equal? How do I find the first array element for which a condition is true? How do I handle linked lists? How do I handle circular lists? How do I shuffle an array randomly? How do I process/modify each element of an array? How do I select a random element from an array? How do I permute N elements of a list? How do I sort an array by (anything)? How do I manipulate arrays of bits? Why does defined() return true on empty arrays and hashes? Data: Hashes (Associative Arrays) How do I process an entire hash? What happens if I add or remove keys from a hash while iterating over it? How do I look up a hash element by value? How can I know how many entries are in a hash? How do I sort a hash (optionally by value instead of key)? How can I always keep my hash sorted? What's the difference between "delete" and "undef" with hashes? Why don't my tied hashes make the defined/exists distinction? How do I reset an each() operation part-way through? How can I get the unique keys from two hashes? How can I store a multidimensional array in a DBM file? How can I make my hash remember the order I put elements into it? Why does passing a subroutine an undefined element in a hash create it? How can I make the Perl equivalent of a C structure/C++ class/hash or array of hashes or arrays? How can I use a reference as a hash key? Data: Misc How do I handle binary data correctly? How do I determine whether a scalar is a number/whole/integer/float? How do I keep persistent data across program calls? How do I print out or copy a recursive data structure? How do I define methods for every class/object? How do I verify a credit card checksum? How do I pack arrays of doubles or floats for XS code? AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT perlfaq5 - Files and Formats ($Revision: 1.18 $, $Date: 2002/05/30 07:04:25 $) DESCRIPTION How do I flush/unbuffer an output filehandle? Why must I do this? How do I change one line in a file/delete a line in a file/insert a line in the middle of a file/append to the beginning of a file? How do I count the number of lines in a file? How do I make a temporary file name? How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files? How can I make a filehandle local to a subroutine? How do I pass filehandles between subroutines? How do I make an array of filehandles? How can I use a filehandle indirectly? How can I set up a footer format to be used with write()? How can I write() into a string? How can I output my numbers with commas added? How can I translate tildes (~) in a filename? How come when I open a file read-write it wipes it out? Why do I sometimes get an "Argument list too long" when I use <*>? Is there a leak/bug in glob()? How can I open a file with a leading ">" or trailing blanks? How can I reliably rename a file? How can I lock a file? Why can't I just open(FH, ">file.lock")? I still don't get locking. I just want to increment the number in the file. How can I do this? All I want to do is append a small amount of text to the end of a file. Do I still have to use locking? How do I randomly update a binary file? How do I get a file's timestamp in perl? How do I set a file's timestamp in perl? How do I print to more than one file at once? How can I read in an entire file all at once? How can I read in a file by paragraphs? How can I read a single character from a file? From the keyboard? How can I tell whether there's a character waiting on a filehandle? How do I do a "tail -f" in perl? How do I dup() a filehandle in Perl? How do I close a file descriptor by number? Why can't I use "C:\temp\foo" in DOS paths? Why doesn't `C:\temp\foo.exe` work? Why doesn't glob("*.*") get all the files? Why does Perl let me delete read-only files? Why does "-i" clobber protected files? Isn't this a bug in Perl? How do I select a random line from a file? Why do I get weird spaces when I print an array of lines? AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT perlfaq6 - Regular Expressions ($Revision: 1.12 $, $Date: 2002/06/01 22:31:09 $) DESCRIPTION How can I hope to use regular expressions without creating illegible and unmaintainable code? Comments Outside the Regex, Comments Inside the Regex, Different Delimiters I'm having trouble matching over more than one line. What's wrong? How can I pull out lines between two patterns that are themselves on different lines? I put a regular expression into $/ but it didn't work. What's wrong? How do I substitute case insensitively on the LHS while preserving case on the RHS? How can I make "\w" match national character sets? How can I match a locale-smart version of "/[a-zA-Z]/"? How can I quote a variable to use in a regex? What is "/o" really for? How do I use a regular expression to strip C style comments from a file? Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text? What does it mean that regexes are greedy? How can I get around it? How do I process each word on each line? How can I print out a word-frequency or line-frequency summary? How can I do approximate matching? How do I efficiently match many regular expressions at once? Why don't word-boundary searches with "\b" work for me? Why does using $&, $`, or $' slow my program down? What good is "\G" in a regular expression? Are Perl regexes DFAs or NFAs? Are they POSIX compliant? What's wrong with using grep or map in a void context? How can I match strings with multibyte characters? How do I match a pattern that is supplied by the user? AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT perlfaq7 - General Perl Language Issues ($Revision: 1.8 $, $Date: 2002/03/26 15:48:32 $) DESCRIPTION Can I get a BNF/yacc/RE for the Perl language? What are all these $@%&* punctuation signs, and how do I know when to use them? Do I always/never have to quote my strings or use semicolons and commas? How do I skip some return values? How do I temporarily block warnings? What's an extension? Why do Perl operators have different precedence than C operators? How do I declare/create a structure? How do I create a module? How do I create a class? How can I tell if a variable is tainted? What's a closure? What is variable suicide and how can I prevent it? How can I pass/return a {Function, FileHandle, Array, Hash, Method, Regex}? Passing Variables and Functions, Passing Filehandles, Passing Regexes, Passing Methods How do I create a static variable? What's the difference between dynamic and lexical (static) scoping? Between local() and my()? How can I access a dynamic variable while a similarly named lexical is in scope? What's the difference between deep and shallow binding? Why doesn't "my($foo) = <FILE>;" work right? How do I redefine a builtin function, operator, or method? What's the difference between calling a function as &foo and foo()? How do I create a switch or case statement? How can I catch accesses to undefined variables/functions/methods? Why can't a method included in this same file be found? How can I find out my current package? How can I comment out a large block of perl code? How do I clear a package? How can I use a variable as a variable name? AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT perlfaq8 - System Interaction ($Revision: 1.8 $, $Date: 2002/05/16 12:41:42 $) DESCRIPTION How do I find out which operating system I'm running under? How come exec() doesn't return? How do I do fancy stuff with the keyboard/screen/mouse? Keyboard, Screen, Mouse How do I print something out in color? How do I read just one key without waiting for a return key? How do I check whether input is ready on the keyboard? How do I clear the screen? How do I get the screen size? How do I ask the user for a password? How do I read and write the serial port? lockfiles, open mode, end of line, flushing output, non-blocking input How do I decode encrypted password files? How do I start a process in the background? STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR are shared, Signals, Zombies How do I trap control characters/signals? How do I modify the shadow password file on a Unix system? How do I set the time and date? How can I sleep() or alarm() for under a second? How can I measure time under a second? How can I do an atexit() or setjmp()/longjmp()? (Exception handling) Why doesn't my sockets program work under System V (Solaris)? What does the error message "Protocol not supported" mean? How can I call my system's unique C functions from Perl? Where do I get the include files to do ioctl() or syscall()? Why do setuid perl scripts complain about kernel problems? How can I open a pipe both to and from a command? Why can't I get the output of a command with system()? How can I capture STDERR from an external command? Why doesn't open() return an error when a pipe open fails? What's wrong with using backticks in a void context? How can I call backticks without shell processing? Why can't my script read from STDIN after I gave it EOF (^D on Unix, ^Z on MS-DOS)? How can I convert my shell script to perl? Can I use perl to run a telnet or ftp session? How can I write expect in Perl? Is there a way to hide perl's command line from programs such as "ps"? I {changed directory, modified my environment} in a perl script. How come the change disappeared when I exited the script? How do I get my changes to be visible? Unix How do I close a process's filehandle without waiting for it to complete? How do I fork a daemon process? How do I find out if I'm running interactively or not? How do I timeout a slow event? How do I set CPU limits? How do I avoid zombies on a Unix system? How do I use an SQL database? How do I make a system() exit on control-C? How do I open a file without blocking? How do I install a module from CPAN? What's the difference between require and use? How do I keep my own module/library directory? How do I add the directory my program lives in to the module/library search path? How do I add a directory to my include path at runtime? What is socket.ph and where do I get it? AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT perlfaq9 - Networking ($Revision: 1.9 $, $Date: 2002/04/07 18:46:13 $) DESCRIPTION What is the correct form of response from a CGI script? My CGI script runs from the command line but not the browser. (500 Server Error) How can I get better error messages from a CGI program? How do I remove HTML from a string? How do I extract URLs? How do I download a file from the user's machine? How do I open a file on another machine? How do I make a pop-up menu in HTML? How do I fetch an HTML file? How do I automate an HTML form submission? How do I decode or create those %-encodings on the web? How do I redirect to another page? How do I put a password on my web pages? How do I edit my .htpasswd and .htgroup files with Perl? How do I make sure users can't enter values into a form that cause my CGI script to do bad things? How do I parse a mail header? How do I decode a CGI form? How do I check a valid mail address? How do I decode a MIME/BASE64 string? How do I return the user's mail address? How do I send mail? How do I use MIME to make an attachment to a mail message? How do I read mail? How do I find out my hostname/domainname/IP address? How do I fetch a news article or the active newsgroups? How do I fetch/put an FTP file? How can I do RPC in Perl? AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT perlcompile - Introduction to the Perl Compiler-Translator DESCRIPTION Layout B::Bytecode, B::C, B::CC, B::Lint, B::Deparse, B::Xref Using The Back Ends The Cross Referencing Back End i, &, s, r The Decompiling Back End The Lint Back End The Simple C Back End The Bytecode Back End The Optimized C Back End Module List for the Compiler Suite B, O, B::Asmdata, B::Assembler, B::Bblock, B::Bytecode, B::C, B::CC, B::Concise, B::Debug, B::Deparse, B::Disassembler, B::Lint, B::Showlex, B::Stackobj, B::Stash, B::Terse, B::Xref KNOWN PROBLEMS AUTHOR perlembed - how to embed perl in your C program DESCRIPTION PREAMBLE Use C from Perl?, Use a Unix program from Perl?, Use Perl from Perl?, Use C from C?, Use Perl from C? ROADMAP Compiling your C program Adding a Perl interpreter to your C program Calling a Perl subroutine from your C program Evaluating a Perl statement from your C program Performing Perl pattern matches and substitutions from your C program Fiddling with the Perl stack from your C program Maintaining a persistent interpreter Execution of END blocks Maintaining multiple interpreter instances Using Perl modules, which themselves use C libraries, from your C program Embedding Perl under Win32 MORAL AUTHOR COPYRIGHT perldebguts - Guts of Perl debugging DESCRIPTION Debugger Internals Writing Your Own Debugger Frame Listing Output Examples Debugging regular expressions Compile-time output "anchored" STRING "at" POS, "floating" STRING "at" POS1..POS2, "matching floating/anchored", "minlen", "stclass" TYPE, "noscan", "isall", "GPOS", "plus", "implicit", "with eval", "anchored(TYPE)" Types of nodes Run-time output Debugging Perl memory usage Using $ENV{PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS} "buckets SMALLEST(APPROX)..GREATEST(APPROX)", Free/Used, "Total sbrk(): SBRKed/SBRKs:CONTINUOUS", "pad: 0", "heads: 2192", "chain: 0", "tail: 6144" Example of using -DL switch 717, 002, 054, 602, 702, 704 -DL details "!!!", "!!", "!" Limitations of -DL statistics SEE ALSO perlxstut, perlXStut - Tutorial for writing XSUBs DESCRIPTION SPECIAL NOTES make Version caveat Dynamic Loading versus Static Loading TUTORIAL EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 2 What has gone on? Writing good test scripts EXAMPLE 3 What's new here? Input and Output Parameters The XSUBPP Program The TYPEMAP file Warning about Output Arguments EXAMPLE 4 What has happened here? Anatomy of .xs file Getting the fat out of XSUBs More about XSUB arguments The Argument Stack Extending your Extension Documenting your Extension Installing your Extension EXAMPLE 5 New Things in this Example EXAMPLE 6 New Things in this Example EXAMPLE 7 (Coming Soon) EXAMPLE 8 (Coming Soon) EXAMPLE 9 Passing open files to XSes Troubleshooting these Examples See also Author Last Changed perlxs - XS language reference manual DESCRIPTION Introduction On The Road The Anatomy of an XSUB The Argument Stack The RETVAL Variable The MODULE Keyword The PACKAGE Keyword The PREFIX Keyword The OUTPUT: Keyword The NO_OUTPUT Keyword The CODE: Keyword The INIT: Keyword The NO_INIT Keyword Initializing Function Parameters Default Parameter Values The PREINIT: Keyword The SCOPE: Keyword The INPUT: Keyword The IN/OUTLIST/IN_OUTLIST/OUT/IN_OUT Keywords The "length(NAME)" Keyword Variable-length Parameter Lists The C_ARGS: Keyword The PPCODE: Keyword Returning Undef And Empty Lists The REQUIRE: Keyword The CLEANUP: Keyword The POSTCALL: Keyword The BOOT: Keyword The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword The PROTOTYPES: Keyword The PROTOTYPE: Keyword The ALIAS: Keyword The OVERLOAD: Keyword The INTERFACE: Keyword The INTERFACE_MACRO: Keyword The INCLUDE: Keyword The CASE: Keyword The & Unary Operator Inserting POD, Comments and C Preprocessor Directives Using XS With C++ Interface Strategy Perl Objects And C Structures The Typemap Safely Storing Static Data in XS MY_CXT_KEY, typedef my_cxt_t, START_MY_CXT, MY_CXT_INIT, dMY_CXT, MY_CXT EXAMPLES XS VERSION AUTHOR perlclib - Internal replacements for standard C library functions DESCRIPTION Conventions "t", "p", "n", "s" File Operations File Input and Output File Positioning Memory Management and String Handling Character Class Tests stdlib.h functions Miscellaneous functions SEE ALSO perlguts - Introduction to the Perl API DESCRIPTION Variables Datatypes What is an "IV"? Working with SVs Offsets What's Really Stored in an SV? Working with AVs Working with HVs Hash API Extensions References Blessed References and Class Objects Creating New Variables GV_ADDMULTI, GV_ADDWARN Reference Counts and Mortality Stashes and Globs Double-Typed SVs Magic Variables Assigning Magic Magic Virtual Tables Finding Magic Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays Localizing changes "SAVEINT(int i)", "SAVEIV(IV i)", "SAVEI32(I32 i)", "SAVELONG(long i)", SAVESPTR(s), SAVEPPTR(p), "SAVEFREESV(SV *sv)", "SAVEMORTALIZESV(SV *sv)", "SAVEFREEOP(OP *op)", SAVEFREEPV(p), "SAVECLEARSV(SV *sv)", "SAVEDELETE(HV *hv, char *key, I32 length)", "SAVEDESTRUCTOR(DESTRUCTORFUNC_NOCONTEXT_t f, void *p)", "SAVEDESTRUCTOR_X(DESTRUCTORFUNC_t f, void *p)", "SAVESTACK_POS()", "SV* save_scalar(GV *gv)", "AV* save_ary(GV *gv)", "HV* save_hash(GV *gv)", "void save_item(SV *item)", "void save_list(SV **sarg, I32 maxsarg)", "SV* save_svref(SV **sptr)", "void save_aptr(AV **aptr)", "void save_hptr(HV **hptr)" Subroutines XSUBs and the Argument Stack Calling Perl Routines from within C Programs Memory Allocation PerlIO Putting a C value on Perl stack Scratchpads Scratchpads and recursion Compiled code Code tree Examining the tree Compile pass 1: check routines Compile pass 1a: constant folding Compile pass 2: context propagation Compile pass 3: peephole optimization Pluggable runops Examining internal data structures with the "dump" functions How multiple interpreters and concurrency are supported Background and PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT So what happened to dTHR? How do I use all this in extensions? Should I do anything special if I call perl from multiple threads? Future Plans and PERL_IMPLICIT_SYS Internal Functions A, p, d, s, n, r, f, M, o, j, x Formatted Printing of IVs, UVs, and NVs Pointer-To-Integer and Integer-To-Pointer Source Documentation Unicode Support What is Unicode, anyway? How can I recognise a UTF8 string? How does UTF8 represent Unicode characters? How does Perl store UTF8 strings? How do I convert a string to UTF8? Is there anything else I need to know? Custom Operators AUTHORS SEE ALSO perlcall - Perl calling conventions from C DESCRIPTION An Error Handler, An Event Driven Program THE CALL_ FUNCTIONS call_sv, call_pv, call_method, call_argv FLAG VALUES G_VOID G_SCALAR G_ARRAY G_DISCARD G_NOARGS G_EVAL G_KEEPERR Determining the Context KNOWN PROBLEMS EXAMPLES No Parameters, Nothing returned Passing Parameters Returning a Scalar Returning a list of values Returning a list in a scalar context Returning Data from Perl via the parameter list Using G_EVAL Using G_KEEPERR Using call_sv Using call_argv Using call_method Using GIMME_V Using Perl to dispose of temporaries Strategies for storing Callback Context Information 1. Ignore the problem - Allow only 1 callback, 2. Create a sequence of callbacks - hard wired limit, 3. Use a parameter to map to the Perl callback Alternate Stack Manipulation Creating and calling an anonymous subroutine in C SEE ALSO AUTHOR DATE perlutil - utilities packaged with the Perl distribution DESCRIPTION DOCUMENTATION perldoc, pod2man and pod2text, pod2html and pod2latex, pod2usage, podselect, podchecker, splain, rof- fitall CONVERTORS a2p, s2p, find2perl Administration libnetcfg Development perlbug, h2ph, c2ph and pstruct, h2xs, dprofpp, perlcc SEE ALSO perlfilter - Source Filters DESCRIPTION CONCEPTS USING FILTERS WRITING A SOURCE FILTER WRITING A SOURCE FILTER IN C Decryption Filters CREATING A SOURCE FILTER AS A SEPARATE EXECUTABLE WRITING A SOURCE FILTER IN PERL USING CONTEXT: THE DEBUG FILTER CONCLUSION REQUIREMENTS AUTHOR Copyrights perldbmfilter - Perl DBM Filters SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION filter_store_key, filter_store_value, filter_fetch_key, filter_fetch_value The Filter An Example -- the NULL termination problem. Another Example -- Key is a C int. SEE ALSO AUTHOR perlapi - autogenerated documentation for the perl public API DESCRIPTION "Gimme" Values GIMME, GIMME_V, G_ARRAY, G_DISCARD, G_EVAL, G_NOARGS, G_SCALAR, G_VOID Array Manipulation Functions AvFILL, av_clear, av_delete, av_exists, av_extend, av_fetch, av_fill, av_len, av_make, av_pop, av_push, av_shift, av_store, av_undef, av_unshift, get_av, newAV, Nullav, sortsv Callback Functions call_argv, call_method, call_pv, call_sv, ENTER, eval_pv, eval_sv, FREETMPS, LEAVE, SAVETMPS Character classes isALNUM, isALPHA, isDIGIT, isLOWER, isSPACE, isUPPER, toLOWER, toUPPER Cloning an interpreter perl_clone CV Manipulation Functions CvSTASH, get_cv, Nullcv Embedding Functions load_module, nothreadhook, perl_alloc, perl_construct, perl_destruct, perl_free, perl_parse, perl_run, require_pv Functions in file pp_pack.c pack_cat, unpack_str Global Variables PL_modglobal, PL_na, PL_sv_no, PL_sv_undef, PL_sv_yes GV Functions GvSV, gv_fetchmeth, gv_fetchmethod, gv_fetchmethod_autoload, gv_fetchmeth_autoload, gv_stashpv, gv_stashsv Handy Values HEf_SVKEY, Nullch, Nullsv Hash Manipulation Functions get_hv, HeHASH, HeKEY, HeKLEN, HePV, HeSVKEY, HeSVKEY_force, HeSVKEY_set, HeVAL, HvNAME, hv_clear, hv_delete, hv_delete_ent, hv_exists, hv_exists_ent, hv_fetch, hv_fetch_ent, hv_iterinit, hv_iterkey, hv_iterkeysv, hv_iternext, hv_iternextsv, hv_iternext_flags, hv_iterval, hv_magic, hv_store, hv_store_ent, hv_undef, newHV, Nullhv Magical Functions mg_clear, mg_copy, mg_find, mg_free, mg_get, mg_length, mg_magical, mg_set, SvGETMAGIC, SvLOCK, SvSET- MAGIC, SvSetMagicSV, SvSetMagicSV_nosteal, SvSetSV, SvSetSV_nosteal, SvSHARE Memory Management Copy, Move, New, Newc, NEWSV, Newz, Poison, Renew, Renewc, Safefree, savepv, savepvn, savesharedpv, StructCopy, Zero Miscellaneous Functions fbm_compile, fbm_instr, form, getcwd_sv, strEQ, strGE, strGT, strLE, strLT, strNE, strnEQ, strnNE Numeric functions grok_bin, grok_hex, grok_number, grok_numeric_radix, grok_oct, scan_bin, scan_hex, scan_oct Optree Manipulation Functions cv_const_sv, newCONSTSUB, newXS Stack Manipulation Macros dMARK, dORIGMARK, dSP, EXTEND, MARK, ORIGMARK, POPi, POPl, POPn, POPp, POPpbytex, POPpx, POPs, PUSHi, PUSHMARK, PUSHn, PUSHp, PUSHs, PUSHu, PUTBACK, SP, SPAGAIN, XPUSHi, XPUSHn, XPUSHp, XPUSHs, XPUSHu, XSRE- TURN, XSRETURN_IV, XSRETURN_NO, XSRETURN_NV, XSRETURN_PV, XSRETURN_UNDEF, XSRETURN_YES, XST_mIV, XST_mNO, XST_mNV, XST_mPV, XST_mUNDEF, XST_mYES SV Flags svtype, SVt_IV, SVt_NV, SVt_PV, SVt_PVAV, SVt_PVCV, SVt_PVHV, SVt_PVMG SV Manipulation Functions get_sv, looks_like_number, newRV_inc, newRV_noinc, newSV, newSViv, newSVnv, newSVpv, newSVpvf, newSVpvn, newSVpvn_share, newSVrv, newSVsv, newSVuv, new_vstring, SvCUR, SvCUR_set, SvEND, SvGROW, SvIOK, SvIOKp, SvIOK_notUV, SvIOK_off, SvIOK_on, SvIOK_only, SvIOK_only_UV, SvIOK_UV, SvIV, SvIVx, SvIVX, SvLEN, SvNIOK, SvNIOKp, SvNIOK_off, SvNOK, SvNOKp, SvNOK_off, SvNOK_on, SvNOK_only, SvNV, SvNVX, SvNVx, SvOK, SvOOK, SvPOK, SvPOKp, SvPOK_off, SvPOK_on, SvPOK_only, SvPOK_only_UTF8, SvPV, SvPVbyte, SvPVbytex, SvPVby- tex_force, SvPVbyte_force, SvPVbyte_nolen, SvPVutf8, SvPVutf8x, SvPVutf8x_force, SvPVutf8_force, SvPVutf8_nolen, SvPVx, SvPVX, SvPV_force, SvPV_force_nomg, SvPV_nolen, SvREFCNT, SvREFCNT_dec, SvRE- FCNT_inc, SvROK, SvROK_off, SvROK_on, SvRV, SvSTASH, SvTAINT, SvTAINTED, SvTAINTED_off, SvTAINTED_on, SvTRUE, SvTYPE, SvUNLOCK, SvUOK, SvUPGRADE, SvUTF8, SvUTF8_off, SvUTF8_on, SvUV, SvUVX, SvUVx, sv_2bool, sv_2cv, sv_2io, sv_2iv, sv_2mortal, sv_2nv, sv_2pvbyte, sv_2pvbyte_nolen, sv_2pvutf8, sv_2pvutf8_nolen, sv_2pv_flags, sv_2pv_nolen, sv_2uv, sv_backoff, sv_bless, sv_catpv, sv_catpvf, sv_catpvf_mg, sv_catpvn, sv_catpvn_flags, sv_catpvn_mg, sv_catpv_mg, sv_catsv, sv_catsv_flags, sv_catsv_mg, sv_chop, sv_clear, sv_cmp, sv_cmp_locale, sv_collxfrm, sv_copypv, sv_dec, sv_derived_from, sv_eq, sv_force_normal, sv_force_normal_flags, sv_free, sv_gets, sv_grow, sv_inc, sv_insert, sv_isa, sv_isobject, sv_iv, sv_len, sv_len_utf8, sv_magic, sv_magicext, sv_mortalcopy, sv_newmortal, sv_newref, sv_nolocking, sv_nosharing, sv_nounlocking, sv_nv, sv_pos_b2u, sv_pos_u2b, sv_pv, sv_pvbyte, sv_pvbyten, sv_pvbyten_force, sv_pvn, sv_pvn_force, sv_pvn_force_flags, sv_pvutf8, sv_pvutf8n, sv_pvutf8n_force, sv_reftype, sv_replace, sv_report_used, sv_reset, sv_rvweaken, sv_setiv, sv_setiv_mg, sv_setnv, sv_setnv_mg, sv_setpv, sv_setpvf, sv_setpvf_mg, sv_setpvn, sv_setpvn_mg, sv_setpv_mg, sv_setref_iv, sv_setref_nv, sv_setref_pv, sv_setref_pvn, sv_setref_uv, sv_setsv, sv_setsv_flags, sv_setsv_mg, sv_setuv, sv_setuv_mg, sv_taint, sv_tainted, sv_true, sv_unmagic, sv_unref, sv_unref_flags, sv_untaint, sv_upgrade, sv_usepvn, sv_usepvn_mg, sv_utf8_decode, sv_utf8_downgrade, sv_utf8_encode, sv_utf8_upgrade, sv_utf8_upgrade_flags, sv_uv, sv_vcatpvfn, sv_vsetpvfn Unicode Support bytes_from_utf8, bytes_to_utf8, ibcmp_utf8, is_utf8_char, is_utf8_string, pv_uni_display, sv_recode_to_utf8, sv_uni_display, to_utf8_case, to_utf8_fold, to_utf8_lower, to_utf8_title, to_utf8_upper, utf8n_to_uvchr, utf8n_to_uvuni, utf8_distance, utf8_hop, utf8_length, utf8_to_bytes, utf8_to_uvchr, utf8_to_uvuni, uvchr_to_utf8, uvuni_to_utf8_flags Variables created by "xsubpp" and "xsubpp" internal functions ax, CLASS, dAX, dITEMS, dXSARGS, dXSI32, items, ix, newXSproto, RETVAL, ST, THIS, XS, XSRETURN_EMPTY, XS_VERSION, XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK Warning and Dieing croak, warn AUTHORS SEE ALSO perlintern - autogenerated documentation of purely internal Perl functions DESCRIPTION Global Variables PL_DBsingle, PL_DBsub, PL_DBtrace, PL_dowarn, PL_last_in_gv, PL_ofs_sv, PL_rs GV Functions is_gv_magical IO Functions start_glob Pad Data Structures CvPADLIST Stack Manipulation Macros djSP, LVRET SV Manipulation Functions report_uninit, sv_add_arena, sv_clean_all, sv_clean_objs, sv_free_arenas AUTHORS SEE ALSO perliol - C API for Perl's implementation of IO in Layers. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION History and Background Layers vs Disciplines Data Structures Functions and Attributes Per-instance Data Layers in action. Per-instance flag bits PERLIO_F_EOF, PERLIO_F_CANWRITE, PERLIO_F_CANREAD, PERLIO_F_ERROR, PERLIO_F_TRUNCATE, PER- LIO_F_APPEND, PERLIO_F_CRLF, PERLIO_F_UTF8, PERLIO_F_UNBUF, PERLIO_F_WRBUF, PERLIO_F_RDBUF, PER- LIO_F_LINEBUF, PERLIO_F_TEMP, PERLIO_F_OPEN, PERLIO_F_FASTGETS Methods in Detail fsize, name, size, kind, PERLIO_K_BUFFERED, PERLIO_K_RAW, PERLIO_K_CANCRLF, PERLIO_K_FASTGETS, PER- LIO_K_MULTIARG, Pushed, Popped, Open, Binmode, Getarg, Fileno, Dup, Read, Write, Seek, Tell, Close, Flush, Fill, Eof, Error, Clearerr, Setlinebuf, Get_base, Get_bufsiz, Get_ptr, Get_cnt, Set_ptrcnt Core Layers "unix", "perlio", "stdio", "crlf", "mmap", "pending", "raw", "utf8" Extension Layers ":encoding", ":scalar", ":via" TODO perlapio - perl's IO abstraction interface. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION 1. USE_STDIO, 2. USE_SFIO, 3. USE_PERLIO, PerlIO_stdin(), PerlIO_stdout(), PerlIO_stderr(), Per- lIO_open(path, mode), PerlIO_fdopen(fd,mode), PerlIO_reopen(path,mode,f), PerlIO_printf(f,fmt,...), Per- lIO_vprintf(f,fmt,a), PerlIO_stdoutf(fmt,...), PerlIO_read(f,buf,count), PerlIO_write(f,buf,count), Per- lIO_close(f), PerlIO_puts(f,s), PerlIO_putc(f,c), PerlIO_ungetc(f,c), PerlIO_getc(f), PerlIO_eof(f), Per- lIO_error(f), PerlIO_fileno(f), PerlIO_clearerr(f), PerlIO_flush(f), PerlIO_seek(f,offset,whence), Per- lIO_tell(f), PerlIO_getpos(f,p), PerlIO_setpos(f,p), PerlIO_rewind(f), PerlIO_tmpfile(), PerlIO_set- linebuf(f) Co-existence with stdio PerlIO_importFILE(f,mode), PerlIO_exportFILE(f,mode), PerlIO_releaseFILE(p,f), PerlIO_findFILE(f) "Fast gets" Functions PerlIO_fast_gets(f), PerlIO_has_cntptr(f), PerlIO_get_cnt(f), PerlIO_get_ptr(f), PerlIO_set_ptr- cnt(f,p,c), PerlIO_canset_cnt(f), PerlIO_set_cnt(f,c), PerlIO_has_base(f), PerlIO_get_base(f), Per- lIO_get_bufsiz(f) Other Functions PerlIO_apply_layers(f,mode,layers), PerlIO_binmode(f,ptype,imode,layers), '<' read, '>' write, '+' read/write, PerlIO_debug(fmt,...) perltodo - Perl TO-DO List DESCRIPTION To do during 5.6.x Support for I/O disciplines Autoload bytes.pm Make "\u{XXXX}" et al work Create a char *sv_pvprintify(sv, STRLEN *lenp, UV flags) Overloadable regex assertions Unicode Work out exit/die semantics for threads Better support for nonpreemptive threading systems like GNU pth Typed lexicals for compiler Compiler workarounds for Win32 AUTOLOADing in the compiler Fixing comppadlist when compiling Cleaning up exported namespace Complete signal handling Out-of-source builds POSIX realtime support UNIX98 support IPv6 Support Long double conversion Locales Arithmetic on non-Arabic numerals POSIX Unicode character classes Factoring out common suffices/prefices in regexps (trie optimization) Security audit shipped utilities Sort out the uid-setting mess Custom opcodes DLL Versioning Introduce @( and @) Floating point handling IV/UV preservation Replace pod2html with something using Pod::Parser Automate module testing on CPAN sendmsg and recvmsg Rewrite perlre documentation Convert example code to IO::Handle filehandles Document Win32 choices Check new modules Make roffitall find pods and libs itself To do at some point Remove regular expression recursion Memory leaks after failed eval bitfields in pack Cross compilation Perl preprocessor / macros Perl lexer in Perl Using POSIX calls internally -i rename file when changed All ARGV input should act like <> Support for rerunning debugger Test Suite for the Debugger my sub foo { } One-pass global destruction Rewrite regexp parser Cache recently used regexps Cross-compilation support Bit-shifting bitvectors debugger pragma use less pragma switch structures Cache eval tree rcatmaybe Shrink opcode tables Optimize away @_ Prototypes versus indirect objects Install HTML Prototype method calls Return context prototype declarations magic_setisa Garbage collection IO tutorial Rewrite perldoc Install .3p manpages Unicode tutorial Update POSIX.pm for 1003.1-2 Retargetable installation POSIX emulation on non-POSIX systems Rename Win32 headers Finish off lvalue functions Update sprintf documentation Use fchown/fchmod internally Make v-strings overloaded objects Allow restricted hash assignment Should overload be inheritable? Taint rethink Vague ideas ref() in list context Make tr/// return histogram of characters in list context Compile to real threaded code Structured types Modifiable $1 et al. Procedural interfaces for IO::*, etc. RPC modules Attach/detach debugger from running program GUI::Native foreach(reverse ...) Constant function cache Approximate regular expression matching Ongoing Update guts documentation Add more tests Update auxiliary tools Create debugging macros truncate to the people Unicode in Filenames Recently done things Alternative RE syntax module Safe signal handling Tie Modules gettimeofday setitimer and getimiter Testing __DIE__ hook CPP equivalent in Perl Explicit switch statements autocroak UTF/EBCDIC UTF Regexes perlcc to produce executable END blocks saved in compiled output Secure temporary file module Integrate Time::HiRes Turn Cwd into XS Mmap for input Byte to/from UTF8 and UTF8 to/from local conversion Add sockatmark support Mailing list archives Bug tracking Integrate MacPerl Web "nerve center" for Perl Regular expression tutorial Debugging Tutorial Integrate new modules Integrate profiler Y2K error detection Regular expression debugger POD checker "Dynamic" lexicals Cache precompiled modules Deprecated Wishes Loop control on do{} Lexically scoped typeglobs format BOTTOM report HANDLE Generalised want()/caller()) Named prototypes Built-in globbing Regression tests for suidperl Cached hash values Add compression modules Reorganise documentation into tutorials/references Remove distinction between functions and operators Make XS easier to use Make embedding easier to use man for perl my $Package::variable "or" tests defined, not truth "class"-based lexicals byteperl Lazy evaluation / tail recursion removal Make "use utf8" the default Unicode collation and normalization pack/unpack tutorial perlhack - How to hack at the Perl internals DESCRIPTION Does concept match the general goals of Perl?, Where is the implementation?, Backwards compatibility, Could it be a module instead?, Is the feature generic enough?, Does it potentially introduce new bugs?, Does it preclude other desirable features?, Is the implementation robust?, Is the implementation generic enough to be portable?, Is the implementation tested?, Is there enough documentation?, Is there another way to do it?, Does it create too much work?, Patches speak louder than words Keeping in sync rsync'ing the source tree, Using rsync over the LAN, Using pushing over the NFS, rsync'ing the patches Why rsync the source tree It's easier to rsync the source tree, It's more reliable Why rsync the patches It's easier to rsync the patches, It's a good reference, Finding a start point, Finding how to fix a bug, Finding the source of misbehaviour Perlbug remote interface 1 http://bugs.perl.org, 2 bugdb@perl.org, 3 commands_and_bugdids@bugs.perl.org, notes, patches, tests Submitting patches perlguts, perlxstut and perlxs, perlapi, Porting/pumpkin.pod, The perl5-porters FAQ Finding Your Way Around Core modules, Tests, Documentation, Configure, Interpreter Elements of the interpreter Startup, Parsing, Optimization, Running Internal Variable Types Op Trees Stacks Argument stack, Mark stack, Save stack Millions of Macros Poking at Perl Using a source-level debugger run [args], break function_name, break source.c:xxx, step, next, continue, finish, 'enter', print Dumping Perl Data Structures Patching Patching a core module Adding a new function to the core Writing a test t/base/, t/cmd/, t/comp/, t/io/, t/lib/, t/op/, t/pod/, t/run/, t/base t/comp, t/cmd t/run t/io t/op, t/lib ext lib Special Make Test Targets coretest, test.deparse, minitest, test.third check.third utest.third ucheck.third, test.torture tor- turetest, utest ucheck test.utf8 check.utf8 EXTERNAL TOOLS FOR DEBUGGING PERL Rational Software's Purify Purify on Unix -Accflags=-DPURIFY, -Doptimize='-g', -Uusemymalloc, -Dusemultiplicity Purify on NT DEFINES, USE_MULTI = define, #PERL_MALLOC = define, CFG = Debug Compaq's/Digital's/HP's Third Degree PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL Profiling Gprof Profiling -a, -b, -e routine, -f routine, -s, -z GCC gcov Profiling Pixie Profiling -h, -l, -p[rocedures], -h[eavy], -i[nvocations], -l[ines], -testcoverage, -z[ero] Miscellaneous tricks CONCLUSION The Road goes ever on and on, down from the door where it began. AUTHOR perlhist - the Perl history records DESCRIPTION INTRODUCTION THE KEEPERS OF THE PUMPKIN PUMPKIN? THE RECORDS SELECTED RELEASE SIZES SELECTED PATCH SIZES THE KEEPERS OF THE RECORDS perldelta - what is new for perl v5.8.0 DESCRIPTION Highlights In 5.8.0 Incompatible Changes Binary Incompatibility 64-bit platforms and malloc AIX Dynaloading Attributes for "my" variables now handled at run-time Socket Extension Dynamic in VMS IEEE-format Floating Point Default on OpenVMS Alpha New Unicode Semantics (no more "use utf8", almost) New Unicode Properties REF(...) Instead Of SCALAR(...) pack/unpack D/F recycled glob() now returns filenames in alphabetical order Deprecations Core Enhancements Unicode Overhaul PerlIO is Now The Default ithreads Restricted Hashes Safe Signals Understanding of Numbers Arrays now always interpolate into double-quoted strings [561] Miscellaneous Changes Modules and Pragmata New Modules and Pragmata Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata Utility Changes New Documentation Performance Enhancements Installation and Configuration Improvements Generic Improvements New Or Improved Platforms Selected Bug Fixes Platform Specific Changes and Fixes New or Changed Diagnostics Changed Internals Security Vulnerability Closed [561] New Tests Known Problems The Compiler Suite Is Still Very Experimental Localising Tied Arrays and Hashes Is Broken Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles Modifying $_ Inside for(..) mod_perl 1.26 Doesn't Build With Threaded Perl lib/ftmp-security tests warn 'system possibly insecure' libwww-perl (LWP) fails base/date #51 PDL failing some tests Perl_get_sv Self-tying Problems ext/threads/t/libc Failure of Thread (5.005-style) tests Timing problems Tied/Magical Array/Hash Elements Do Not Autovivify Unicode in package/class and subroutine names does not work Platform Specific Problems AIX Alpha systems with old gccs fail several tests AmigaOS BeOS Cygwin "unable to remap" Cygwin ndbm tests fail on FAT DJGPP Failures FreeBSD built with ithreads coredumps reading large directories FreeBSD Failing locale Test 117 For ISO 8859-15 Locales IRIX fails ext/List/Util/t/shuffle.t or Digest::MD5 HP-UX lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails When LP64-Configured Linux with glibc 2.2.5 fails t/op/int subtest #6 with -Duse64bitint Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48 Mac OS X Mac OS X dyld undefined symbols OS/2 Test Failures op/sprintf tests 91, 129, and 130 Solaris 2.5 Solaris x86 Fails Tests With -Duse64bitint SUPER-UX (NEC SX) Term::ReadKey not working on Win32 UNICOS/mk UTS VOS (Stratus) VMS Win32 XML::Parser not working z/OS (OS/390) Unicode Support on EBCDIC Still Spotty Seen In Perl 5.7 But Gone Now Reporting Bugs SEE ALSO HISTORY perl572delta - what's new for perl v5.7.2 DESCRIPTION Security Vulnerability Closed Incompatible Changes 64-bit platforms and malloc AIX Dynaloading Socket Extension Dynamic in VMS Different Definition of the Unicode Character Classes \p{In...} Deprecations Core Enhancements Modules and Pragmata New Modules and Distributions Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata Utility Changes New Documentation Installation and Configuration Improvements New Or Improved Platforms Generic Improvements Selected Bug Fixes Platform Specific Changes and Fixes New or Changed Diagnostics Source Code Enhancements MAGIC constants Better commented code Regex pre-/post-compilation items matched up gcc -Wall New Tests Known Problems AIX Amiga Perl Invoking Mystery lib/ftmp-security tests warn 'system possibly insecure' Cygwin intermittent failures of lib/Memoize/t/expire_file 11 and 12 HP-UX lib/io_multihomed Fails When LP64-Configured HP-UX lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails When LP64-Configured Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48 OS/390 op/sprintf tests 129 and 130 Failure of Thread tests UNICOS UTS VMS Win32 Localising a Tied Variable Leaks Memory Self-tying of Arrays and Hashes Is Forbidden Variable Attributes are not Currently Usable for Tieing Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles The Compiler Suite Is Still Experimental The Long Double Support is Still Experimental Reporting Bugs SEE ALSO HISTORY perl571delta - what's new for perl v5.7.1 DESCRIPTION Security Vulnerability Closed Incompatible Changes Core Enhancements AUTOLOAD Is Now Lvaluable PerlIO is Now The Default Signals Are Now Safe Modules and Pragmata New Modules Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata Performance Enhancements Utility Changes New Documentation perlclib perliol README.aix README.bs2000 README.macos README.mpeix README.solaris README.vos Porting/repository.pod Installation and Configuration Improvements New Or Improved Platforms Generic Improvements d_cmsghdr, d_fcntl_can_lock, d_fsync, d_getitimer, d_getpagsz, d_msghdr_s, need_va_copy, d_readv, d_recvmsg, d_sendmsg, sig_size, d_sockatmark, d_strtoq, d_u32align, d_ualarm, d_usleep Selected Bug Fixes Platform Specific Changes and Fixes New or Changed Diagnostics Changed Internals New Tests Known Problems AIX vac 5.0.0.0 May Produce Buggy Code For Perl lib/ftmp-security tests warn 'system possibly insecure' lib/io_multihomed Fails In LP64-Configured HP-UX Test lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails In LP64-Configured HP-UX lib/b test 19 Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48 sigaction test 13 in VMS sprintf tests 129 and 130 Failure of Thread tests Localising a Tied Variable Leaks Memory Self-tying of Arrays and Hashes Is Forbidden Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles The Compiler Suite Is Still Experimental Reporting Bugs SEE ALSO HISTORY perl570delta - what's new for perl v5.7.0 DESCRIPTION Security Vulnerability Closed Incompatible Changes Core Enhancements Modules and Pragmata New Modules Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata Utility Changes New Documentation Performance Enhancements Installation and Configuration Improvements Generic Improvements Selected Bug Fixes Platform Specific Changes and Fixes New or Changed Diagnostics Changed Internals Known Problems Unicode Support Still Far From Perfect EBCDIC Still A Lost Platform Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles ftmp-security tests warn 'system possibly insecure' Test lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails In LP64-Configured HP-UX Long Doubles Still Don't Work In Solaris Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48 Storable tests fail in some platforms Threads Are Still Experimental The Compiler Suite Is Still Experimental Reporting Bugs SEE ALSO HISTORY perl561delta - what's new for perl v5.6.x DESCRIPTION Summary of changes between 5.6.0 and 5.6.1 Security Issues Core bug fixes "UNIVERSAL::isa()", Memory leaks, Numeric conversions, qw(a\\b), caller(), Bugs in regular expres- sions, "slurp" mode, Autovivification of symbolic references to special variables, Lexical warnings, Spurious warnings and errors, glob(), Tainting, sort(), #line directives, Subroutine prototypes, map(), Debugger, PERL5OPT, chop(), Unicode support, 64-bit support, Compiler, Lvalue subroutines, IO::Socket, File::Find, xsubpp, "no Module;", Tests Core features Configuration issues Documentation Bundled modules B::Concise, File::Temp, Pod::LaTeX, Pod::Text::Overstrike, CGI, CPAN, Class::Struct, DB_File, Devel::Peek, File::Find, Getopt::Long, IO::Poll, IPC::Open3, Math::BigFloat, Math::Complex, Net::Ping, Opcode, Pod::Parser, Pod::Text, SDBM_File, Sys::Syslog, Tie::RefHash, Tie::SubstrHash Platform-specific improvements NCR MP-RAS, NonStop-UX Core Enhancements Interpreter cloning, threads, and concurrency Lexically scoped warning categories Unicode and UTF-8 support Support for interpolating named characters "our" declarations Support for strings represented as a vector of ordinals Improved Perl version numbering system New syntax for declaring subroutine attributes File and directory handles can be autovivified open() with more than two arguments 64-bit support Large file support Long doubles "more bits" Enhanced support for sort() subroutines "sort $coderef @foo" allowed File globbing implemented internally Support for CHECK blocks POSIX character class syntax [: :] supported Better pseudo-random number generator Improved "qw//" operator Better worst-case behavior of hashes pack() format 'Z' supported pack() format modifier '!' supported pack() and unpack() support counted strings Comments in pack() templates Weak references Binary numbers supported Lvalue subroutines Some arrows may be omitted in calls through references Boolean assignment operators are legal lvalues exists() is supported on subroutine names exists() and delete() are supported on array elements Pseudo-hashes work better Automatic flushing of output buffers Better diagnostics on meaningless filehandle operations Where possible, buffered data discarded from duped input filehandle eof() has the same old magic as <> binmode() can be used to set :crlf and :raw modes "-T" filetest recognizes UTF-8 encoded files as "text" system(), backticks and pipe open now reflect exec() failure Improved diagnostics Diagnostics follow STDERR More consistent close-on-exec behavior syswrite() ease-of-use Better syntax checks on parenthesized unary operators Bit operators support full native integer width Improved security features More functional bareword prototype (*) "require" and "do" may be overridden $^X variables may now have names longer than one character New variable $^C reflects "-c" switch New variable $^V contains Perl version as a string Optional Y2K warnings Arrays now always interpolate into double-quoted strings Modules and Pragmata Modules attributes, B, Benchmark, ByteLoader, constant, charnames, Data::Dumper, DB, DB_File, Devel::DProf, Devel::Peek, Dumpvalue, DynaLoader, English, Env, Fcntl, File::Compare, File::Find, File::Glob, File::Spec, File::Spec::Functions, Getopt::Long, IO, JPL, lib, Math::BigInt, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Pod::Parser, Pod::InputObjects, Pod::Checker, podchecker, Pod::ParseUtils, Pod::Find, Pod::Select, podselect, Pod::Usage, pod2usage, Pod::Text and Pod::Man, SDBM_File, Sys::Syslog, Sys::Hostname, Term::ANSIColor, Time::Local, Win32, XSLoader, DBM Filters Pragmata Utility Changes dprofpp find2perl h2xs perlcc perldoc The Perl Debugger Improved Documentation perlapi.pod, perlboot.pod, perlcompile.pod, perldbmfilter.pod, perldebug.pod, perldebguts.pod, perl- fork.pod, perlfilter.pod, perlhack.pod, perlintern.pod, perllexwarn.pod, perlnumber.pod, perlopentut.pod, perlreftut.pod, perltootc.pod, perltodo.pod, perlunicode.pod Performance enhancements Simple sort() using { $a <=> $b } and the like are optimized Optimized assignments to lexical variables Faster subroutine calls delete(), each(), values() and hash iteration are faster Installation and Configuration Improvements -Dusethreads means something different New Configure flags Threadedness and 64-bitness now more daring Long Doubles -Dusemorebits -Duselargefiles installusrbinperl SOCKS support "-A" flag Enhanced Installation Directories gcc automatically tried if 'cc' does not seem to be working Platform specific changes Supported platforms DOS OS390 (OpenEdition MVS) VMS Win32 Significant bug fixes <HANDLE> on empty files "eval '...'" improvements All compilation errors are true errors Implicitly closed filehandles are safer Behavior of list slices is more consistent "(\$)" prototype and $foo{a} "goto &sub" and AUTOLOAD "-bareword" allowed under "use integer" Failures in DESTROY() Locale bugs fixed Memory leaks Spurious subroutine stubs after failed subroutine calls Taint failures under "-U" END blocks and the "-c" switch Potential to leak DATA filehandles New or Changed Diagnostics "%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s, "my sub" not yet implemented, "our" variable %s redeclared, '!' allowed only after types %s, / cannot take a count, / must be followed by a, A or Z, / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*, / must follow a numeric type, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through, /%s/ should probably be written as "%s", %s() called too early to check prototype, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice, %s argument is not a subroutine name, %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s, (in cleanup) %s, <> should be quotes, Attempt to join self, Bad evalled substitution pattern, Bad realloc() ignored, Bareword found in conditional, Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable, Bit vector size > 32 non-portable, Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s, Can't check filesystem of script "%s", Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s", Can't declare %s in "%s", Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default, Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call, Can't read CRTL environ, Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file, Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine, Can't weaken a nonreference, Character class [:%s:] unknown, Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes, Constant is not %s reference, constant(%s): %s, CORE::%s is not a keyword, defined(@array) is deprecated, defined(%hash) is deprecated, Did not produce a valid header, (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?), Document contains no data, entering effective %s failed, false [] range "%s" in regexp, Filehandle %s opened only for output, flock() on closed filehandle %s, Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name, Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable, Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s", Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|, Illegal binary digit %s, Illegal binary digit %s ignored, Illegal number of bits in vec, Integer overflow in %s number, Invalid %s attribute: %s, Invalid %s attributes: %s, invalid [] range "%s" in regexp, Invalid separator character %s in attribute list, Invalid separator character %s in subroutine attribute list, leaving effective %s failed, Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet, Method %s not permitted, Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}, Missing command in piped open, Missing name in "my sub", No %s specified for -%c, No package name allowed for variable %s in "our", No space allowed after -%c, no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC, Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable, panic: del_backref, panic: kid popen errno read, panic: magic_killbackrefs, Parentheses missing around "%s" list, Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string, Possible Y2K bug: %s, pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead, Premature end of script headers, Repeat count in pack overflows, Repeat count in unpack overflows, realloc() of freed memory ignored, Reference is already weak, setpgrp can't take arguments, Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression, switching effective %s is not implemented, This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s), This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s), Too late to run %s block, Unknown open() mode '%s', Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s, Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list, Unterminated attribute list, Unterminated attribute parameter in subroutine attribute list, Untermi- nated subroutine attribute list, Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long, Version number must be a constant num- ber New tests Incompatible Changes Perl Source Incompatibilities CHECK is a new keyword, Treatment of list slices of undef has changed, Format of $English::PERL_VER- SION is different, Literals of the form 1.2.3 parse differently, Possibly changed pseudo-random number generator, Hashing function for hash keys has changed, "undef" fails on read only values, Close-on- exec bit may be set on pipe and socket handles, Writing "$$1" to mean "${$}1" is unsupported, delete(), each(), values() and "\(%h)", vec(EXPR,OFFSET,BITS) enforces powers-of-two BITS, Text of some diagnostic output has changed, "%@" has been removed, Parenthesized not() behaves like a list operator, Semantics of bareword prototype "(*)" have changed, Semantics of bit operators may have changed on 64-bit platforms, More builtins taint their results C Source Incompatibilities "PERL_POLLUTE", "PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT", "PERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC" Compatible C Source API Changes "PATCHLEVEL" is now "PERL_VERSION" Binary Incompatibilities Known Problems Localizing a tied hash element may leak memory Known test failures EBCDIC platforms not fully supported UNICOS/mk CC failures during Configure run Arrow operator and arrays Experimental features Threads, Unicode, 64-bit support, Lvalue subroutines, Weak references, The pseudo-hash data type, The Compiler suite, Internal implementation of file globbing, The DB module, The regular expression code constructs: Obsolete Diagnostics Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions, Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter, In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s, Probable precedence problem on %s, regexp too big, Use of "$$<digit>" to mean "${$}<digit>" is deprecated Reporting Bugs SEE ALSO HISTORY perl56delta - what's new for perl v5.6.0 DESCRIPTION Core Enhancements Interpreter cloning, threads, and concurrency Lexically scoped warning categories Unicode and UTF-8 support Support for interpolating named characters "our" declarations Support for strings represented as a vector of ordinals Improved Perl version numbering system New syntax for declaring subroutine attributes File and directory handles can be autovivified open() with more than two arguments 64-bit support Large file support Long doubles "more bits" Enhanced support for sort() subroutines "sort $coderef @foo" allowed File globbing implemented internally Support for CHECK blocks POSIX character class syntax [: :] supported Better pseudo-random number generator Improved "qw//" operator Better worst-case behavior of hashes pack() format 'Z' supported pack() format modifier '!' supported pack() and unpack() support counted strings Comments in pack() templates Weak references Binary numbers supported Lvalue subroutines Some arrows may be omitted in calls through references Boolean assignment operators are legal lvalues exists() is supported on subroutine names exists() and delete() are supported on array elements Pseudo-hashes work better Automatic flushing of output buffers Better diagnostics on meaningless filehandle operations Where possible, buffered data discarded from duped input filehandle eof() has the same old magic as <> binmode() can be used to set :crlf and :raw modes "-T" filetest recognizes UTF-8 encoded files as "text" system(), backticks and pipe open now reflect exec() failure Improved diagnostics Diagnostics follow STDERR More consistent close-on-exec behavior syswrite() ease-of-use Better syntax checks on parenthesized unary operators Bit operators support full native integer width Improved security features More functional bareword prototype (*) "require" and "do" may be overridden $^X variables may now have names longer than one character New variable $^C reflects "-c" switch New variable $^V contains Perl version as a string Optional Y2K warnings Arrays now always interpolate into double-quoted strings Modules and Pragmata Modules attributes, B, Benchmark, ByteLoader, constant, charnames, Data::Dumper, DB, DB_File, Devel::DProf, Devel::Peek, Dumpvalue, DynaLoader, English, Env, Fcntl, File::Compare, File::Find, File::Glob, File::Spec, File::Spec::Functions, Getopt::Long, IO, JPL, lib, Math::BigInt, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Pod::Parser, Pod::InputObjects, Pod::Checker, podchecker, Pod::ParseUtils, Pod::Find, Pod::Select, podselect, Pod::Usage, pod2usage, Pod::Text and Pod::Man, SDBM_File, Sys::Syslog, Sys::Hostname, Term::ANSIColor, Time::Local, Win32, XSLoader, DBM Filters Pragmata Utility Changes dprofpp find2perl h2xs perlcc perldoc The Perl Debugger Improved Documentation perlapi.pod, perlboot.pod, perlcompile.pod, perldbmfilter.pod, perldebug.pod, perldebguts.pod, perl- fork.pod, perlfilter.pod, perlhack.pod, perlintern.pod, perllexwarn.pod, perlnumber.pod, perlopentut.pod, perlreftut.pod, perltootc.pod, perltodo.pod, perlunicode.pod Performance enhancements Simple sort() using { $a <=> $b } and the like are optimized Optimized assignments to lexical variables Faster subroutine calls delete(), each(), values() and hash iteration are faster Installation and Configuration Improvements -Dusethreads means something different New Configure flags Threadedness and 64-bitness now more daring Long Doubles -Dusemorebits -Duselargefiles installusrbinperl SOCKS support "-A" flag Enhanced Installation Directories Platform specific changes Supported platforms DOS OS390 (OpenEdition MVS) VMS Win32 Significant bug fixes <HANDLE> on empty files "eval '...'" improvements All compilation errors are true errors Implicitly closed filehandles are safer Behavior of list slices is more consistent "(\$)" prototype and $foo{a} "goto &sub" and AUTOLOAD "-bareword" allowed under "use integer" Failures in DESTROY() Locale bugs fixed Memory leaks Spurious subroutine stubs after failed subroutine calls Taint failures under "-U" END blocks and the "-c" switch Potential to leak DATA filehandles New or Changed Diagnostics "%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s, "my sub" not yet implemented, "our" variable %s redeclared, '!' allowed only after types %s, / cannot take a count, / must be followed by a, A or Z, / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*, / must follow a numeric type, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through, /%s/ should probably be written as "%s", %s() called too early to check prototype, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice, %s argument is not a subroutine name, %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s, (in cleanup) %s, <> should be quotes, Attempt to join self, Bad evalled substitution pattern, Bad realloc() ignored, Bareword found in conditional, Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable, Bit vector size > 32 non-portable, Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s, Can't check filesystem of script "%s", Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s", Can't declare %s in "%s", Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default, Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call, Can't read CRTL environ, Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file, Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine, Can't weaken a nonreference, Character class [:%s:] unknown, Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes, Constant is not %s reference, constant(%s): %s, CORE::%s is not a keyword, defined(@array) is deprecated, defined(%hash) is deprecated, Did not produce a valid header, (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?), Document contains no data, entering effective %s failed, false [] range "%s" in regexp, Filehandle %s opened only for output, flock() on closed filehandle %s, Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name, Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable, Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s", Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|, Illegal binary digit %s, Illegal binary digit %s ignored, Illegal number of bits in vec, Integer overflow in %s number, Invalid %s attribute: %s, Invalid %s attributes: %s, invalid [] range "%s" in regexp, Invalid separator character %s in attribute list, Invalid separator character %s in subroutine attribute list, leaving effective %s failed, Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet, Method %s not permitted, Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}, Missing command in piped open, Missing name in "my sub", No %s specified for -%c, No package name allowed for variable %s in "our", No space allowed after -%c, no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC, Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable, panic: del_backref, panic: kid popen errno read, panic: magic_killbackrefs, Parentheses missing around "%s" list, Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string, Possible Y2K bug: %s, pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead, Premature end of script headers, Repeat count in pack overflows, Repeat count in unpack overflows, realloc() of freed memory ignored, Reference is already weak, setpgrp can't take arguments, Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression, switching effective %s is not implemented, This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s), This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s), Too late to run %s block, Unknown open() mode '%s', Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s, Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list, Unterminated attribute list, Unterminated attribute parameter in subroutine attribute list, Untermi- nated subroutine attribute list, Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long, Version number must be a constant num- ber New tests Incompatible Changes Perl Source Incompatibilities CHECK is a new keyword, Treatment of list slices of undef has changed, Format of $English::PERL_VER- SION is different, Literals of the form 1.2.3 parse differently, Possibly changed pseudo-random number generator, Hashing function for hash keys has changed, "undef" fails on read only values, Close-on- exec bit may be set on pipe and socket handles, Writing "$$1" to mean "${$}1" is unsupported, delete(), each(), values() and "\(%h)", vec(EXPR,OFFSET,BITS) enforces powers-of-two BITS, Text of some diagnostic output has changed, "%@" has been removed, Parenthesized not() behaves like a list operator, Semantics of bareword prototype "(*)" have changed, Semantics of bit operators may have changed on 64-bit platforms, More builtins taint their results C Source Incompatibilities "PERL_POLLUTE", "PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT", "PERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC" Compatible C Source API Changes "PATCHLEVEL" is now "PERL_VERSION" Binary Incompatibilities Known Problems Thread test failures EBCDIC platforms not supported In 64-bit HP-UX the lib/io_multihomed test may hang NEXTSTEP 3.3 POSIX test failure Tru64 (aka Digital UNIX, aka DEC OSF/1) lib/sdbm test failure with gcc UNICOS/mk CC failures during Configure run Arrow operator and arrays Experimental features Threads, Unicode, 64-bit support, Lvalue subroutines, Weak references, The pseudo-hash data type, The Compiler suite, Internal implementation of file globbing, The DB module, The regular expression code constructs: Obsolete Diagnostics Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions, Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter, In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s, Probable precedence problem on %s, regexp too big, Use of "$$<digit>" to mean "${$}<digit>" is deprecated Reporting Bugs SEE ALSO HISTORY perl5005delta - what's new for perl5.005 DESCRIPTION About the new versioning system Incompatible Changes WARNING: This version is not binary compatible with Perl 5.004. Default installation structure has changed Perl Source Compatibility C Source Compatibility Binary Compatibility Security fixes may affect compatibility Relaxed new mandatory warnings introduced in 5.004 Licensing Core Changes Threads Compiler Regular Expressions Many new and improved optimizations, Many bug fixes, New regular expression constructs, New operator for precompiled regular expressions, Other improvements, Incompatible changes Improved malloc() Quicksort is internally implemented Reliable signals Reliable stack pointers More generous treatment of carriage returns Memory leaks Better support for multiple interpreters Behavior of local() on array and hash elements is now well-defined "%!" is transparently tied to the Errno module Pseudo-hashes are supported "EXPR foreach EXPR" is supported Keywords can be globally overridden $^E is meaningful on Win32 "foreach (1..1000000)" optimized "Foo::" can be used as implicitly quoted package name "exists $Foo::{Bar::}" tests existence of a package Better locale support Experimental support for 64-bit platforms prototype() returns useful results on builtins Extended support for exception handling Re-blessing in DESTROY() supported for chaining DESTROY() methods All "printf" format conversions are handled internally New "INIT" keyword New "lock" keyword New "qr//" operator "our" is now a reserved word Tied arrays are now fully supported Tied handles support is better 4th argument to substr Negative LENGTH argument to splice Magic lvalues are now more magical <> now reads in records Supported Platforms New Platforms Changes in existing support Modules and Pragmata New Modules B, Data::Dumper, Dumpvalue, Errno, File::Spec, ExtUtils::Installed, ExtUtils::Packlist, Fatal, IPC::SysV, Test, Tie::Array, Tie::Handle, Thread, attrs, fields, re Changes in existing modules Benchmark, Carp, CGI, Fcntl, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, POSIX, DB_File, MakeMaker, CPAN, Cwd Utility Changes Documentation Changes New Diagnostics Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &, Bad index while coercing array into hash, Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package, Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value, Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid, Can't coerce array into hash, Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string, Can't localize pseudo-hash element, Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available, Cannot find an opnumber for "%s", Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions, Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions, Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future exten- sions, %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression, %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval', %s: Eval- group not allowed at run time, Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main), Illegal hex digit ignored, No such array field, No such field "%s" in variable %s of type %s, Out of memory during ridiculously large request, Range iterator outside integer range, Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' %s, Reference found where even-sized list expected, Undefined value assigned to typeglob, Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated, perl: warning: Setting locale failed Obsolete Diagnostics Can't mktemp(), Can't write to temp file for -e: %s, Cannot open temporary file, regexp too big Configuration Changes BUGS SEE ALSO HISTORY perl5004delta - what's new for perl5.004 DESCRIPTION Supported Environments Core Changes List assignment to %ENV works Change to "Can't locate Foo.pm in @INC" error Compilation option: Binary compatibility with 5.003 $PERL5OPT environment variable Limitations on -M, -m, and -T options More precise warnings Deprecated: Inherited "AUTOLOAD" for non-methods Previously deprecated %OVERLOAD is no longer usable Subroutine arguments created only when they're modified Group vector changeable with $) Fixed parsing of $$<digit>, &$<digit>, etc. Fixed localization of $<digit>, $&, etc. No resetting of $. on implicit close "wantarray" may return undef "eval EXPR" determines value of EXPR in scalar context Changes to tainting checks No glob() or <*>, No spawning if tainted $CDPATH, $ENV, $BASH_ENV, No spawning if tainted $TERM doesn't look like a terminal name New Opcode module and revised Safe module Embedding improvements Internal change: FileHandle class based on IO::* classes Internal change: PerlIO abstraction interface New and changed syntax $coderef->(PARAMS) New and changed builtin constants __PACKAGE__ New and changed builtin variables $^E, $^H, $^M New and changed builtin functions delete on slices, flock, printf and sprintf, keys as an lvalue, my() in Control Structures, pack() and unpack(), sysseek(), use VERSION, use Module VERSION LIST, prototype(FUNCTION), srand, $_ as Default, "m//gc" does not reset search position on failure, "m//x" ignores whitespace before ?*+{}, nested "sub{}" closures work now, formats work right on changing lexicals New builtin methods isa(CLASS), can(METHOD), VERSION( [NEED] ) TIEHANDLE now supported TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this, LIST, READ this LIST, READLINE this, GETC this, DESTROY this Malloc enhancements -DPERL_EMERGENCY_SBRK, -DPACK_MALLOC, -DTWO_POT_OPTIMIZE Miscellaneous efficiency enhancements Support for More Operating Systems Win32 Plan 9 QNX AmigaOS Pragmata use autouse MODULE => qw(sub1 sub2 sub3), use blib, use blib 'dir', use constant NAME => VALUE, use locale, use ops, use vmsish Modules Required Updates Installation directories Module information summary Fcntl IO Math::Complex Math::Trig DB_File Net::Ping Object-oriented overrides for builtin operators Utility Changes pod2html Sends converted HTML to standard output xsubpp "void" XSUBs now default to returning nothing C Language API Changes "gv_fetchmethod" and "perl_call_sv", "perl_eval_pv", Extended API for manipulating hashes Documentation Changes perldelta, perlfaq, perllocale, perltoot, perlapio, perlmodlib, perldebug, perlsec New Diagnostics "my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same scope, %s argument is not a HASH element or slice, Allocation too large: %lx, Allocation too large, Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s), Attempt to free nonexistent shared string, Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr, Bareword "%s" refers to nonexis- tent package, Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s, Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use, Cannot resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s', Constant subroutine %s rede- fined, Constant subroutine %s undefined, Copy method did not return a reference, Died, Exiting pseudo- block via %s, Identifier too long, Illegal character %s (carriage return), Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s, Integer overflow in hex number, Integer overflow in octal number, internal error: glob failed, Invalid conversion in %s: "%s", Invalid type in pack: '%s', Invalid type in unpack: '%s', Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo, Null picture in formline, Offset outside string, Out of memory!, Out of memory during request for %s, panic: frexp, Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list, Possible attempt to separate words with commas, Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}, Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in %s, Too late for "-T" option, untie attempted while %d inner references still exist, Unrecognized character %s, Unsupported function fork, Use of "$$<digit>" to mean "${$}<digit>" is depre- cated, Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined(), Variable "%s" may be unavailable, Variable "%s" will not stay shared, Warning: something's wrong, Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter, Got an error from DosAllocMem, Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX, PERL_SH_DIR too long, Process terminated by SIG%s BUGS SEE ALSO HISTORY perlaix, README.aix - Perl version 5 on IBM Unix (AIX) systems DESCRIPTION Compiling Perl 5 on AIX OS level Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX The IBM ANSI C Compiler Using GNU's gcc for building perl Using Large Files with Perl Threaded Perl 64-bit Perl AIX 4.2 and extensions using C++ with statics AUTHOR DATE perlapollo, README.apollo - Perl version 5 on Apollo DomainOS DESCRIPTION AUTHOR perlamiga - Perl under Amiga OS NOTE SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Prerequisites for Compiling Perl on AmigaOS Unix emulation for AmigaOS: ixemul.library, Version of Amiga OS Starting Perl programs under AmigaOS Shortcomings of Perl under AmigaOS INSTALLATION Accessing documentation Manpages for Perl on AmigaOS Perl HTML Documentation on AmigaOS Perl GNU Info Files on AmigaOS Perl LaTeX Documentation on AmigaOS BUILDING PERL ON AMIGAOS Build Prerequisites for Perl on AmigaOS Getting the Perl Source for AmigaOS Making Perl on AmigaOS Testing Perl on AmigaOS Installing the built Perl on AmigaOS PERL 5.8.0 BROKEN IN AMIGAOS AUTHORS SEE ALSO perlbeos, README.beos - Perl version 5 on BeOS DESCRIPTION General Issues with Perl on BeOS BeOS Release-specific Notes R4 x86, R4 PPC Contact Information Update 2002-05-30 perlbs2000, README.BS2000 - building and installing Perl for BS2000. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION gzip on BS2000 bison on BS2000 Unpacking Perl Distribution on BS2000 Compiling Perl on BS2000 Testing Perl on BS2000 Installing Perl on BS2000 Using Perl in the Posix-Shell of BS2000 Using Perl in "native" BS2000 Floating point anomalies on BS2000 AUTHORS SEE ALSO Mailing list HISTORY Name Description Build Tools & SDK Make Acknowledgements Author perlcygwin, README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin SYNOPSIS PREREQUISITES FOR COMPILING PERL ON CYGWIN Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it) Cygwin Configuration "PATH", nroff, Permissions CONFIGURE PERL ON CYGWIN Stripping Perl Binaries on Cygwin Optional Libraries for Perl on Cygwin "-lcrypt", "-lgdbm" ("use GDBM_File"), "-ldb" ("use DB_File"), "-lcygipc" ("use IPC::SysV"), "-lutil" Configure-time Options for Perl on Cygwin "-Uusedl", "-Uusemymalloc", "-Uuseperlio", "-Dusemultiplicity", "-Duse64bitint", "-Duselongdouble", "-Dusethreads", "-Duselargefiles", "-Dmksymlinks" Suspicious Warnings on Cygwin dlsym(), Win9x and "d_eofnblk", Compiler/Preprocessor defines MAKE ON CYGWIN Warnings on Cygwin ld2 on Cygwin TEST ON CYGWIN File Permissions on Cygwin NDBM_File does not work on FAT filesystems Script Portability on Cygwin Pathnames, Text/Binary, .exe, chown(), Miscellaneous INSTALL PERL ON CYGWIN MANIFEST ON CYGWIN Documentation, Build, Configure, Make, Install, Tests, Compiled Perl Source, Compiled Module Source, Perl Modules/Scripts BUGS ON CYGWIN AUTHORS HISTORY perldgux - Perl under DG/UX. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION BUILDING PERL ON DG/UX Non-threaded Perl on DG/UX Threaded Perl on DG/UX Testing Perl on DG/UX Installing the built perl on DG/UX AUTHOR SEE ALSO perldos - Perl under DOS, W31, W95. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Prerequisites for Compiling Perl on DOS DJGPP, Pthreads Shortcomings of Perl under DOS Building Perl on DOS Testing Perl on DOS Installation of Perl on DOS BUILDING AND INSTALLING MODULES ON DOS Building Prerequisites for Perl on DOS Unpacking CPAN Modules on DOS Building Non-XS Modules on DOS Building XS Modules on DOS AUTHOR SEE ALSO perlepoc, README.epoc - Perl for EPOC SYNOPSIS INTRODUCTION INSTALLING PERL ON EPOC STARTING PERL ON EPOC Editors on Epoc Features of Perl on Epoc Restrictions of Perl on Epoc Compiling Perl 5 on the EPOC cross compiling environment SUPPORT STATUS OF PERL ON EPOC AUTHOR LAST UPDATE perlfreebsd, README.freebsd - Perl version 5 on FreeBSD systems DESCRIPTION FreeBSD core dumps from readdir_r with ithreads $^X doesn't always contain a full path in FreeBSD Perl will no longer be part of "base FreeBSD" AUTHOR perlhpux, README.hpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems DESCRIPTION Using perl as shipped with HP-UX Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX PA-RISC PA-RISC 1.0 PA-RISC 1.1 PA-RISC 2.0 Itanium Portability Between PA-RISC Versions Itanium Processor Family and HP-UX Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX The HP ANSI C Compiler The GNU C Compiler Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX Threaded Perl on HP-UX 64-bit Perl on HP-UX Oracle on HP-UX GDBM and Threads on HP-UX NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX perl -P and // and HP-UX HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent AUTHOR DATE perlhurd, README.hurd - Perl version 5 on Hurd DESCRIPTION Known Problems with Perl on Hurd AUTHOR perlirix, README.irix - Perl version 5 on Irix systems DESCRIPTION Building 32-bit Perl in Irix Building 64-bit Perl in Irix About Compiler Versions of Irix Linker Problems in Irix Malloc in Irix Building with threads in Irix AUTHOR perlmachten, README.machten - Perl version 5 on Power MachTen systems DESCRIPTION Compiling Perl 5 on MachTen Failures during "make test" on MachTen op/lexassign.t, pragma/warnings.t Building external modules on MachTen AUTHOR DATE perlmacos, README.macos - Perl under Mac OS (Classic) SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHOR DATE perlmint, README.mint - Perl version 5 on Atari MiNT DESCRIPTION Known problems with Perl on MiNT AUTHOR perlmpeix, README.mpeix - Perl/iX for HP e3000 MPE SYNOPSIS NOTE Binary distribution from HP What's New in Perl for MPE/iX Welcome to Perl/iX System Requirements for Perl/iX How to Obtain Perl/iX Perl/iX Distribution Contents Highlights README, INSTALL, LIBSHP3K, PERL, .cpan/, lib/, man/, public_html/feedback.cgi, src/perl-5.6.0-mpe How to Compile Perl/iX 4, 6 Getting Started with Perl/iX MPE/iX Implementation Considerations Known Perl/iX Bugs Under Investigation Perl/iX To-Do List Perl/iX Change History AUTHOR Name Description Build Tools & SDK Setup SetNWBld.bat, Buildtype.bat Make Interpreter Extensions Install Build new extensions Acknowledgements Authors Date perlos2 - Perl under OS/2, DOS, Win0.3*, Win0.95 and WinNT. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Target Other OSes Prerequisites EMX, RSX, HPFS, pdksh Starting Perl programs under OS/2 (and DOS and...) Starting OS/2 (and DOS) programs under Perl Frequently asked questions "It does not work" I cannot run external programs I cannot embed perl into my program, or use perl.dll from my program. Is your program EMX-compiled with "-Zmt -Zcrtdll"?, Did you use ExtUtils::Embed? `` and pipe-"open" do not work under DOS. Cannot start "find.exe "pattern" file" INSTALLATION Automatic binary installation "PERL_BADLANG", "PERL_BADFREE", Config.pm Manual binary installation Perl VIO and PM executables (dynamically linked), Perl_ VIO executable (statically linked), Executa- bles for Perl utilities, Main Perl library, Additional Perl modules, Tools to compile Perl modules, Manpages for Perl and utilities, Manpages for Perl modules, Source for Perl documentation, Perl manual in .INF format, Pdksh Warning Accessing documentation OS/2 .INF file Plain text Manpages HTML GNU "info" files PDF files "LaTeX" docs BUILD The short story Prerequisites Getting perl source Application of the patches Hand-editing Making Testing A lot of "bad free", Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT, op/fs.t, op/stat.t Installing the built perl "a.out"-style build Build FAQ Some "/" became "\" in pdksh. 'errno' - unresolved external Problems with tr or sed Some problem (forget which ;-) Library ... not found Segfault in make op/sprintf test failure Specific (mis)features of OS/2 port "setpriority", "getpriority" "system()" "extproc" on the first line Additional modules: Prebuilt methods: "File::Copy::syscopy", "DynaLoader::mod2fname", "Cwd::current_drive()", "Cwd::sys_chdir(name)", "Cwd::change_drive(name)", "Cwd::sys_is_abso- lute(name)", "Cwd::sys_is_rooted(name)", "Cwd::sys_is_relative(name)", "Cwd::sys_cwd(name)", "Cwd::sys_abspath(name, dir)", "Cwd::extLibpath([type])", "Cwd::extLibpath_set( path [, type ] )", "OS2::Error(do_harderror,do_exception)", "OS2::Errors2Drive(drive)", OS2::SysInfo(), OS2::BootDrive(), "OS2::MorphPM(serve)", "OS2::UnMorphPM(serve)", "OS2::Serve_Messages(force)", "OS2::Process_Mes- sages(force [, cnt])", "OS2::_control87(new,mask)", OS2::get_control87(), "OS2::set_con- trol87_em(new=MCW_EM,mask=MCW_EM)", "OS2::DLLname([how [, \&xsub]])" Prebuilt variables: $OS2::emx_rev, $OS2::emx_env, $OS2::os_ver, $OS2::is_aout, $OS2::can_fork, $OS2::nsyserror Misfeatures Modifications "popen", "tmpnam", "tmpfile", "ctermid", "stat", "mkdir", "rmdir", "flock" Identifying DLLs Centralized management of resources "HAB", "HMQ", Treating errors reported by OS/2 API, "CheckOSError(expr)", "CheckWinError(expr)", "SaveWinError(expr)", "SaveCroakWinError(expr,die,name1,name2)", "WinError_2_Perl_rc", "FillWinError", "FillOSError(rc)", Loading DLLs and ordinals in DLLs Perl flavors perl.exe perl_.exe perl__.exe perl___.exe Why strange names? Why dynamic linking? Why chimera build? ENVIRONMENT "PERLLIB_PREFIX" "PERL_BADLANG" "PERL_BADFREE" "PERL_SH_DIR" "USE_PERL_FLOCK" "TMP" or "TEMP" Evolution Text-mode filehandles Priorities DLL name mangling: pre 5.6.2 DLL name mangling: 5.6.2 and beyond Global DLLs, specific DLLs, "BEGINLIBPATH" and "ENDLIBPATH", . from "LIBPATH" DLL forwarder generation Threading Calls to external programs Memory allocation Threads "COND_WAIT", os2.c BUGS AUTHOR SEE ALSO perlos390, README.os390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390 and z/OS SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Tools Unpacking Perl distribution on OS/390 Setup and utilities for Perl on OS/390 Configure Perl on OS/390 Build, Test, Install Perl on OS/390 Build Anomalies with Perl on OS/390 Testing Anomalies with Perl on OS/390 Installation Anomalies with Perl on OS/390 Usage Hints for Perl on OS/390 Floating Point Anomalies with Perl on OS/390 Modules and Extensions for Perl on OS/390 AUTHORS SEE ALSO Mailing list for Perl on OS/390 HISTORY perlqnx, README.qnx - Perl version 5 on QNX DESCRIPTION Required Software for Compiling Perl on QNX4 /bin/sh, ar, nm, cpp, make Outstanding Issues with Perl on QNX4 QNX auxiliary files qnx/ar, qnx/cpp Outstanding issues with perl under QNX6 AUTHOR perlplan9 - Plan 9-specific documentation for Perl DESCRIPTION Invoking Perl What's in Plan 9 Perl What's not in Plan 9 Perl Perl5 Functions not currently supported in Plan 9 Perl Signals in Plan 9 Perl COMPILING AND INSTALLING PERL ON PLAN 9 Installing Perl Documentation on Plan 9 BUGS Revision date AUTHOR perlsolaris, README.solaris - Perl version 5 on Solaris systems DESCRIPTION Solaris Version Numbers. RESOURCES Solaris FAQ, Precompiled Binaries, Solaris Documentation SETTING UP File Extraction Problems on Solaris. Compiler and Related Tools on Solaris. Environment for Compiling Perl on Solaris RUN CONFIGURE. 64-bit Issues with Perl on Solaris. Threads in Perl on Solaris. Malloc Issues with Perl on Solaris. MAKE PROBLEMS. Dynamic Loading Problems With GNU as and GNU ld, ld.so.1: ./perl: fatal: relocation error:, dlopen: stub interception failed, #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified", sh: ar: not found MAKE TEST op/stat.t test 4 in Solaris nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent PREBUILT BINARIES OF PERL FOR SOLARIS. RUNTIME ISSUES FOR PERL ON SOLARIS. Limits on Numbers of Open Files on Solaris. SOLARIS-SPECIFIC MODULES. SOLARIS-SPECIFIC PROBLEMS WITH MODULES. Proc::ProcessTable on Solaris BSD::Resource on Solaris Net::SSLeay on Solaris AUTHOR LAST MODIFIED perltru64, README.tru64 - Perl version 5 on Tru64 (formerly known as Digital UNIX formerly known as DEC OSF/1) systems DESCRIPTION Compiling Perl 5 on Tru64 Using Large Files with Perl on Tru64 Threaded Perl on Tru64 Long Doubles on Tru64 64-bit Perl on Tru64 Warnings about floating-point overflow when compiling Perl on Tru64 Testing Perl on Tru64 ext/ODBM_File/odbm Test Failing With Static Builds Perl Fails Because Of Unresolved Symbol sockatmark AUTHOR perluts - Perl under UTS SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION BUILDING PERL ON UTS Installing the built perl on UTS AUTHOR perlvmesa, README.vmesa - building and installing Perl for VM/ESA. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Unpacking Perl Distribution on VM/ESA Setup Perl and utilities on VM/ESA Configure Perl on VM/ESA Testing Anomalies of Perl on VM/ESA Usage Hints for Perl on VM/ESA AUTHORS SEE ALSO Mailing list for Perl on VM/ESA perlvms - VMS-specific documentation for Perl DESCRIPTION Installation Organization of Perl Images Core Images Perl Extensions Installing static extensions Installing dynamic extensions File specifications Syntax Wildcard expansion Pipes PERL5LIB and PERLLIB Command line I/O redirection and backgrounding Command line switches -i, -S, -u Perl functions File tests, backticks, binmode FILEHANDLE, crypt PLAINTEXT, USER, dump, exec LIST, fork, getpwent, getpw- nam, getpwuid, gmtime, kill, qx//, select (system call), stat EXPR, system LIST, time, times, unlink LIST, utime LIST, waitpid PID,FLAGS Perl variables %ENV, CRTL_ENV, CLISYM_[LOCAL], Any other string, $!, $^E, $?, $| Standard modules with VMS-specific differences SDBM_File Revision date AUTHOR perlvos, README.vos - Perl for Stratus VOS SYNOPSIS Multiple methods to build perl for VOS Stratus POSIX Support INSTALLING PERL IN VOS Compiling Perl 5 on VOS Installing Perl 5 on VOS USING PERL IN VOS Unimplemented Features of Perl on VOS Restrictions of Perl on VOS Handling of underflow and overflow TEST STATUS SUPPORT STATUS AUTHOR LAST UPDATE perlwin32 - Perl under Windows SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Setting Up Perl on Win32 Make, Command Shell, Borland C++, Microsoft Visual C++, Microsoft Platform SDK 64-bit Compiler, Mingw32 with GCC Building Testing Perl on Win32 Installation of Perl on Win32 Usage Hints for Perl on Win32 Environment Variables, File Globbing, Using perl from the command line, Building Extensions, Command- line Wildcard Expansion, Win32 Specific Extensions, Notes on 64-bit Windows Running Perl Scripts Miscellaneous Things BUGS AND CAVEATS AUTHORS Gary Ng <71564.1743@CompuServe.COM>, Gurusamy Sarathy <gsar@activestate.com>, Nick Ing-Simmons <nick@ing-simmons.net> SEE ALSO HISTORY
PRAGMA DOCUMENTATION
attrs - set/get attributes of a subroutine (deprecated) SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION method, locked re - Perl pragma to alter regular expression behaviour SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION threadshared::shared, threads::shared - Perl extension for sharing data structures between threads SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXPORT FUNCTIONS share VARIABLE, lock VARIABLE, cond_wait VARIABLE, cond_signal VARIABLE, cond_broadcast VARIABLE NOTES BUGS AUTHOR SEE ALSO threads - Perl extension allowing use of interpreter based threads from perl SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION $thread = threads->create(function, LIST), $thread->join, $thread->detach, threads->self, $thread->tid, threads->object( tid ), threads->yield();, threads->list();, async BLOCK; WARNINGS A thread exited while %d other threads were still running TODO BUGS Parent-Child threads, Returning objects, Creating threads inside BEGIN blocks, PERL_OLD_SIGNALS are not threadsafe, will not be AUTHOR and COPYRIGHT SEE ALSO attributes - get/set subroutine or variable attributes SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Built-in Attributes locked, method, lvalue Available Subroutines get, reftype Package-specific Attribute Handling FETCH_type_ATTRIBUTES, MODIFY_type_ATTRIBUTES Syntax of Attribute Lists EXPORTS Default exports Available exports Export tags defined EXAMPLES SEE ALSO attrs - set/get attributes of a subroutine (deprecated) SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION method, locked autouse - postpone load of modules until a function is used SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION WARNING AUTHOR SEE ALSO base - Establish IS-A relationship with base class at compile time SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION HISTORY SEE ALSO bigint - Transparent big integer support for Perl SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OPTIONS a or accuracy, p or precision, t or trace, l or lib, v or version MATH LIBRARY INTERNAL FORMAT SIGN METHODS MODULES USED EXAMPLES LICENSE SEE ALSO AUTHORS bignum - Transparent BigNumber support for Perl SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OPTIONS a or accuracy, p or precision, t or trace, l or lib, v or version MATH LIBRARY INTERNAL FORMAT SIGN METHODS MODULES USED EXAMPLES LICENSE SEE ALSO AUTHORS bigrat - Transparent BigNumber/BigRational support for Perl SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION MODULES USED MATH LIBRARY SIGN METHODS EXAMPLES perl -Mbigrat -le 'print sqrt(33)' perl -Mbigrat -le 'print 2*255' perl -Mbigrat -le 'print 4.5+2*255' perl -Mbigrat -le 'print 3/7 + 5/7 + 8/3' perl -Mbigrat -le 'print 12->is_odd()'; LICENSE SEE ALSO AUTHORS blib - Use MakeMaker's uninstalled version of a package SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION BUGS AUTHOR bytes - Perl pragma to force byte semantics rather than character semantics SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO charnames - define character names for "\N{named}" string literal escapes SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CUSTOM TRANSLATORS charnames::viacode(code) charnames::vianame(name) ALIASES ILLEGAL CHARACTERS BUGS constant - Perl pragma to declare constants SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION NOTES List constants Defining multiple constants at once Magic constants TECHNICAL NOTES BUGS AUTHOR COPYRIGHT diagnostics - Perl compiler pragma to force verbose warning diagnostics SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION The "diagnostics" Pragma The splain Program EXAMPLES INTERNALS BUGS AUTHOR encoding - allows you to write your script in non-ascii or non-utf8 SYNOPSIS ABSTRACT USAGE use encoding [ENCNAME] ;, use encoding ENCNAME [ STDIN => ENCNAME_IN ...] ;, no encoding; CAVEATS NOT SCOPED DO NOT MIX MULTIPLE ENCODINGS Non-ASCII Identifiers and Filter option use encoding ENCNAME Filter=>1; EXAMPLE - Greekperl KNOWN PROBLEMS SEE ALSO fields - compile-time class fields SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION new, phash SEE ALSO filetest - Perl pragma to control the filetest permission operators SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION subpragma access if - "use" a Perl module if a condition holds SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION BUGS AUTHOR integer - Perl pragma to use integer arithmetic instead of floating point SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION less - perl pragma to request less of something from the compiler SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION lib - manipulate @INC at compile time SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Adding directories to @INC Deleting directories from @INC Restoring original @INC CAVEATS NOTES SEE ALSO AUTHOR locale - Perl pragma to use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in operations SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION open - perl pragma to set default PerlIO layers for input and output SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION NONPERLIO FUNCTIONALITY IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS SEE ALSO ops - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe operations when compiling SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO overload - Package for overloading perl operations SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Declaration of overloaded functions Calling Conventions for Binary Operations FALSE, TRUE, "undef" Calling Conventions for Unary Operations Calling Conventions for Mutators "++" and "--", "x=" and other assignment versions Overloadable Operations Arithmetic operations, Comparison operations, Bit operations, Increment and decrement, Transcendental functions, Boolean, string and numeric conversion, Iteration, Dereferencing, Special Inheritance and overloading Strings as values of "use overload" directive, Overloading of an operation is inherited by derived classes SPECIAL SYMBOLS FOR "use overload" Last Resort Fallback "undef", TRUE, defined, but FALSE Copy Constructor Example MAGIC AUTOGENERATION Assignment forms of arithmetic operations, Conversion operations, Increment and decrement, "abs($a)", Unary minus, Negation, Concatenation, Comparison operations, Iterator, Dereferencing, Copy operator Losing overloading Run-time Overloading Public functions overload::StrVal(arg), overload::Overloaded(arg), overload::Method(obj,op) Overloading constants integer, float, binary, q, qr IMPLEMENTATION Metaphor clash Cookbook Two-face scalars Two-face references Symbolic calculator Really symbolic calculator AUTHOR DIAGNOSTICS Odd number of arguments for overload::constant, `%s' is not an overloadable type, `%s' is not a code ref- erence BUGS re - Perl pragma to alter regular expression behaviour SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION sigtrap - Perl pragma to enable simple signal handling SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OPTIONS SIGNAL HANDLERS stack-trace, die, handler your-handler SIGNAL LISTS normal-signals, error-signals, old-interface-signals OTHER untrapped, any, signal, number EXAMPLES sort - perl pragma to control sort() behaviour SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CAVEATS strict - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe constructs SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION "strict refs", "strict vars", "strict subs" subs - Perl pragma to predeclare sub names SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION threads - Perl extension allowing use of interpreter based threads from perl SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION $thread = threads->create(function, LIST), $thread->join, $thread->detach, threads->self, $thread->tid, threads->object( tid ), threads->yield();, threads->list();, async BLOCK; WARNINGS A thread exited while %d other threads were still running TODO BUGS Parent-Child threads, Returning objects, Creating threads inside BEGIN blocks, PERL_OLD_SIGNALS are not threadsafe, will not be AUTHOR and COPYRIGHT SEE ALSO threadshared, threads::shared - Perl extension for sharing data structures between threads SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXPORT FUNCTIONS share VARIABLE, lock VARIABLE, cond_wait VARIABLE, cond_signal VARIABLE, cond_broadcast VARIABLE NOTES BUGS AUTHOR SEE ALSO utf8 - Perl pragma to enable/disable UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) in source code SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Utility functions $num_octets = utf8::upgrade($string);, utf8::downgrade($string[, FAIL_OK]), utf8::encode($string), $flag = utf8::decode($string), $flag = utf8::valid(STRING) BUGS SEE ALSO vars - Perl pragma to predeclare global variable names (obsolete) SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION vmsish - Perl pragma to control VMS-specific language features SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION "vmsish status", "vmsish exit", "vmsish time", "vmsish hushed" warnings - Perl pragma to control optional warnings SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION use warnings::register, warnings::enabled(), warnings::enabled($category), warnings::enabled($object), warnings::warn($message), warnings::warn($category, $message), warnings::warn($object, $message), warn- ings::warnif($message), warnings::warnif($category, $message), warnings::warnif($object, $message) warnings::register - warnings import function SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION
MODULE DOCUMENTATION
AnyDBM_File - provide framework for multiple DBMs SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION DBM Comparisons [0], [1], [2], [3] SEE ALSO Attribute::Handlers - Simpler definition of attribute handlers VERSION SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION [0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5] Typed lexicals Type-specific attribute handlers Non-interpretive attribute handlers Phase-specific attribute handlers Attributes as "tie" interfaces EXAMPLES DIAGNOSTICS "Bad attribute type: ATTR(%s)", "Attribute handler %s doesn't handle %s attributes", "Declaration of %s attribute in package %s may clash with future reserved word", "Can't have two ATTR specifiers on one sub- routine", "Can't autotie a %s", "Internal error: %s symbol went missing", "Won't be able to apply END han- dler" AUTHOR BUGS COPYRIGHT AutoLoader - load subroutines only on demand SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Subroutine Stubs Using AutoLoader's AUTOLOAD Subroutine Overriding AutoLoader's AUTOLOAD Subroutine Package Lexicals Not Using AutoLoader AutoLoader vs. SelfLoader CAVEATS SEE ALSO AutoSplit - split a package for autoloading SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION $keep, $check, $modtime Multiple packages DIAGNOSTICS B - The Perl Compiler SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OVERVIEW OF CLASSES SV-RELATED CLASSES B::SV METHODS REFCNT, FLAGS B::IV METHODS IV, IVX, UVX, int_value, needs64bits, packiv B::NV METHODS NV, NVX B::RV METHODS RV B::PV METHODS PV, RV, PVX B::PVMG METHODS MAGIC, SvSTASH B::MAGIC METHODS MOREMAGIC, precomp, PRIVATE, TYPE, FLAGS, OBJ, PTR, REGEX B::PVLV METHODS TARGOFF, TARGLEN, TYPE, TARG B::BM METHODS USEFUL, PREVIOUS, RARE, TABLE B::GV METHODS is_empty, NAME, SAFENAME, STASH, SV, IO, FORM, AV, HV, EGV, CV, CVGEN, LINE, FILE, FILEGV, GvREFCNT, FLAGS B::IO METHODS LINES, PAGE, PAGE_LEN, LINES_LEFT, TOP_NAME, TOP_GV, FMT_NAME, FMT_GV, BOTTOM_NAME, BOTTOM_GV, SUBPRO- CESS, IoTYPE, IoFLAGS, IsSTD B::AV METHODS FILL, MAX, OFF, ARRAY, AvFLAGS B::CV METHODS STASH, START, ROOT, GV, FILE, DEPTH, PADLIST, OUTSIDE, XSUB, XSUBANY, CvFLAGS, const_sv B::HV METHODS FILL, MAX, KEYS, RITER, NAME, PMROOT, ARRAY OP-RELATED CLASSES B::OP METHODS next, sibling, name, ppaddr, desc, targ, type, seq, flags, private B::UNOP METHOD first B::BINOP METHOD last B::LOGOP METHOD other B::LISTOP METHOD children B::PMOP METHODS pmreplroot, pmreplstart, pmnext, pmregexp, pmflags, pmdynflags, pmpermflags, precomp, pmoffet B::SVOP METHOD sv, gv B::PADOP METHOD padix B::PVOP METHOD pv B::LOOP METHODS redoop, nextop, lastop B::COP METHODS label, stash, file, cop_seq, arybase, line FUNCTIONS EXPORTED BY "B" main_cv, init_av, begin_av, end_av, main_root, main_start, comppadlist, regex_padav, sv_undef, sv_yes, sv_no, amagic_generation, walkoptree(OP, METHOD), walkoptree_debug(DEBUG), walksymtable(SYMREF, METHOD, RECURSE, PREFIX), svref_2object(SV), ppname(OPNUM), hash(STR), cast_I32(I), minus_c, cstring(STR), perl- string(STR), class(OBJ), threadsv_names AUTHOR B::Asmdata - Autogenerated data about Perl ops, used to generate bytecode SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION %insn_data, @insn_name, @optype, @specialsv_name AUTHOR B::Assembler - Assemble Perl bytecode SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHORS B::Bblock - Walk basic blocks SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Functions find_leaders AUTHOR B::Bytecode - Perl compiler's bytecode backend SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OPTIONS -ofilename, -afilename, --, -f, -fcompress-nullops, -fomit-sequence-numbers, -fbypass-nullops, -On, -D, -Do, -Db, -Da, -DC, -S, -upackage EXAMPLES BUGS AUTHORS B::C - Perl compiler's C backend SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OPTIONS -ofilename, -v, --, -uPackname, -D, -Do, -Dc, -DA, -DC, -DM, -f, -fcog, -fsave-data, -fppaddr, -fwarn-sv, -fuse-script-name, -fsave-sig-hash, -On, -O0, -O1, -O2, -llimit EXAMPLES BUGS AUTHOR B::CC - Perl compiler's optimized C translation backend SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OPTIONS -ofilename, -v, --, -uPackname, -mModulename, -D, -Dr, -DO, -Ds, -Dp, -Dq, -Dl, -Dt, -f, -ffreetmps-each-bblock, -ffreetmps-each-loop, -fomit-taint, -On EXAMPLES BUGS DIFFERENCES Loops Context of ".." Arithmetic Deprecated features AUTHOR B::Concise - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE OPTIONS -basic, -exec, -tree, -compact, -loose, -vt, -ascii, -main, -basen, -bigendian, -littleendian, -concise, -terse, -linenoise, -debug, -env FORMATTING SPECIFICATIONS (x(exec_text;basic_text)x), (*(text)*), (*(text1;text2)*), (?(text1#varText2)?), #var, #varN, ~, #addr, #arg, #class, #classsym, #coplabel, #exname, #extarg, #firstaddr, #flags, #flagval, #hyphseq, #label, #lastaddr, #name, #NAME, #next, #nextaddr, #noise, #private, #privval, #seq, #seqnum, #sibaddr, #svaddr, #svclass, #svval, #targ, #targarg, #targarglife, #typenum ABBREVIATIONS OP flags abbreviations OP class abbreviations Using B::Concise outside of the O framework AUTHOR B::Debug - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing debug info about ops SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHOR B::Deparse - Perl compiler backend to produce perl code SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OPTIONS -l, -p, -P, -q, -fFILE, -sLETTERS, C, iNUMBER, T, vSTRING., -xLEVEL USING B::Deparse AS A MODULE Synopsis Description new ambient_pragmas strict, $[, bytes, utf8, integer, re, warnings, hint_bits, warning_bits coderef2text BUGS AUTHOR B::Disassembler - Disassemble Perl bytecode SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHOR B::Lint - Perl lint SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OPTIONS AND LINT CHECKS context, implicit-read and implicit-write, dollar-underscore, private-names, undefined-subs, regexp-vari- ables, all, none NON LINT-CHECK OPTIONS -u Package BUGS AUTHOR B::O, O - Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONVENTIONS IMPLEMENTATION BUGS AUTHOR B::Showlex - Show lexical variables used in functions or files SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHOR B::Stackobj - Helper module for CC backend SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHOR B::Stash - show what stashes are loaded B::Terse - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing terse info about ops SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHOR B::Xref - Generates cross reference reports for Perl programs SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OPTIONS "-oFILENAME", "-r", "-d", "-D[tO]" BUGS AUTHOR Bblock, B::Bblock - Walk basic blocks SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Functions find_leaders AUTHOR Benchmark - benchmark running times of Perl code SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Methods new, debug, iters Standard Exports timeit(COUNT, CODE), timethis ( COUNT, CODE, [ TITLE, [ STYLE ]] ), timethese ( COUNT, CODEHASHREF, [ STYLE ] ), timediff ( T1, T2 ), timestr ( TIMEDIFF, [ STYLE, [ FORMAT ] ] ) Optional Exports clearcache ( COUNT ), clearallcache ( ), cmpthese ( COUT, CODEHASHREF, [ STYLE ] ), cmpthese ( RESULT- SHASHREF, [ STYLE ] ), countit(TIME, CODE), disablecache ( ), enablecache ( ), timesum ( T1, T2 ) NOTES EXAMPLES INHERITANCE CAVEATS SEE ALSO AUTHORS MODIFICATION HISTORY ByteLoader - load byte compiled perl code SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHOR SEE ALSO Bytecode, B::Bytecode - Perl compiler's bytecode backend SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OPTIONS -ofilename, -afilename, --, -f, -fcompress-nullops, -fomit-sequence-numbers, -fbypass-nullops, -On, -D, -Do, -Db, -Da, -DC, -S, -upackage EXAMPLES BUGS AUTHORS CGI - Simple Common Gateway Interface Class SYNOPSIS ABSTRACT DESCRIPTION PROGRAMMING STYLE CALLING CGI.PM ROUTINES CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT (OBJECT-ORIENTED STYLE): CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT FROM AN INPUT FILE FETCHING A LIST OF KEYWORDS FROM THE QUERY: FETCHING THE NAMES OF ALL THE PARAMETERS PASSED TO YOUR SCRIPT: FETCHING THE VALUE OR VALUES OF A SINGLE NAMED PARAMETER: SETTING THE VALUE(S) OF A NAMED PARAMETER: APPENDING ADDITIONAL VALUES TO A NAMED PARAMETER: IMPORTING ALL PARAMETERS INTO A NAMESPACE: DELETING A PARAMETER COMPLETELY: DELETING ALL PARAMETERS: DIRECT ACCESS TO THE PARAMETER LIST: FETCHING THE PARAMETER LIST AS A HASH: SAVING THE STATE OF THE SCRIPT TO A FILE: RETRIEVING CGI ERRORS USING THE FUNCTION-ORIENTED INTERFACE :cgi, :form, :html2, :html3, :html4, :netscape, :html, :standard, :all PRAGMAS -any, -compile, -nosticky, -no_undef_params, -no_xhtml, -nph, -newstyle_urls, -oldstyle_urls, -autoload, -no_debug, -debug, -private_tempfiles SPECIAL FORMS FOR IMPORTING HTML-TAG FUNCTIONS 1. start_table() (generates a <table> tag), 2. end_table() (generates a </table> tag), 3. start_ul() (generates a <ul> tag), 4. end_ul() (generates a </ul> tag) GENERATING DYNAMIC DOCUMENTS CREATING A STANDARD HTTP HEADER: GENERATING A REDIRECTION HEADER CREATING THE HTML DOCUMENT HEADER Parameters:, 4, 5, 6.. ENDING THE HTML DOCUMENT: CREATING A SELF-REFERENCING URL THAT PRESERVES STATE INFORMATION: OBTAINING THE SCRIPT'S URL -absolute, -relative, -full, -path (-path_info), -query (-query_string), -base MIXING POST AND URL PARAMETERS CREATING STANDARD HTML ELEMENTS: PROVIDING ARGUMENTS TO HTML SHORTCUTS THE DISTRIBUTIVE PROPERTY OF HTML SHORTCUTS HTML SHORTCUTS AND LIST INTERPOLATION NON-STANDARD HTML SHORTCUTS AUTOESCAPING HTML $escaped_string = escapeHTML("unescaped string");, $charset = charset([$charset]);, $flag = autoEscape([$flag]); PRETTY-PRINTING HTML CREATING FILL-OUT FORMS: CREATING AN ISINDEX TAG STARTING AND ENDING A FORM application/x-www-form-urlencoded, multipart/form-data CREATING A TEXT FIELD Parameters CREATING A BIG TEXT FIELD CREATING A PASSWORD FIELD CREATING A FILE UPLOAD FIELD Parameters CREATING A POPUP MENU CREATING A SCROLLING LIST Parameters: CREATING A GROUP OF RELATED CHECKBOXES Parameters: CREATING A STANDALONE CHECKBOX Parameters: CREATING A RADIO BUTTON GROUP Parameters: CREATING A SUBMIT BUTTON Parameters: CREATING A RESET BUTTON CREATING A DEFAULT BUTTON CREATING A HIDDEN FIELD Parameters: CREATING A CLICKABLE IMAGE BUTTON Parameters: CREATING A JAVASCRIPT ACTION BUTTON HTTP COOKIES 1. an expiration time, 2. a domain, 3. a path, 4. a "secure" flag, -name, -value, -path, -domain, -expires, -secure WORKING WITH FRAMES 1. Create a <Frameset> document, 2. Specify the destination for the document in the HTTP header, 3. Spec- ify the destination for the document in the <form> tag LIMITED SUPPORT FOR CASCADING STYLE SHEETS DEBUGGING DUMPING OUT ALL THE NAME/VALUE PAIRS FETCHING ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES Accept(), raw_cookie(), user_agent(), path_info(), path_translated(), remote_host(), script_name(), ref- erer(), auth_type (), server_name (), virtual_host (), server_port (), server_software (), remote_user (), user_name (), request_method(), content_type(), http(), https() USING NPH SCRIPTS In the use statement, By calling the nph() method:, By using -nph parameters Server Push multipart_init(), multipart_start(), multipart_end(), multipart_final() Avoiding Denial of Service Attacks $CGI::POST_MAX, $CGI::DISABLE_UPLOADS, 1. On a script-by-script basis, 2. Globally for all scripts COMPATIBILITY WITH CGI-LIB.PL AUTHOR INFORMATION CREDITS Matt Heffron (heffron@falstaff.css.beckman.com), James Taylor (james.taylor@srs.gov), Scott Anguish <san- guish@digifix.com>, Mike Jewell (mlj3u@virginia.edu), Timothy Shimmin (tes@kbs.citri.edu.au), Joergen Haegg (jh@axis.se), Laurent Delfosse (delfosse@delfosse.com), Richard Resnick (applepi1@aol.com), Craig Bishop (csb@barwonwater.vic.gov.au), Tony Curtis (tc@vcpc.univie.ac.at), Tim Bunce (Tim.Bunce@ig.co.uk), Tom Christiansen (tchrist@convex.com), Andreas Koenig (k@franz.ww.TU-Berlin.DE), Tim MacKenzie (Tim.MacKenzie@fulcrum.com.au), Kevin B. Hendricks (kbhend@dogwood.tyler.wm.edu), Stephen Dahmen (joy- fire@inxpress.net), Ed Jordan (ed@fidalgo.net), David Alan Pisoni (david@cnation.com), Doug MacEachern (dougm@opengroup.org), Robin Houston (robin@oneworld.org), ...and many many more.. A COMPLETE EXAMPLE OF A SIMPLE FORM-BASED SCRIPT BUGS SEE ALSO CGI::Apache - Backward compatibility module for CGI.pm SYNOPSIS ABSTRACT DESCRIPTION AUTHOR INFORMATION BUGS SEE ALSO CGI::Carp, CGI::Carp - CGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or other) error log SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION REDIRECTING ERROR MESSAGES MAKING PERL ERRORS APPEAR IN THE BROWSER WINDOW Changing the default message MAKING WARNINGS APPEAR AS HTML COMMENTS CHANGE LOG AUTHORS SEE ALSO CGI::Cookie - Interface to Netscape Cookies SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION USING CGI::Cookie 1. expiration date, 2. domain, 3. path, 4. secure flag Creating New Cookies Sending the Cookie to the Browser Recovering Previous Cookies Manipulating Cookies name(), value(), domain(), path(), expires() AUTHOR INFORMATION BUGS SEE ALSO CGI::Fast - CGI Interface for Fast CGI SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OTHER PIECES OF THE PUZZLE WRITING FASTCGI PERL SCRIPTS INSTALLING FASTCGI SCRIPTS USING FASTCGI SCRIPTS AS CGI SCRIPTS EXTERNAL FASTCGI SERVER INVOCATION FCGI_SOCKET_PATH, FCGI_LISTEN_QUEUE CAVEATS AUTHOR INFORMATION BUGS SEE ALSO CGI::Pretty - module to produce nicely formatted HTML code SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Tags that won't be formatted Customizing the Indenting BUGS AUTHOR SEE ALSO CGI::Push - Simple Interface to Server Push SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION USING CGI::Push -next_page, -last_page, -type, -delay, -cookie, -target, -expires, -nph Heterogeneous Pages Changing the Page Delay on the Fly INSTALLING CGI::Push SCRIPTS AUTHOR INFORMATION BUGS SEE ALSO CGI::Switch - Backward compatibility module for defunct CGI::Switch SYNOPSIS ABSTRACT DESCRIPTION AUTHOR INFORMATION BUGS SEE ALSO CGI::Util - Internal utilities used by CGI module SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHOR INFORMATION SEE ALSO CPAN - query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sites SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Interactive Mode Searching for authors, bundles, distribution files and modules, make, test, install, clean modules or distributions, get, readme, look module or distribution, ls author, Signals CPAN::Shell autobundle recompile The four "CPAN::*" Classes: Author, Bundle, Module, Distribution Programmer's interface expand($type,@things), expandany(@things), Programming Examples Methods in the other Classes CPAN::Author::as_glimpse(), CPAN::Author::as_string(), CPAN::Author::email(), CPAN::Author::full- name(), CPAN::Author::name(), CPAN::Bundle::as_glimpse(), CPAN::Bundle::as_string(), CPAN::Bun- dle::clean(), CPAN::Bundle::contains(), CPAN::Bundle::force($method,@args), CPAN::Bundle::get(), CPAN::Bundle::inst_file(), CPAN::Bundle::inst_version(), CPAN::Bundle::uptodate(), CPAN::Bun- dle::install(), CPAN::Bundle::make(), CPAN::Bundle::readme(), CPAN::Bundle::test(), CPAN::Distribu- tion::as_glimpse(), CPAN::Distribution::as_string(), CPAN::Distribution::clean(), CPAN::Distribu- tion::containsmods(), CPAN::Distribution::cvs_import(), CPAN::Distribution::dir(), CPAN::Distribu- tion::force($method,@args), CPAN::Distribution::get(), CPAN::Distribution::install(), CPAN::Distribu- tion::isa_perl(), CPAN::Distribution::look(), CPAN::Distribution::make(), CPAN::Distribution::pre- req_pm(), CPAN::Distribution::readme(), CPAN::Distribution::test(), CPAN::Distribution::uptodate(), CPAN::Index::force_reload(), CPAN::Index::reload(), CPAN::InfoObj::dump(), CPAN::Module::as_glimpse(), CPAN::Module::as_string(), CPAN::Module::clean(), CPAN::Module::cpan_file(), CPAN::Module::cpan_ver- sion(), CPAN::Module::cvs_import(), CPAN::Module::description(), CPAN::Module::force($method,@args), CPAN::Module::get(), CPAN::Module::inst_file(), CPAN::Module::inst_version(), CPAN::Module::install(), CPAN::Module::look(), CPAN::Module::make(), CPAN::Module::manpage_headline(), CPAN::Module::readme(), CPAN::Module::test(), CPAN::Module::uptodate(), CPAN::Module::userid() Cache Manager Bundles Prerequisites Finding packages and VERSION Debugging Floppy, Zip, Offline Mode CONFIGURATION "o conf <scalar option>", "o conf <scalar option> <value>", "o conf <list option>", "o conf <list option> [shift|pop]", "o conf <list option> [unshift|push|splice] <list>" Note on urllist parameter's format urllist parameter has CD-ROM support SECURITY EXPORT POPULATE AN INSTALLATION WITH LOTS OF MODULES WORKING WITH CPAN.pm BEHIND FIREWALLS Three basic types of firewalls http firewall, ftp firewall, One way visibility, SOCKS, IP Masquerade Configuring lynx or ncftp for going through a firewall FAQ 1), 2), 3), 4), 5), 6), 7), 8), 9), 10) BUGS AUTHOR TRANSLATIONS SEE ALSO CPAN::FirstTime - Utility for CPAN::Config file Initialization SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CPANox, CPAN::Nox - Wrapper around CPAN.pm without using any XS module SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO Carp, carp - warn of errors (from perspective of caller) SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Forcing a Stack Trace BUGS Carp::Heavy, Carp heavy machinery - no user serviceable parts inside Class::ISA -- report the search path for a class's ISA tree SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONS the function Class::ISA::super_path($CLASS), the function Class::ISA::self_and_super_path($CLASS), the function Class::ISA::self_and_super_versions($CLASS) CAUTIONARY NOTES COPYRIGHT AUTHOR Class::Struct - declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION The "struct()" function Class Creation at Compile Time Element Types and Accessor Methods Scalar ('$' or '*$'), Array ('@' or '*@'), Hash ('%' or '*%'), Class ('Class_Name' or '*Class_Name') Initializing with "new" EXAMPLES Example 1, Example 2, Example 3 Author and Modification History Config - access Perl configuration information SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION myconfig(), config_sh(), config_vars(@names) EXAMPLE WARNING GLOSSARY _ "_a", "_exe", "_o" a "afs", "afsroot", "alignbytes", "ansi2knr", "aphostname", "api_revision", "api_subversion", "api_ver- sion", "api_versionstring", "ar", "archlib", "archlibexp", "archname64", "archname", "archobjs", "asc- time_r_proto", "awk" b "baserev", "bash", "bin", "binexp", "bison", "byacc", "byteorder" c "c", "castflags", "cat", "cc", "cccdlflags", "ccdlflags", "ccflags", "ccflags_uselargefiles", "ccname", "ccsymbols", "ccversion", "cf_by", "cf_email", "cf_time", "charsize", "chgrp", "chmod", "chown", "clocktype", "comm", "compress", "contains", "cp", "cpio", "cpp", "cpp_stuff", "cppccsym- bols", "cppflags", "cpplast", "cppminus", "cpprun", "cppstdin", "cppsymbols", "crypt_r_proto", "cryptlib", "csh", "ctermid_r_proto", "ctime_r_proto" d "d__fwalk", "d_access", "d_accessx", "d_alarm", "d_archlib", "d_asctime_r", "d_atolf", "d_atoll", "d_attribut", "d_bcmp", "d_bcopy", "d_bsd", "d_bsdgetpgrp", "d_bsdsetpgrp", "d_bzero", "d_casti32", "d_castneg", "d_charvspr", "d_chown", "d_chroot", "d_chsize", "d_class", "d_closedir", "d_cmsghdr_s", "d_const", "d_crypt", "d_crypt_r", "d_csh", "d_ctermid_r", "d_ctime_r", "d_cuserid", "d_dbl_dig", "d_dbminitproto", "d_difftime", "d_dirfd", "d_dirnamlen", "d_dlerror", "d_dlopen", "d_dlsymun", "d_dosuid", "d_drand48_r", "d_drand48proto", "d_dup2", "d_eaccess", "d_endgrent", "d_endgrent_r", "d_endhent", "d_endhostent_r", "d_endnent", "d_endnetent_r", "d_endpent", "d_endprotoent_r", "d_endp- went", "d_endpwent_r", "d_endsent", "d_endservent_r", "d_eofnblk", "d_eunice", "d_fchdir", "d_fchmod", "d_fchown", "d_fcntl", "d_fcntl_can_lock", "d_fd_macros", "d_fd_set", "d_fds_bits", "d_fgetpos", "d_finite", "d_finitel", "d_flexfnam", "d_flock", "d_flockproto", "d_fork", "d_fp_class", "d_fpath- conf", "d_fpclass", "d_fpclassify", "d_fpclassl", "d_fpos64_t", "d_frexpl", "d_fs_data_s", "d_fseeko", "d_fsetpos", "d_fstatfs", "d_fstatvfs", "d_fsync", "d_ftello", "d_ftime", "d_Gconvert", "d_getcwd", "d_getespwnam", "d_getfsstat", "d_getgrent", "d_getgrent_r", "d_getgrgid_r", "d_getgrnam_r", "d_get- grps", "d_gethbyaddr", "d_gethbyname", "d_gethent", "d_gethname", "d_gethostbyaddr_r", "d_gethostby- name_r", "d_gethostent_r", "d_gethostprotos", "d_getitimer", "d_getlogin", "d_getlogin_r", "d_getmnt", "d_getmntent", "d_getnbyaddr", "d_getnbyname", "d_getnent", "d_getnetbyaddr_r", "d_getnetbyname_r", "d_getnetent_r", "d_getnetprotos", "d_getpagsz", "d_getpbyname", "d_getpbynumber", "d_getpent", "d_getpgid", "d_getpgrp2", "d_getpgrp", "d_getppid", "d_getprior", "d_getprotobyname_r", "d_getproto- bynumber_r", "d_getprotoent_r", "d_getprotoprotos", "d_getprpwnam", "d_getpwent", "d_getpwent_r", "d_getpwnam_r", "d_getpwuid_r", "d_getsbyname", "d_getsbyport", "d_getsent", "d_getservbyname_r", "d_getservbyport_r", "d_getservent_r", "d_getservprotos", "d_getspnam", "d_getspnam_r", "d_gettimeod", "d_gmtime_r", "d_gnulibc", "d_grpasswd", "d_hasmntopt", "d_htonl", "d_index", "d_inetaton", "d_int64_t", "d_isascii", "d_isfinite", "d_isinf", "d_isnan", "d_isnanl", "d_killpg", "d_lchown", "d_ldbl_dig", "d_link", "d_localtime_r", "d_locconv", "d_lockf", "d_longdbl", "d_longlong", "d_lseekproto", "d_lstat", "d_madvise", "d_mblen", "d_mbstowcs", "d_mbtowc", "d_memchr", "d_memcmp", "d_memcpy", "d_memmove", "d_memset", "d_mkdir", "d_mkdtemp", "d_mkfifo", "d_mkstemp", "d_mkstemps", "d_mktime", "d_mmap", "d_modfl", "d_modfl_pow32_bug", "d_mprotect", "d_msg", "d_msg_ctrunc", "d_msg_dontroute", "d_msg_oob", "d_msg_peek", "d_msg_proxy", "d_msgctl", "d_msgget", "d_msghdr_s", "d_msgrcv", "d_msgsnd", "d_msync", "d_munmap", "d_mymalloc", "d_nice", "d_nl_langinfo", "d_nv_pre- serves_uv", "d_off64_t", "d_old_pthread_create_joinable", "d_oldpthreads", "d_oldsock", "d_open3", "d_pathconf", "d_pause", "d_perl_otherlibdirs", "d_phostname", "d_pipe", "d_poll", "d_portable", "d_PRId64", "d_PRIeldbl", "d_PRIEUldbl", "d_PRIfldbl", "d_PRIFUldbl", "d_PRIgldbl", "d_PRIGUldbl", "d_PRIi64", "d_PRIo64", "d_PRIu64", "d_PRIx64", "d_PRIXU64", "d_procselfexe", "d_pthread_atfork", "d_pthread_yield", "d_pwage", "d_pwchange", "d_pwclass", "d_pwcomment", "d_pwexpire", "d_pwgecos", "d_pwpasswd", "d_pwquota", "d_qgcvt", "d_quad", "d_random_r", "d_readdir64_r", "d_readdir", "d_read- dir_r", "d_readlink", "d_readv", "d_recvmsg", "d_rename", "d_rewinddir", "d_rmdir", "d_safebcpy", "d_safemcpy", "d_sanemcmp", "d_sbrkproto", "d_sched_yield", "d_scm_rights", "d_SCNfldbl", "d_seekdir", "d_select", "d_sem", "d_semctl", "d_semctl_semid_ds", "d_semctl_semun", "d_semget", "d_semop", "d_sendmsg", "d_setegid", "d_seteuid", "d_setgrent", "d_setgrent_r", "d_setgrps", "d_sethent", "d_sethostent_r", "d_setitimer", "d_setlinebuf", "d_setlocale", "d_setlocale_r", "d_setnent", "d_set- netent_r", "d_setpent", "d_setpgid", "d_setpgrp2", "d_setpgrp", "d_setprior", "d_setproctitle", "d_setprotoent_r", "d_setpwent", "d_setpwent_r", "d_setregid", "d_setresgid", "d_setresuid", "d_setreuid", "d_setrgid", "d_setruid", "d_setsent", "d_setservent_r", "d_setsid", "d_setvbuf", "d_sfio", "d_shm", "d_shmat", "d_shmatprototype", "d_shmctl", "d_shmdt", "d_shmget", "d_sigaction", "d_sigprocmask", "d_sigsetjmp", "d_sockatmark", "d_sockatmarkproto", "d_socket", "d_socklen_t", "d_sockpair", "d_socks5_init", "d_sqrtl", "d_srand48_r", "d_srandom_r", "d_sresgproto", "d_sre- suproto", "d_statblks", "d_statfs_f_flags", "d_statfs_s", "d_statvfs", "d_stdio_cnt_lval", "d_stdio_ptr_lval", "d_stdio_ptr_lval_nochange_cnt", "d_stdio_ptr_lval_sets_cnt", "d_stdio_stream_array", "d_stdiobase", "d_stdstdio", "d_strchr", "d_strcoll", "d_strctcpy", "d_str- errm", "d_strerror", "d_strerror_r", "d_strftime", "d_strtod", "d_strtol", "d_strtold", "d_strtoll", "d_strtoq", "d_strtoul", "d_strtoull", "d_strtouq", "d_strxfrm", "d_suidsafe", "d_symlink", "d_syscall", "d_syscallproto", "d_sysconf", "d_sysernlst", "d_syserrlst", "d_system", "d_tcgetpgrp", "d_tcsetpgrp", "d_telldir", "d_telldirproto", "d_time", "d_times", "d_tm_tm_gmtoff", "d_tm_tm_zone", "d_tmpnam_r", "d_truncate", "d_ttyname_r", "d_tzname", "d_u32align", "d_ualarm", "d_umask", "d_uname", "d_union_semun", "d_unordered", "d_usleep", "d_usleepproto", "d_ustat", "d_vendorarch", "d_vendorbin", "d_vendorlib", "d_vfork", "d_void_closedir", "d_voidsig", "d_voidtty", "d_volatile", "d_vprintf", "d_wait4", "d_waitpid", "d_wcstombs", "d_wctomb", "d_writev", "d_xenix", "date", "db_hashtype", "db_prefixtype", "db_version_major", "db_version_minor", "db_version_patch", "defvoidused", "direntry- type", "dlext", "dlsrc", "doublesize", "drand01", "drand48_r_proto", "dynamic_ext" e "eagain", "ebcdic", "echo", "egrep", "emacs", "endgrent_r_proto", "endhostent_r_proto", "endne- tent_r_proto", "endprotoent_r_proto", "endpwent_r_proto", "endservent_r_proto", "eunicefix", "exe_ext", "expr", "extensions", "extras" f "fflushall", "fflushNULL", "find", "firstmakefile", "flex", "fpossize", "fpostype", "freetype", "from", "full_ar", "full_csh", "full_sed" g "gccosandvers", "gccversion", "getgrent_r_proto", "getgrgid_r_proto", "getgrnam_r_proto", "gethost- byaddr_r_proto", "gethostbyname_r_proto", "gethostent_r_proto", "getlogin_r_proto", "getnet- byaddr_r_proto", "getnetbyname_r_proto", "getnetent_r_proto", "getprotobyname_r_proto", "getproto- bynumber_r_proto", "getprotoent_r_proto", "getpwent_r_proto", "getpwnam_r_proto", "getpwuid_r_proto", "getservbyname_r_proto", "getservbyport_r_proto", "getservent_r_proto", "getspnam_r_proto", "gidfor- mat", "gidsign", "gidsize", "gidtype", "glibpth", "gmake", "gmtime_r_proto", "gnulibc_version", "grep", "groupcat", "groupstype", "gzip" h "h_fcntl", "h_sysfile", "hint", "hostcat" i "i16size", "i16type", "i32size", "i32type", "i64size", "i64type", "i8size", "i8type", "i_arpainet", "i_bsdioctl", "i_crypt", "i_db", "i_dbm", "i_dirent", "i_dld", "i_dlfcn", "i_fcntl", "i_float", "i_fp", "i_fp_class", "i_gdbm", "i_grp", "i_ieeefp", "i_inttypes", "i_langinfo", "i_libutil", "i_lim- its", "i_locale", "i_machcthr", "i_malloc", "i_math", "i_memory", "i_mntent", "i_ndbm", "i_netdb", "i_neterrno", "i_netinettcp", "i_niin", "i_poll", "i_prot", "i_pthread", "i_pwd", "i_rpcsvcdbm", "i_sfio", "i_sgtty", "i_shadow", "i_socks", "i_stdarg", "i_stddef", "i_stdlib", "i_string", "i_sun- math", "i_sysaccess", "i_sysdir", "i_sysfile", "i_sysfilio", "i_sysin", "i_sysioctl", "i_syslog", "i_sysmman", "i_sysmode", "i_sysmount", "i_sysndir", "i_sysparam", "i_sysresrc", "i_syssecrt", "i_sys- selct", "i_syssockio", "i_sysstat", "i_sysstatfs", "i_sysstatvfs", "i_systime", "i_systimek", "i_sys- times", "i_systypes", "i_sysuio", "i_sysun", "i_sysutsname", "i_sysvfs", "i_syswait", "i_termio", "i_termios", "i_time", "i_unistd", "i_ustat", "i_utime", "i_values", "i_varargs", "i_varhdr", "i_vfork", "ignore_versioned_solibs", "inc_version_list", "inc_version_list_init", "incpath", "inews", "installarchlib", "installbin", "installman1dir", "installman3dir", "installprefix", "installprefix- exp", "installprivlib", "installscript", "installsitearch", "installsitebin", "installsitelib", "installstyle", "installusrbinperl", "installvendorarch", "installvendorbin", "installvendorlib", "intsize", "issymlink", "ivdformat", "ivsize", "ivtype" k "known_extensions", "ksh" l "ld", "lddlflags", "ldflags", "ldflags_uselargefiles", "ldlibpthname", "less", "lib_ext", "libc", "libperl", "libpth", "libs", "libsdirs", "libsfiles", "libsfound", "libspath", "libswanted", "lib- swanted_uselargefiles", "line", "lint", "lkflags", "ln", "lns", "localtime_r_proto", "locincpth", "loclibpth", "longdblsize", "longlongsize", "longsize", "lp", "lpr", "ls", "lseeksize", "lseektype" m "mail", "mailx", "make", "make_set_make", "mallocobj", "mallocsrc", "malloctype", "man1dir", "man1direxp", "man1ext", "man3dir", "man3direxp", "man3ext" M "Mcc", "mips_type", "mkdir", "mmaptype", "modetype", "more", "multiarch", "mv", "myarchname", "mydo- main", "myhostname", "myuname" n "n", "need_va_copy", "netdb_hlen_type", "netdb_host_type", "netdb_name_type", "netdb_net_type", "nm", "nm_opt", "nm_so_opt", "nonxs_ext", "nroff", "nv_preserves_uv_bits", "nveformat", "nvEUformat", "nvf- format", "nvFUformat", "nvgformat", "nvGUformat", "nvsize", "nvtype" o "o_nonblock", "obj_ext", "old_pthread_create_joinable", "optimize", "orderlib", "osname", "osvers", "otherlibdirs" p "package", "pager", "passcat", "patchlevel", "path_sep", "perl5", "perl", "perl_patchlevel" P "PERL_REVISION", "PERL_SUBVERSION", "PERL_VERSION", "perladmin", "perllibs", "perlpath", "pg", "phost- name", "pidtype", "plibpth", "pm_apiversion", "pmake", "pr", "prefix", "prefixexp", "privlib", "privlibexp", "procselfexe", "prototype", "ptrsize" q "quadkind", "quadtype" r "randbits", "randfunc", "random_r_proto", "randseedtype", "ranlib", "rd_nodata", "readdir64_r_proto", "readdir_r_proto", "revision", "rm", "rmail", "run", "runnm" s "sched_yield", "scriptdir", "scriptdirexp", "sed", "seedfunc", "selectminbits", "selecttype", "send- mail", "setgrent_r_proto", "sethostent_r_proto", "setlocale_r_proto", "setnetent_r_proto", "setpro- toent_r_proto", "setpwent_r_proto", "setservent_r_proto", "sh", "shar", "sharpbang", "shmattype", "shortsize", "shrpenv", "shsharp", "sig_count", "sig_name", "sig_name_init", "sig_num", "sig_num_init", "sig_size", "signal_t", "sitearch", "sitearchexp", "sitebin", "sitebinexp", "sitelib", "sitelib_stem", "sitelibexp", "siteprefix", "siteprefixexp", "sizesize", "sizetype", "sleep", "smail", "so", "sockethdr", "socketlib", "socksizetype", "sort", "spackage", "spitshell", "sPRId64", "sPRIeldbl", "sPRIEUldbl", "sPRIfldbl", "sPRIFUldbl", "sPRIgldbl", "sPRIGUldbl", "sPRIi64", "sPRIo64", "sPRIu64", "sPRIx64", "sPRIXU64", "srand48_r_proto", "srandom_r_proto", "src", "sSCNfldbl", "ssize- type", "startperl", "startsh", "static_ext", "stdchar", "stdio_base", "stdio_bufsiz", "stdio_cnt", "stdio_filbuf", "stdio_ptr", "stdio_stream_array", "strerror_r_proto", "strings", "submit", "subver- sion", "sysman" t "tail", "tar", "targetarch", "tbl", "tee", "test", "timeincl", "timetype", "tmpnam_r_proto", "to", "touch", "tr", "trnl", "troff", "ttyname_r_proto" u "u16size", "u16type", "u32size", "u32type", "u64size", "u64type", "u8size", "u8type", "uidformat", "uidsign", "uidsize", "uidtype", "uname", "uniq", "uquadtype", "use5005threads", "use64bitall", "use64bitint", "usecrosscompile", "usedl", "useithreads", "uselargefiles", "uselongdouble", "use- morebits", "usemultiplicity", "usemymalloc", "usenm", "useopcode", "useperlio", "useposix", "usereen- trant", "usesfio", "useshrplib", "usesocks", "usethreads", "usevendorprefix", "usevfork", "usrinc", "uuname", "uvoformat", "uvsize", "uvtype", "uvuformat", "uvxformat", "uvXUformat" v "vendorarch", "vendorarchexp", "vendorbin", "vendorbinexp", "vendorlib", "vendorlib_stem", "vendorlib- exp", "vendorprefix", "vendorprefixexp", "version", "version_patchlevel_string", "versiononly", "vi", "voidflags" x "xlibpth", "xs_apiversion" y "yacc", "yaccflags" z "zcat", "zip" NOTE Cwd - get pathname of current working directory SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION getcwd and friends getcwd, cwd, fastcwd, fastgetcwd abs_path and friends abs_path, realpath, fast_abs_path $ENV{PWD} NOTES SEE ALSO DB - programmatic interface to the Perl debugging API (draft, subject to change) SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Global Variables $DB::sub, %DB::sub, $DB::single, $DB::signal, $DB::trace, @DB::args, @DB::dbline, %DB::dbline, $DB::package, $DB::filename, $DB::subname, $DB::lineno API Methods CLIENT->register(), CLIENT->evalcode(STRING), CLIENT->skippkg('D::hide'), CLIENT->run(), CLIENT->step(), CLIENT->next(), CLIENT->done() Client Callback Methods CLIENT->init(), CLIENT->prestop([STRING]), CLIENT->stop(), CLIENT->idle(), CLIENT->poststop([STRING]), CLIENT->evalcode(STRING), CLIENT->cleanup(), CLIENT->output(LIST) BUGS AUTHOR DB_File - Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION DB_HASH, DB_BTREE, DB_RECNO Using DB_File with Berkeley DB version 2 or greater Interface to Berkeley DB Opening a Berkeley DB Database File Default Parameters In Memory Databases DB_HASH A Simple Example DB_BTREE Changing the BTREE sort order Handling Duplicate Keys The get_dup() Method The find_dup() Method The del_dup() Method Matching Partial Keys DB_RECNO The 'bval' Option A Simple Example Extra RECNO Methods $X->push(list) ;, $value = $X->pop ;, $X->shift, $X->unshift(list) ;, $X->length, $X->splice(offset, length, elements); Another Example THE API INTERFACE $status = $X->get($key, $value [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X->put($key, $value [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X->del($key [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X->fd ;, $status = $X->seq($key, $value, $flags) ;, $status = $X->sync([$flags]) ; DBM FILTERS filter_store_key, filter_store_value, filter_fetch_key, filter_fetch_value The Filter An Example -- the NULL termination problem. Another Example -- Key is a C int. HINTS AND TIPS Locking: The Trouble with fd Safe ways to lock a database Tie::DB_Lock, Tie::DB_LockFile, DB_File::Lock Sharing Databases With C Applications The untie() Gotcha COMMON QUESTIONS Why is there Perl source in my database? How do I store complex data structures with DB_File? What does "Invalid Argument" mean? What does "Bareword 'DB_File' not allowed" mean? REFERENCES HISTORY BUGS AVAILABILITY COPYRIGHT SEE ALSO AUTHOR Data::Dumper - stringified perl data structures, suitable for both printing and "eval" SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Methods PACKAGE->new(ARRAYREF [, ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Dump or PACKAGE->Dump(ARRAYREF [, ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Seen([HASHREF]), $OBJ->Values([ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Names([ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Reset Functions Dumper(LIST) Configuration Variables or Methods $Data::Dumper::Indent or $OBJ->Indent([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Purity or $OBJ->Purity([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Pad or $OBJ->Pad([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Varname or $OBJ->Varname([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Useqq or $OBJ->Useqq([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Terse or $OBJ->Terse([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Freezer or $OBJ->Freezer([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Toaster or $OBJ->Toaster([NEW- VAL]), $Data::Dumper::Deepcopy or $OBJ->Deepcopy([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Quotekeys or $OBJ->Quotekeys([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Bless or $OBJ->Bless([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Maxdepth or $OBJ->Maxdepth([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Useperl or $OBJ->Useperl([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Sortkeys or $OBJ->Sortkeys([NEWVAL]), $Data::Dumper::Deparse or $OBJ->Deparse([NEWVAL]) Exports Dumper EXAMPLES BUGS AUTHOR VERSION SEE ALSO Devel::DProf - a Perl code profiler SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION PROFILE FORMAT AUTOLOAD ENVIRONMENT BUGS SEE ALSO Devel::PPPort, Perl/Pollution/Portability SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION WriteFile ppport.h AUTHOR SEE ALSO Devel::Peek - A data debugging tool for the XS programmer SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Runtime debugging Memory footprint debugging EXAMPLES A simple scalar string A simple scalar number A simple scalar with an extra reference A reference to a simple scalar A reference to an array A reference to a hash Dumping a large array or hash A reference to an SV which holds a C pointer A reference to a subroutine EXPORTS BUGS AUTHOR SEE ALSO Devel::SelfStubber - generate stubs for a SelfLoading module SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Digest:: - Modules that calculate message digests SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION binary, hex, base64 OO INTERFACE $ctx = Digest->XXX($arg,...), $ctx = Digest->new(XXX => $arg,...), $ctx = Digest::XXX->new($arg,...), $ctx->reset, $ctx->add($data,...), $ctx->addfile($io_handle), $ctx->digest, $ctx->hexdigest, $ctx->b64digest SEE ALSO AUTHOR Digest::MD5 - Perl interface to the MD5 Algorithm SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONS md5($data,...), md5_hex($data,...), md5_base64($data,...) METHODS $md5 = Digest::MD5->new, $md5->reset, $md5->add($data,...), $md5->addfile($io_handle), $md5->digest, $md5->hexdigest, $md5->b64digest EXAMPLES SEE ALSO COPYRIGHT AUTHORS DirHandle - supply object methods for directory handles SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION NOTES Dumpvalue - provides screen dump of Perl data. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Creation "arrayDepth", "hashDepth", "compactDump", "veryCompact", "globPrint", "dumpDBFiles", "dumpPackages", "dumpReused", "tick", "quoteHighBit", "printUndef", "usageOnly", unctrl, subdump, bareStringify, quoteHighBit, stopDbSignal Methods dumpValue, dumpValues, stringify, dumpvars, set_quote, set_unctrl, compactDump, veryCompact, set, get DynaLoader - Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION @dl_library_path, @dl_resolve_using, @dl_require_symbols, @dl_librefs, @dl_modules, dl_error(), $dl_debug, dl_findfile(), dl_expandspec(), dl_load_file(), dl_unload_file(), dl_loadflags(), dl_find_symbol(), dl_find_symbol_anywhere(), dl_undef_symbols(), dl_install_xsub(), bootstrap() AUTHOR DynaLoader::XSLoader, XSLoader - Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHOR Encode - character encodings SYNOPSIS Table of Contents DESCRIPTION TERMINOLOGY PERL ENCODING API $octets = encode(ENCODING, $string [, CHECK]), $string = decode(ENCODING, $octets [, CHECK]), [$length =] from_to($octets, FROM_ENC, TO_ENC [, CHECK]), $octets = encode_utf8($string);, $string = decode_utf8($octets [, CHECK]); Listing available encodings Defining Aliases Encoding via PerlIO Handling Malformed Data CHECK = Encode::FB_DEFAULT ( == 0), CHECK = Encode::FB_CROAK ( == 1), CHECK = Encode::FB_QUIET, CHECK = Encode::FB_WARN, perlqq mode (CHECK = Encode::FB_PERLQQ), HTML charref mode (CHECK = Encode::FB_HTMLCREF), XML charref mode (CHECK = Encode::FB_XMLCREF), The bitmask Unimplemented fallback schemes Defining Encodings The UTF-8 flag Goal #1:, Goal #2:, Goal #3:, Goal #4: Messing with Perl's Internals is_utf8(STRING [, CHECK]), _utf8_on(STRING), _utf8_off(STRING) SEE ALSO MAINTAINER Encode::Alias - alias definitions to encodings SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION As a simple string, As a qr// compiled regular expression, e.g.:, As a code reference, e.g.: Alias overloading SEE ALSO Encode::Byte - Single Byte Encodings SYNOPSIS ABSTRACT DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO Encode::CJKConstants -- Internally used by Encode::??::ISO_2022_* Encode::CN - China-based Chinese Encodings SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION NOTES BUGS SEE ALSO Encode::CN::HZ -- internally used by Encode::CN Encode::Config -- internally used by Encode Encode::EBCDIC - EBCDIC Encodings SYNOPSIS ABSTRACT DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO Encode::Encoding - Encode Implementation Base Class SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Methods you should implement ->encode($string [,$check]), ->decode($octets [,$check]) Other methods defined in Encode::Encodings ->name, ->new_sequence, ->perlio_ok(), ->needs_lines() Example: Encode::ROT13 Why the heck Encode API is different? Compiled Encodings SEE ALSO Scheme 1, Scheme 2, Other Schemes Encode::Guess -- Guesses encoding from data SYNOPSIS ABSTRACT DESCRIPTION Encode::Guess->set_suspects, Encode::Guess->add_suspects, Encode::decode("Guess" ...), Encode::Guess->guess($data), guess_encoding($data, [, list of suspects]) CAVEATS TO DO SEE ALSO Encode::JP - Japanese Encodings SYNOPSIS ABSTRACT DESCRIPTION Note on ISO-2022-JP(-1)? BUGS SEE ALSO Encode::JP::H2Z -- internally used by Encode::JP::2022_JP* Encode::JP::JIS7 -- internally used by Encode::JP Encode::KR - Korean Encodings SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION BUGS SEE ALSO Encode::KR::2022_KR -- internally used by Encode::KR Encode::MIME::Header -- MIME 'B' and 'Q' header encoding SYNOPSIS ABSTRACT DESCRIPTION BUGS SEE ALSO Encode::PerlIO -- a detailed document on Encode and PerlIO Overview How does it work? BUGS Workaround How can I tell whether my encoding fully supports PerlIO ? SEE ALSO Encode::Supported -- Encodings supported by Encode DESCRIPTION Encoding Names Supported Encodings Built-in Encodings Encode::Unicode -- other Unicode encodings Encode::Byte -- Extended ASCII ISO-8859 and corresponding vendor mappings, KOI8 - De Facto Standard for the Cyrillic world, gsm0338 - Hentai Latin 1 CJK: Chinese, Japanese, Korean (Multibyte) Encode::CN -- Continental China, Encode::JP -- Japan, Encode::KR -- Korea, Encode::TW -- Taiwan, Encode::HanExtra -- More Chinese via CPAN, Encode::JIS2K -- JIS X 0213 encodings via CPAN Miscellaneous encodings Encode::EBCDIC, Encode::Symbols, Encode::MIME::Header, Encode::Guess Unsupported encodings ISO-2022-JP-2 [RFC1554], ISO-2022-CN [RFC1922], Various HP-UX encodings, Cyrillic encoding ISO-IR-111, ISO-8859-8-1 [Hebrew], ISIRI 3342, Iran System, ISIRI 2900 [Farsi], Thai encoding TCVN, Vietnamese encodings VPS, Various Mac encodings, (Mac) Indic encodings Encoding vs. Charset -- terminology Encoding Classification (by Anton Tagunov and Dan Kogai) Microsoft-related naming mess KS_C_5601-1987, GB2312, Big5, Shift_JIS Glossary character repertoire, coded character set (CCS), character encoding scheme (CES), charset (in MIME con- text), EUC, ISO-2022, UCS, UCS-2, Unicode, UTF, UTF-16 See Also References ECMA, ECMA-035 (eq "ISO-2022"), IANA, Assigned Charset Names by IANA, ISO, RFC, UC, Unicode Glossary Other Notable Sites czyborra.com, CJK.inf, Jungshik Shin's Hangul FAQ, debian.org: "Introduction to i18n" Offline sources "CJKV Information Processing" by Ken Lunde Encode::Symbol - Symbol Encodings SYNOPSIS ABSTRACT DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO Encode::TW - Taiwan-based Chinese Encodings SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION NOTES BUGS SEE ALSO Encode::Unicode -- Various Unicode Transformation Formats SYNOPSIS ABSTRACT <http://www.unicode.org/glossary/> says:, Quick Reference Size, Endianness, and BOM by size by endianness BOM as integer when fetched in network byte order Surrogate Pairs SEE ALSO Encode::lib::Encode::Alias, Encode::Alias - alias definitions to encodings SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION As a simple string, As a qr// compiled regular expression, e.g.:, As a code reference, e.g.: Alias overloading SEE ALSO Encode::lib::Encode::CJKConstants, Encode::CJKConstants.pm -- Internally used by Encode::??::ISO_2022_* Encode::lib::Encode::CN::HZ, Encode::CN::HZ -- internally used by Encode::CN Encode::lib::Encode::Config, Encode::Config -- internally used by Encode Encode::lib::Encode::Encoding, Encode::Encoding - Encode Implementation Base Class SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Methods you should implement ->encode($string [,$check]), ->decode($octets [,$check]) Other methods defined in Encode::Encodings ->name, ->new_sequence, ->perlio_ok(), ->needs_lines() Example: Encode::ROT13 Why the heck Encode API is different? Compiled Encodings SEE ALSO Scheme 1, Scheme 2, Other Schemes Encode::lib::Encode::Guess, Encode::Guess -- Guesses encoding from data SYNOPSIS ABSTRACT DESCRIPTION Encode::Guess->set_suspects, Encode::Guess->add_suspects, Encode::decode("Guess" ...), Encode::Guess->guess($data), guess_encoding($data, [, list of suspects]) CAVEATS TO DO SEE ALSO Encode::lib::Encode::JP::H2Z, Encode::JP::H2Z -- internally used by Encode::JP::2022_JP* Encode::lib::Encode::JP::JIS7, Encode::JP::JIS7 -- internally used by Encode::JP Encode::lib::Encode::KR::2022_KR, Encode::KR::2022_KR -- internally used by Encode::KR Encode::lib::Encode::MIME::Header, Encode::MIME::Header -- MIME 'B' and 'Q' header encoding SYNOPSIS ABSTRACT DESCRIPTION BUGS SEE ALSO Encode::lib::Encode::PerlIO, Encode::PerlIO -- a detailed document on Encode and PerlIO Overview How does it work? BUGS Workaround How can I tell whether my encoding fully supports PerlIO ? SEE ALSO Encode::lib::Encode::Supported, Encode::Supported -- Encodings supported by Encode DESCRIPTION Encoding Names Supported Encodings Built-in Encodings Encode::Unicode -- other Unicode encodings Encode::Byte -- Extended ASCII ISO-8859 and corresponding vendor mappings, KOI8 - De Facto Standard for the Cyrillic world, gsm0338 - Hentai Latin 1 CJK: Chinese, Japanese, Korean (Multibyte) Encode::CN -- Continental China, Encode::JP -- Japan, Encode::KR -- Korea, Encode::TW -- Taiwan, Encode::HanExtra -- More Chinese via CPAN, Encode::JIS2K -- JIS X 0213 encodings via CPAN Miscellaneous encodings Encode::EBCDIC, Encode::Symbols, Encode::MIME::Header, Encode::Guess Unsupported encodings ISO-2022-JP-2 [RFC1554], ISO-2022-CN [RFC1922], Various HP-UX encodings, Cyrillic encoding ISO-IR-111, ISO-8859-8-1 [Hebrew], ISIRI 3342, Iran System, ISIRI 2900 [Farsi], Thai encoding TCVN, Vietnamese encodings VPS, Various Mac encodings, (Mac) Indic encodings Encoding vs. Charset -- terminology Encoding Classification (by Anton Tagunov and Dan Kogai) Microsoft-related naming mess KS_C_5601-1987, GB2312, Big5, Shift_JIS Glossary character repertoire, coded character set (CCS), character encoding scheme (CES), charset (in MIME con- text), EUC, ISO-2022, UCS, UCS-2, Unicode, UTF, UTF-16 See Also References ECMA, ECMA-035 (eq "ISO-2022"), IANA, Assigned Charset Names by IANA, ISO, RFC, UC, Unicode Glossary Other Notable Sites czyborra.com, CJK.inf, Jungshik Shin's Hangul FAQ, debian.org: "Introduction to i18n" Offline sources "CJKV Information Processing" by Ken Lunde Encode::lib::Encoder, Encode::Encoder -- Object Oriented Encoder SYNOPSIS use Encode::Encoder; # Encode::encode("ISO-8859-1", $data); Encode::Encoder->new($data)->iso_8859_1; # OOP way # shortcut use Encode::Encoder qw(encoder); encoder($data)->iso_8859_1; # you can stack them! encoder($data)->iso_8859_1->base64; # provided base64() is defined # you can use it as a decoder as well encoder($base64)->bytes('base64')->latin1; # stringified print encoder($data)->utf8->latin1; # prints the string in latin1 # numified encoder("\x{abcd}\x{ef}g")->utf8 == 6; # true. bytes::length($data) ABSTRACT Description Predefined Methods $e = Encode::Encoder->new([$data, $encoding]);, encoder(), $e->data([$data]), $e->encoding([$encod- ing]), $e->bytes([$encoding]) Example: base64 transcoder Operator Overloading SEE ALSO Encodencoding, encoding - allows you to write your script in non-ascii or non-utf8 SYNOPSIS ABSTRACT USAGE use encoding [ENCNAME] ;, use encoding ENCNAME [ STDIN => ENCNAME_IN ...] ;, no encoding; CAVEATS NOT SCOPED DO NOT MIX MULTIPLE ENCODINGS Non-ASCII Identifiers and Filter option use encoding ENCNAME Filter=>1; EXAMPLE - Greekperl KNOWN PROBLEMS SEE ALSO Encoder, Encode::Encoder -- Object Oriented Encoder SYNOPSIS use Encode::Encoder; # Encode::encode("ISO-8859-1", $data); Encode::Encoder->new($data)->iso_8859_1; # OOP way # shortcut use Encode::Encoder qw(encoder); encoder($data)->iso_8859_1; # you can stack them! encoder($data)->iso_8859_1->base64; # provided base64() is defined # you can use it as a decoder as well encoder($base64)->bytes('base64')->latin1; # stringified print encoder($data)->utf8->latin1; # prints the string in latin1 # numified encoder("\x{abcd}\x{ef}g")->utf8 == 6; # true. bytes::length($data) ABSTRACT Description Predefined Methods $e = Encode::Encoder->new([$data, $encoding]);, encoder(), $e->data([$data]), $e->encoding([$encod- ing]), $e->bytes([$encoding]) Example: base64 transcoder Operator Overloading SEE ALSO English - use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punctuation variables SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION PERFORMANCE Env - perl module that imports environment variables as scalars or arrays SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION LIMITATIONS AUTHOR Errno - System errno constants SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CAVEATS AUTHOR COPYRIGHT Exporter - Implements default import method for modules SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION How to Export Selecting What To Export How to Import "use ModuleName;", "use ModuleName ();", "use ModuleName qw(...);" Advanced features Specialised Import Lists Exporting without using Exporter's import method Module Version Checking Managing Unknown Symbols Tag Handling Utility Functions Generating combined tags "AUTOLOAD"ed Constants Exporter::Heavy - Exporter guts SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION ExtUtils::Command - utilities to replace common UNIX commands in Makefiles etc. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION cat eqtime src dst rm_rf files... rm_f files... touch files .. mv source... destination cp source... destination chmod mode files.. mkpath directory.. test_f file BUGS SEE ALSO AUTHOR ExtUtils::Command::MM - Commands for the MM's to use in Makefiles SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION test_harness ExtUtils::Constant - generate XS code to import C header constants SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION USAGE IV, UV, NV, PV, PVN, SV, YES, NO, UNDEF FUNCTIONS C_stringify NAME perl_stringify NAME constant_types memEQ_clause NAME, CHECKED_AT, INDENT assign INDENT, TYPE, PRE, POST, VALUE.. return_clause switch_clause INDENT, NAMELEN, ITEMHASH, ITEM.. params WHAT dump_names dogfood C_constant, name, type, value, macro, default, pre, post, def_pre =item def_post, utf8 XS_constant PACKAGE, TYPES, SUBNAME, C_SUBNAME autoload PACKAGE, VERSION, AUTOLOADER WriteMakefileSnippet WriteConstants ATTRIBUTE => VALUE [, ...], NAME, DEFAULT_TYPE, BREAKOUT_AT, NAMES, C_FILE, XS_FILE, SUBNAME, C_SUBNAME AUTHOR ExtUtils::Embed - Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C++ applications SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION @EXPORT FUNCTIONS xsinit(), Examples, ldopts(), Examples, perl_inc(), ccflags(), ccdlflags(), ccopts(), xsi_header(), xsi_protos(@modules), xsi_body(@modules) EXAMPLES SEE ALSO AUTHOR ExtUtils::Install - install files from here to there SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION ExtUtils::Installed - Inventory management of installed modules SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION USAGE FUNCTIONS new(), modules(), files(), directories(), directory_tree(), validate(), packlist(), version() EXAMPLE AUTHOR ExtUtils::Liblist - determine libraries to use and how to use them SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION For static extensions, For dynamic extensions at build/link time, For dynamic extensions at load time EXTRALIBS LDLOADLIBS and LD_RUN_PATH BSLOADLIBS PORTABILITY VMS implementation Win32 implementation SEE ALSO ExtUtils::MM - OS adjusted ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION ExtUtils::MM_Any - Platform agnostic MM methods SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Inherently Cross-Platform Methods File::Spec wrappers DEPRECATED canonpath catdir catfile curdir file_name_is_absolute path rootdir updir Thought To Be Cross-Platform Methods test_via_harness test_via_script AUTHOR ExtUtils::MM_BeOS - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION perl_archive ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive ExtUtils::MM_DOS - DOS specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Overridden methods replace_manpage_separator AUTHOR SEE ALSO ExtUtils::MM_MacOS - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION maybe_command guess_name macify patternify init_main init_others init_dirscan libscan (o) constants (o) static (o) dlsyms (o) dynamic (o) clean (o) realclean (o) rulez (o) processPL (o) ExtUtils::MM_NW5 - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION constants (o) static_lib (o) dynamic_lib (o) ExtUtils::MM_OS2 - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION METHODS perl_archive_after ExtUtils::MM_UWIN - U/WIN specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Overridden methods replace_manpage_separator AUTHOR SEE ALSO ExtUtils::MM_Unix - methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION METHODS SelfLoaded methods c_o (o) cflags (o) clean (o) const_cccmd (o) const_config (o) const_loadlibs (o) constants (o) depend (o) dir_target (o) dist (o) dist_basics (o) dist_ci (o) dist_core (o) dist_dir dist_test dlsyms (o) dynamic (o) dynamic_bs (o) dynamic_lib (o) exescan extliblist find_perl find_tests Methods to actually produce chunks of text for the Makefile fixin force (o) guess_name has_link_code init_dirscan init_main init_others init_INST init_INSTALL init_lib2arch init_PERL init_PERM install (o) installbin (o) libscan (o) linkext (o) lsdir macro (o) makeaperl (o) makefile (o) manifypods (o) maybe_command maybe_command_in_dirs needs_linking (o) nicetext parse_abstract parse_version pasthru (o) perl_script perldepend (o) perm_rw (o) perm_rwx (o) pm_to_blib post_constants (o) post_initialize (o) postamble (o) ppd prefixify processPL (o) quote_paren realclean (o) replace_manpage_separator static (o) static_lib (o) staticmake (o) subdir_x (o) subdirs (o) test (o) test_via_harness (override) test_via_script (override) tool_autosplit (o) tools_other (o) tool_xsubpp (o) top_targets (o) writedoc xs_c (o) xs_cpp (o) xs_o (o) perl_archive perl_archive_after export_list SEE ALSO ExtUtils::MM_VMS - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Methods always loaded wraplist Methods guess_name (override) find_perl (override) maybe_command (override) maybe_command_in_dirs (override) perl_script (override) replace_manpage_separator init_main (override) init_others (override) constants (override) cflags (override) const_cccmd (override) pm_to_blib (override) tool_autosplit (override) tool_sxubpp (override) xsubpp_version (override) tools_other (override) dist (override) c_o (override) xs_c (override) xs_o (override) top_targets (override) dlsyms (override) dynamic_lib (override) dynamic_bs (override) static_lib (override) manifypods (override) processPL (override) installbin (override) subdir_x (override) clean (override) realclean (override) dist_core (override) dist_test (override) install (override) perldepend (override) makefile (override) find_tests (override) test (override) makeaperl (override) nicetext (override) prefixify (override) ExtUtils::MM_Win32 - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION constants (o) static_lib (o) dynamic_bs (o) dynamic_lib (o) perl_script pm_to_blib tool_autosplit (override) tools_other (o) xs_o (o) top_targets (o) manifypods (o) dist_ci (o) dist_core (o) pasthru (o) ExtUtils::MM_Win95 - method to customize MakeMaker for Win9X SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION ExtUtils::MY - ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass for customization SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION ExtUtils::MakeMaker - create an extension Makefile SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION How To Write A Makefile.PL Default Makefile Behaviour make test make testdb make install PREFIX and LIB attribute AFS users Static Linking of a new Perl Binary Determination of Perl Library and Installation Locations Which architecture dependent directory? Using Attributes and Parameters ABSTRACT, ABSTRACT_FROM, AUTHOR, BINARY_LOCATION, C, CCFLAGS, CONFIG, CONFIGURE, DEFINE, DIR, DIST- NAME, DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS, EXCLUDE_EXT, EXE_FILES, FIRST_MAKEFILE, FULLPERL, FULLPERLRUN, FULLPERL- RUNINST, FUNCLIST, H, IMPORTS, INC, INCLUDE_EXT, INSTALLARCHLIB, INSTALLBIN, INSTALLDIRS, INSTALL- MAN1DIR, INSTALLMAN3DIR, INSTALLPRIVLIB, INSTALLSCRIPT, INSTALLSITEARCH, INSTALLSITEBIN, INSTALL- SITELIB, INSTALLSITEMAN1DIR, INSTALLSITEMAN3DIR, INSTALLVENDORARCH, INSTALLVENDORBIN, INSTALLVENDOR- LIB, INSTALLVENDORMAN1DIR, INSTALLVENDORMAN3DIR, INST_ARCHLIB, INST_BIN, INST_LIB, INST_MAN1DIR, INST_MAN3DIR, INST_SCRIPT, LDDLFLAGS, LDFROM, LIB, LIBPERL_A, LIBS, LINKTYPE, MAKEAPERL, MAKEFILE, MAN1PODS, MAN3PODS, MAP_TARGET, MYEXTLIB, NAME, NEEDS_LINKING, NOECHO, NORECURS, NO_VC, OBJECT, OPTI- MIZE, PERL, PERL_CORE, PERLMAINCC, PERL_ARCHLIB, PERL_LIB, PERL_MALLOC_OK, PERLRUN, PERLRUNINST, PERL_SRC, PERM_RW, PERM_RWX, PL_FILES, PM, PMLIBDIRS, PM_FILTER, POLLUTE, PPM_INSTALL_EXEC, PPM_INSTALL_SCRIPT, PREFIX, PREREQ_FATAL, PREREQ_PM, PREREQ_PRINT, PRINT_PREREQ, SITEPREFIX, SKIP, TYPEMAPS, VENDORPREFIX, VERBINST, VERSION, VERSION_FROM, XS, XSOPT, XSPROTOARG, XS_VERSION Additional lowercase attributes clean, depend, dist, dynamic_lib, linkext, macro, realclean, test, tool_autosplit Overriding MakeMaker Methods The End Of Cargo Cult Programming "<MAN3PODS =" ' '>> Hintsfile support Distribution Support make distcheck, make skipcheck, make distclean, make manifest, make distdir, make disttest, make tardist, make dist, make uutardist, make shdist, make zipdist, make ci Disabling an extension ENVIRONMENT PERL_MM_OPT, PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT SEE ALSO AUTHORS ExtUtils::Manifest - utilities to write and check a MANIFEST file SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION MANIFEST.SKIP EXPORT_OK GLOBAL VARIABLES DIAGNOSTICS "Not in MANIFEST:" file, "Skipping" file, "No such file:" file, "MANIFEST:" $!, "Added to MANIFEST:" file ENVIRONMENT PERL_MM_MANIFEST_DEBUG SEE ALSO AUTHOR ExtUtils::Miniperl, writemain - write the C code for perlmain.c SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap - make a bootstrap file for use by DynaLoader SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION ExtUtils::Mksymlists - write linker options files for dynamic extension SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION DLBASE, DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS, FILE, FUNCLIST, IMPORTS, NAME AUTHOR REVISION ExtUtils::Packlist - manage .packlist files SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION USAGE FUNCTIONS new(), read(), write(), validate(), packlist_file() EXAMPLE AUTHOR ExtUtils::testlib - add blib/* directories to @INC SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Fatal - replace functions with equivalents which succeed or die SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHOR Fcntl - load the C Fcntl.h defines SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION NOTE EXPORTED SYMBOLS File::Basename, fileparse - split a pathname into pieces SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION fileparse_set_fstype, fileparse EXAMPLES "basename", "dirname" File::CheckTree, validate - run many filetest checks on a tree SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHOR HISTORY File::Compare - Compare files or filehandles SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION RETURN AUTHOR File::Copy - Copy files or filehandles SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Special behaviour if "syscopy" is defined (OS/2, VMS and Win32) rmscopy($from,$to[,$date_flag]) RETURN NOTES AUTHOR File::DosGlob - DOS like globbing and then some SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION NOTES EXPORTS (by request only) BUGS AUTHOR HISTORY SEE ALSO File::Find - Traverse a directory tree. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION find, finddepth %options "wanted", "bydepth", "preprocess", "postprocess", "follow", "follow_fast", "follow_skip", "dan- gling_symlinks", "no_chdir", "untaint", "untaint_pattern", "untaint_skip" The wanted function $File::Find::dir is the current directory name,, $_ is the current filename within that directory, $File::Find::name is the complete pathname to the file WARNINGS CAVEAT $dont_use_nlink, symlinks NOTES HISTORY File::Glob - Perl extension for BSD glob routine SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION "GLOB_ERR", "GLOB_LIMIT", "GLOB_MARK", "GLOB_NOCASE", "GLOB_NOCHECK", "GLOB_NOSORT", "GLOB_BRACE", "GLOB_NOMAGIC", "GLOB_QUOTE", "GLOB_TILDE", "GLOB_CSH", "GLOB_ALPHASORT" DIAGNOSTICS "GLOB_NOSPACE", "GLOB_ABEND" NOTES AUTHOR File::Path - create or remove directory trees SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHORS File::Spec - portably perform operations on file names SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION METHODS canonpath, catdir, catfile, curdir, devnull, rootdir, tmpdir, updir, no_upwards, case_tolerant, file_name_is_absolute, path, join, splitpath, splitdir, catpath(), abs2rel, rel2abs() SEE ALSO AUTHORS File::Spec::Cygwin - methods for Cygwin file specs SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION File::Spec::Epoc - methods for Epoc file specs SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION canonpath() SEE ALSO File::Spec::Functions - portably perform operations on file names SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Exports SEE ALSO File::Spec::Mac - File::Spec for Mac OS (Classic) SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION METHODS canonpath catdir() catfile curdir devnull rootdir tmpdir updir file_name_is_absolute path splitpath splitdir catpath abs2rel rel2abs AUTHORS SEE ALSO canonpath splitpath splitdir catpath File::Spec::OS2 - methods for OS/2 file specs SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION File::Spec::Unix - File::Spec for Unix, base for other File::Spec modules SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION METHODS canonpath() catdir() catfile curdir devnull rootdir tmpdir updir no_upwards case_tolerant file_name_is_absolute path join splitpath splitdir catpath() abs2rel rel2abs() SEE ALSO File::Spec::VMS - methods for VMS file specs SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION eliminate_macros fixpath Methods always loaded canonpath (override) catdir catfile curdir (override) devnull (override) rootdir (override) tmpdir (override) updir (override) case_tolerant (override) path (override) file_name_is_absolute (override) splitpath (override) splitdir (override) catpath (override) abs2rel (override) rel2abs (override) SEE ALSO File::Spec::Win32 - methods for Win32 file specs SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION devnull tmpdir catfile canonpath splitpath splitdir catpath Note For File::Spec::Win32 Maintainers SEE ALSO File::Temp - return name and handle of a temporary file safely PORTABILITY SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONS tempfile tempdir MKTEMP FUNCTIONS mkstemp mkstemps mkdtemp mktemp POSIX FUNCTIONS tmpnam tmpfile ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS tempnam UTILITY FUNCTIONS unlink0 PACKAGE VARIABLES safe_level, STANDARD, MEDIUM, HIGH TopSystemUID WARNING Temporary files and NFS HISTORY SEE ALSO AUTHOR File::stat - by-name interface to Perl's built-in stat() functions SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION BUGS NOTE AUTHOR FileCache - keep more files open than the system permits SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION cacheout EXPR, cacheout MODE, EXPR CAVEATS BUGS FileHandle - supply object methods for filehandles SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION $fh->print, $fh->printf, $fh->getline, $fh->getlines SEE ALSO Filter::Simple - Simplified source filtering SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION The Problem A Solution Disabling or changing <no> behaviour All-in-one interface Filtering only specific components of source code "code", "executable", "quotelike", "string", "regex", "all" Filtering only the code parts of source code Most source code ceases to be grammatically correct when it is broken up into the pieces between string literals and regexes. So the 'code' component filter behaves slightly differently from the other partial filters described in the previous section. Using Filter::Simple with an explicit "import" subroutine Using Filter::Simple and Exporter together How it works AUTHOR COPYRIGHT Filter::Util::Call - Perl Source Filter Utility Module SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION use Filter::Util::Call import() filter() and anonymous sub $_, $status, filter_read and filter_read_exact, filter_del EXAMPLES Example 1: A simple filter. Example 2: Using the context Example 3: Using the context within the filter Example 4: Using filter_del Filter::Simple AUTHOR DATE FindBin - Locate directory of original perl script SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXPORTABLE VARIABLES KNOWN ISSUES KNOWN BUGS AUTHORS COPYRIGHT GDBM_File - Perl5 access to the gdbm library. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AVAILABILITY BUGS SEE ALSO Getopt::Long - Extended processing of command line options SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Command Line Options, an Introduction Getting Started with Getopt::Long Simple options A little bit less simple options Mixing command line option with other arguments Options with values Options with multiple values Options with hash values User-defined subroutines to handle options Options with multiple names Case and abbreviations Summary of Option Specifications !, +, s, i, o, f, : type [ desttype ], : number [ desttype ], : + [ desttype ] Advanced Possibilities Object oriented interface Thread Safety Documentation and help texts Storing options in a hash Bundling The lonesome dash Argument callback Configuring Getopt::Long default, posix_default, auto_abbrev, getopt_compat, gnu_compat, gnu_getopt, require_order, permute, bundling (default: disabled), bundling_override (default: disabled), ignore_case (default: enabled), ignore_case_always (default: disabled), pass_through (default: disabled), prefix, prefix_pattern, debug (default: disabled) Return values and Errors Legacy Default destinations Alternative option starters Configuration variables Trouble Shooting Warning: Ignoring '!' modifier for short option GetOptions does not return a false result when an option is not supplied GetOptions does not split the command line correctly How do I put a "-?" option into a Getopt::Long? AUTHOR COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER Getopt::Std, getopt - Process single-character switches with switch clustering SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Hash::Util - A selection of general-utility hash subroutines SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Restricted hashes lock_keys, unlock_keys lock_value, unlock_value lock_hash, unlock_hash AUTHOR SEE ALSO I18N::Collate - compare 8-bit scalar data according to the current locale SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION I18N::LangTags - functions for dealing with RFC3066-style language tags SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION the function is_language_tag($lang1) the function extract_language_tags($whatever) the function same_language_tag($lang1, $lang2) the function similarity_language_tag($lang1, $lang2) the function is_dialect_of($lang1, $lang2) the function super_languages($lang1) the function locale2language_tag($locale_identifier) the function encode_language_tag($lang1) the function alternate_language_tags($lang1) the function @langs = panic_languages(@accept_languages) ABOUT LOWERCASING ABOUT UNICODE PLAINTEXT LANGUAGE TAGS SEE ALSO COPYRIGHT AUTHOR I18N::LangTags::List -- tags and names for human languages SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION ABOUT LANGUAGE TAGS LIST OF LANGUAGES {ab} : Abkhazian, {ace} : Achinese, {ach} : Acoli, {ada} : Adangme, {aa} : Afar, {afh} : Afrihili, {af} : Afrikaans, [{afa} : Afro-Asiatic (Other)], {aka} : Akan, {akk} : Akkadian, {sq} : Albanian, {ale} : Aleut, [{alg} : Algonquian languages], [{tut} : Altaic (Other)], {am} : Amharic, {i-ami} : Ami, [{apa} : Apache languages], {ar} : Arabic, {arc} : Aramaic, {arp} : Arapaho, {arn} : Araucanian, {arw} : Arawak, {hy} : Armenian, [{art} : Artificial (Other)], {as} : Assamese, [{ath} : Athapascan languages], [{aus} : Aus- tralian languages], [{map} : Austronesian (Other)], {ava} : Avaric, {ae} : Avestan, {awa} : Awadhi, {ay} : Aymara, {az} : Azerbaijani, {ban} : Balinese, [{bat} : Baltic (Other)], {bal} : Baluchi, {bam} : Bambara, [{bai} : Bamileke languages], {bad} : Banda, [{bnt} : Bantu (Other)], {bas} : Basa, {ba} : Bashkir, {eu} : Basque, {btk} : Batak (Indonesia), {bej} : Beja, {be} : Belarusian, {bem} : Bemba, {bn} : Bengali, [{ber} : Berber (Other)], {bho} : Bhojpuri, {bh} : Bihari, {bik} : Bikol, {bin} : Bini, {bi} : Bislama, {bs} : Bosnian, {bra} : Braj, {br} : Breton, {bug} : Buginese, {bg} : Bulgarian, {i-bnn} : Bunun, {bua} : Buriat, {my} : Burmese, {cad} : Caddo, {car} : Carib, {ca} : Catalan, [{cau} : Caucasian (Other)], {ceb} : Cebuano, [{cel} : Celtic (Other)], [{cai} : Central American Indian (Other)], {chg} : Chagatai, [{cmc} : Chamic languages], {ch} : Chamorro, {ce} : Chechen, {chr} : Cherokee, {chy} : Cheyenne, {chb} : Chibcha, {ny} : Chichewa, {zh} : Chinese, {chn} : Chinook Jargon, {chp} : Chipewyan, {cho} : Choctaw, {cu} : Church Slavic, {chk} : Chuukese, {cv} : Chuvash, {cop} : Coptic, {kw} : Cornish, {co} : Corsican, {cre} : Cree, {mus} : Creek, [{cpe} : English-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)], [{cpf} : French-based Creoles and pid- gins (Other)], [{cpp} : Portuguese-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)], [{crp} : Creoles and pidgins (Other)], {hr} : Croatian, [{cus} : Cushitic (Other)], {cs} : Czech, {dak} : Dakota, {da} : Danish, {day} : Dayak, {i-default} : Default (Fallthru) Language, {del} : Delaware, {din} : Dinka, {div} : Divehi, {doi} : Dogri, {dgr} : Dogrib, [{dra} : Dravidian (Other)], {dua} : Duala, {nl} : Dutch, {dum} : Middle Dutch (ca.1050-1350), {dyu} : Dyula, {dz} : Dzongkha, {efi} : Efik, {egy} : Ancient Egyptian, {eka} : Ekajuk, {elx} : Elamite, {en} : English, {enm} : Old English (1100-1500), {ang} : Old English (ca.450-1100), {eo} : Esperanto, {et} : Estonian, {ewe} : Ewe, {ewo} : Ewondo, {fan} : Fang, {fat} : Fanti, {fo} : Faroese, {fj} : Fijian, {fi} : Finnish, [{fiu} : Finno-Ugrian (Other)], {fon} : Fon, {fr} : French, {frm} : Middle French (ca.1400-1600), {fro} : Old French (842-ca.1400), {fy} : Frisian, {fur} : Friulian, {ful} : Fulah, {gaa} : Ga, {gd} : Scots Gaelic, {gl} : Gallegan, {lug} : Ganda, {gay} : Gayo, {gba} : Gbaya, {gez} : Geez, {ka} : Georgian, {de} : German, {gmh} : Middle High German (ca.1050-1500), {goh} : Old High German (ca.750-1050), [{gem} : Germanic (Other)], {gil} : Gilbertese, {gon} : Gondi, {gor} : Gorontalo, {got} : Gothic, {grb} : Grebo, {grc} : Ancient Greek, {el} : Modern Greek, {gn} : Guarani, {gu} : Gujarati, {gwi} : Gwich'in, {hai} : Haida, {ha} : Hausa, {haw} : Hawaiian, {he} : Hebrew, {hz} : Herero, {hil} : Hili- gaynon, {him} : Himachali, {hi} : Hindi, {ho} : Hiri Motu, {hit} : Hittite, {hmn} : Hmong, {hu} : Hungar- ian, {hup} : Hupa, {iba} : Iban, {is} : Icelandic, {ibo} : Igbo, {ijo} : Ijo, {ilo} : Iloko, [{inc} : Indic (Other)], [{ine} : Indo-European (Other)], {id} : Indonesian, {ia} : Interlingua (International Aux- iliary Language Association), {ie} : Interlingue, {iu} : Inuktitut, {ik} : Inupiaq, [{ira} : Iranian (Other)], {ga} : Irish, {mga} : Middle Irish (900-1200), {sga} : Old Irish (to 900), [{iro} : Iroquoian languages], {it} : Italian, {ja} : Japanese, {jw} : Javanese, {jrb} : Judeo-Arabic, {jpr} : Judeo-Persian, {kab} : Kabyle, {kac} : Kachin, {kl} : Kalaallisut, {kam} : Kamba, {kn} : Kannada, {kau} : Kanuri, {kaa} : Kara-Kalpak, {kar} : Karen, {ks} : Kashmiri, {kaw} : Kawi, {kk} : Kazakh, {kha} : Khasi, {km} : Khmer, [{khi} : Khoisan (Other)], {kho} : Khotanese, {ki} : Kikuyu, {kmb} : Kimbundu, {rw} : Kinyarwanda, {ky} : Kirghiz, {i-klingon} : Klingon, {kv} : Komi, {kon} : Kongo, {kok} : Konkani, {ko} : Korean, {kos} : Kos- raean, {kpe} : Kpelle, {kro} : Kru, {kj} : Kuanyama, {kum} : Kumyk, {ku} : Kurdish, {kru} : Kurukh, {kut} : Kutenai, {lad} : Ladino, {lah} : Lahnda, {lam} : Lamba, {lo} : Lao, {la} : Latin, {lv} : Latvian, {lb} : Letzeburgesch, {lez} : Lezghian, {ln} : Lingala, {lt} : Lithuanian, {nds} : Low German, {loz} : Lozi, {lub} : Luba-Katanga, {lua} : Luba-Lulua, {lui} : Luiseno, {lun} : Lunda, {luo} : Luo (Kenya and Tanza- nia), {lus} : Lushai, {mk} : Macedonian, {mad} : Madurese, {mag} : Magahi, {mai} : Maithili, {mak} : Makasar, {mg} : Malagasy, {ms} : Malay, {ml} : Malayalam, {mt} : Maltese, {mnc} : Manchu, {mdr} : Mandar, {man} : Mandingo, {mni} : Manipuri, [{mno} : Manobo languages], {gv} : Manx, {mi} : Maori, {mr} : Marathi, {chm} : Mari, {mh} : Marshall, {mwr} : Marwari, {mas} : Masai, [{myn} : Mayan languages], {men} : Mende, {mic} : Micmac, {min} : Minangkabau, {i-mingo} : Mingo, [{mis} : Miscellaneous languages], {moh} : Mohawk, {mo} : Moldavian, [{mkh} : Mon-Khmer (Other)], {lol} : Mongo, {mn} : Mongolian, {mos} : Mossi, [{mul} : Multiple languages], [{mun} : Munda languages], {nah} : Nahuatl, {na} : Nauru, {nv} : Navajo, {nd} : North Ndebele, {nr} : South Ndebele, {ng} : Ndonga, {ne} : Nepali, {new} : Newari, {nia} : Nias, [{nic} : Niger- Kordofanian (Other)], [{ssa} : Nilo-Saharan (Other)], {niu} : Niuean, {non} : Old Norse, [{nai} : North American Indian], {se} : Northern Sami, {no} : Norwegian, {nb} : Norwegian Bokmal, {nn} : Norwegian Nynorsk, [{nub} : Nubian languages], {nym} : Nyamwezi, {nyn} : Nyankole, {nyo} : Nyoro, {nzi} : Nzima, {oc} : Occitan (post 1500), {oji} : Ojibwa, {or} : Oriya, {om} : Oromo, {osa} : Osage, {os} : Ossetian; Ossetic, [{oto} : Otomian languages], {pal} : Pahlavi, {i-pwn} : Paiwan, {pau} : Palauan, {pi} : Pali, {pam} : Pampanga, {pag} : Pangasinan, {pa} : Panjabi, {pap} : Papiamento, [{paa} : Papuan (Other)], {fa} : Persian, {peo} : Old Persian (ca.600-400 B.C.), [{phi} : Philippine (Other)], {phn} : Phoenician, {pon} : Pohnpeian, {pl} : Polish, {pt} : Portuguese, [{pra} : Prakrit languages], {pro} : Old Provencal (to 1500), {ps} : Pushto, {qu} : Quechua, {rm} : Raeto-Romance, {raj} : Rajasthani, {rap} : Rapanui, {rar} : Raroton- gan, [{qaa - qtz} : Reserved for local use.], [{roa} : Romance (Other)], {ro} : Romanian, {rom} : Romany, {rn} : Rundi, {ru} : Russian, [{sal} : Salishan languages], {sam} : Samaritan Aramaic, [{smi} : Sami lan- guages (Other)], {sm} : Samoan, {sad} : Sandawe, {sg} : Sango, {sa} : Sanskrit, {sat} : Santali, {sc} : Sardinian, {sas} : Sasak, {sco} : Scots, {sel} : Selkup, [{sem} : Semitic (Other)], {sr} : Serbian, {srr} : Serer, {shn} : Shan, {sn} : Shona, {sid} : Sidamo, {sgn-...} : Sign Languages, {bla} : Siksika, {sd} : Sindhi, {si} : Sinhalese, [{sit} : Sino-Tibetan (Other)], [{sio} : Siouan languages], {den} : Slave (Atha- pascan), [{sla} : Slavic (Other)], {sk} : Slovak, {sl} : Slovenian, {sog} : Sogdian, {so} : Somali, {son} : Songhai, {snk} : Soninke, {wen} : Sorbian languages, {nso} : Northern Sotho, {st} : Southern Sotho, [{sai} : South American Indian (Other)], {es} : Spanish, {suk} : Sukuma, {sux} : Sumerian, {su} : Sun- danese, {sus} : Susu, {sw} : Swahili, {ss} : Swati, {sv} : Swedish, {syr} : Syriac, {tl} : Tagalog, {ty} : Tahitian, [{tai} : Tai (Other)], {tg} : Tajik, {tmh} : Tamashek, {ta} : Tamil, {i-tao} : Tao, {tt} : Tatar, {i-tay} : Tayal, {te} : Telugu, {ter} : Tereno, {tet} : Tetum, {th} : Thai, {bo} : Tibetan, {tig} : Tigre, {ti} : Tigrinya, {tem} : Timne, {tiv} : Tiv, {tli} : Tlingit, {tpi} : Tok Pisin, {tkl} : Tokelau, {tog} : Tonga (Nyasa), {to} : Tonga (Tonga Islands), {tsi} : Tsimshian, {ts} : Tsonga, {i-tsu} : Tsou, {tn} : Tswana, {tum} : Tumbuka, {tr} : Turkish, {ota} : Ottoman Turkish (1500-1928), {tk} : Turkmen, {tvl} : Tuvalu, {tyv} : Tuvinian, {tw} : Twi, {uga} : Ugaritic, {ug} : Uighur, {uk} : Ukrainian, {umb} : Umbundu, {und} : Undetermined, {ur} : Urdu, {uz} : Uzbek, {vai} : Vai, {ven} : Venda, {vi} : Vietnamese, {vo} : Volapuk, {vot} : Votic, [{wak} : Wakashan languages], {wal} : Walamo, {war} : Waray, {was} : Washo, {cy} : Welsh, {wo} : Wolof, {x-...} : Unregistered (Semi-Private Use), {xh} : Xhosa, {sah} : Yakut, {yao} : Yao, {yap} : Yapese, {yi} : Yiddish, {yo} : Yoruba, [{ypk} : Yupik languages], {znd} : Zande, [{zap} : Zapotec], {zen} : Zenaga, {za} : Zhuang, {zu} : Zulu, {zun} : Zuni SEE ALSO COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER AUTHOR I18N::Langinfo - query locale information SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXPORT SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE IO - load various IO modules SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION IO::Dir - supply object methods for directory handles SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION new ( [ DIRNAME ] ), open ( DIRNAME ), read (), seek ( POS ), tell (), rewind (), close (), tie %hash, IO::Dir, DIRNAME [, OPTIONS ] SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IO::File - supply object methods for filehandles SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTOR new ( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] ), new_tmpfile METHODS open( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] ) SEE ALSO HISTORY IO::Handle - supply object methods for I/O handles SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTOR new (), new_from_fd ( FD, MODE ) METHODS $io->fdopen ( FD, MODE ), $io->opened, $io->getline, $io->getlines, $io->ungetc ( ORD ), $io->write ( BUF, LEN [, OFFSET ] ), $io->error, $io->clearerr, $io->sync, $io->flush, $io->printflush ( ARGS ), $io->block- ing ( [ BOOL ] ), $io->untaint NOTE SEE ALSO BUGS HISTORY IO::Pipe - supply object methods for pipes SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTOR new ( [READER, WRITER] ) METHODS reader ([ARGS]), writer ([ARGS]), handles () SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IO::Poll - Object interface to system poll call SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION METHODS mask ( IO [, EVENT_MASK ] ), poll ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), events ( IO ), remove ( IO ), handles( [ EVENT_MASK ] ) SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IO::Seekable - supply seek based methods for I/O objects SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION $io->getpos, $io->setpos, $io->seek ( POS, WHENCE ), WHENCE=0 (SEEK_SET), WHENCE=1 (SEEK_CUR), WHENCE=2 (SEEK_END), $io->sysseek( POS, WHENCE ), $io->tell SEE ALSO HISTORY IO::Select - OO interface to the select system call SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTOR new ( [ HANDLES ] ) METHODS add ( HANDLES ), remove ( HANDLES ), exists ( HANDLE ), handles, can_read ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), can_write ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), has_exception ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), count (), bits(), select ( READ, WRITE, ERROR [, TIMEOUT ] ) EXAMPLE AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IO::Socket - Object interface to socket communications SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTOR new ( [ARGS] ) METHODS accept([PKG]), socketpair(DOMAIN, TYPE, PROTOCOL), atmark, connected, protocol, sockdomain, sockopt(OPT [, VAL]), socktype, timeout([VAL]) SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IO::Socket::INET - Object interface for AF_INET domain sockets SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTOR new ( [ARGS] ) METHODS sockaddr (), sockport (), sockhost (), peeraddr (), peerport (), peerhost () SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IO::Socket::UNIX - Object interface for AF_UNIX domain sockets SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTOR new ( [ARGS] ) METHODS hostpath(), peerpath() SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IO::lib::IO::Dir, IO::Dir - supply object methods for directory handles SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION new ( [ DIRNAME ] ), open ( DIRNAME ), read (), seek ( POS ), tell (), rewind (), close (), tie %hash, IO::Dir, DIRNAME [, OPTIONS ] SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IO::lib::IO::File, IO::File - supply object methods for filehandles SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTOR new ( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] ), new_tmpfile METHODS open( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] ) SEE ALSO HISTORY IO::lib::IO::Handle, IO::Handle - supply object methods for I/O handles SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTOR new (), new_from_fd ( FD, MODE ) METHODS $io->fdopen ( FD, MODE ), $io->opened, $io->getline, $io->getlines, $io->ungetc ( ORD ), $io->write ( BUF, LEN [, OFFSET ] ), $io->error, $io->clearerr, $io->sync, $io->flush, $io->printflush ( ARGS ), $io->block- ing ( [ BOOL ] ), $io->untaint NOTE SEE ALSO BUGS HISTORY IO::lib::IO::Pipe, IO::Pipe - supply object methods for pipes SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTOR new ( [READER, WRITER] ) METHODS reader ([ARGS]), writer ([ARGS]), handles () SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IO::lib::IO::Poll, IO::Poll - Object interface to system poll call SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION METHODS mask ( IO [, EVENT_MASK ] ), poll ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), events ( IO ), remove ( IO ), handles( [ EVENT_MASK ] ) SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IO::lib::IO::Seekable, IO::Seekable - supply seek based methods for I/O objects SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION $io->getpos, $io->setpos, $io->seek ( POS, WHENCE ), WHENCE=0 (SEEK_SET), WHENCE=1 (SEEK_CUR), WHENCE=2 (SEEK_END), $io->sysseek( POS, WHENCE ), $io->tell SEE ALSO HISTORY IO::lib::IO::Select, IO::Select - OO interface to the select system call SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTOR new ( [ HANDLES ] ) METHODS add ( HANDLES ), remove ( HANDLES ), exists ( HANDLE ), handles, can_read ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), can_write ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), has_exception ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), count (), bits(), select ( READ, WRITE, ERROR [, TIMEOUT ] ) EXAMPLE AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IO::lib::IO::Socket, IO::Socket - Object interface to socket communications SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTOR new ( [ARGS] ) METHODS accept([PKG]), socketpair(DOMAIN, TYPE, PROTOCOL), atmark, connected, protocol, sockdomain, sockopt(OPT [, VAL]), socktype, timeout([VAL]) SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IO::lib::IO::Socket::INET, IO::Socket::INET - Object interface for AF_INET domain sockets SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTOR new ( [ARGS] ) METHODS sockaddr (), sockport (), sockhost (), peeraddr (), peerport (), peerhost () SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IO::lib::IO::Socket::UNIX, IO::Socket::UNIX - Object interface for AF_UNIX domain sockets SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTOR new ( [ARGS] ) METHODS hostpath(), peerpath() SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IPC::Msg - SysV Msg IPC object class SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION METHODS new ( KEY , FLAGS ), id, rcv ( BUF, LEN [, TYPE [, FLAGS ]] ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), snd ( TYPE, MSG [, FLAGS ] ), stat SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IPC::Open2, open2 - open a process for both reading and writing SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION WARNING SEE ALSO IPC::Open3, open3 - open a process for reading, writing, and error handling SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION WARNING IPC::Semaphore - SysV Semaphore IPC object class SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION METHODS new ( KEY , NSEMS , FLAGS ), getall, getncnt ( SEM ), getpid ( SEM ), getval ( SEM ), getzcnt ( SEM ), id, op ( OPLIST ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), setall ( VALUES ), set- val ( N , VALUE ), stat SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IPC::SysV - SysV IPC constants SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION ftok( PATH, ID ) SEE ALSO AUTHORS COPYRIGHT IPC::SysV::Msg, IPC::Msg - SysV Msg IPC object class SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION METHODS new ( KEY , FLAGS ), id, rcv ( BUF, LEN [, TYPE [, FLAGS ]] ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), snd ( TYPE, MSG [, FLAGS ] ), stat SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT IPC::SysV::Semaphore, IPC::Semaphore - SysV Semaphore IPC object class SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION METHODS new ( KEY , NSEMS , FLAGS ), getall, getncnt ( SEM ), getpid ( SEM ), getval ( SEM ), getzcnt ( SEM ), id, op ( OPLIST ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), setall ( VALUES ), set- val ( N , VALUE ), stat SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT List::Util - A selection of general-utility list subroutines SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION first BLOCK LIST, max LIST, maxstr LIST, min LIST, minstr LIST, reduce BLOCK LIST, shuffle LIST, sum LIST KNOWN BUGS SUGGESTED ADDITIONS COPYRIGHT List::Utilib::List::Util, List::Util - A selection of general-utility list subroutines SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION first BLOCK LIST, max LIST, maxstr LIST, min LIST, minstr LIST, reduce BLOCK LIST, shuffle LIST, sum LIST KNOWN BUGS SUGGESTED ADDITIONS COPYRIGHT List::Utilib::Scalar::Util, Scalar::Util - A selection of general-utility scalar subroutines SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION blessed EXPR, dualvar NUM, STRING, isweak EXPR, openhandle FH, reftype EXPR, tainted EXPR, weaken REF KNOWN BUGS COPYRIGHT BLATANT PLUG Locale::Constants - constants for Locale codes SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS SEE ALSO Locale::Language, Locale::Country, Locale::Script, Locale::Currency AUTHOR COPYRIGHT Locale::Country - ISO codes for country identification (ISO 3166) SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION alpha-2, alpha-3, numeric CONVERSION ROUTINES code2country( CODE, [ CODESET ] ), country2code( STRING, [ CODESET ] ), country_code2code( CODE, CODESET, CODESET ) QUERY ROUTINES "all_country_codes( [ CODESET ] )", "all_country_names( [ CODESET ] )" SEMI-PRIVATE ROUTINES alias_code rename_country EXAMPLES DOMAIN NAMES KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS SEE ALSO Locale::Language, Locale::Script, Locale::Currency, Locale::SubCountry, ISO 3166-1, http://www.iso.org/iso/en/prods-services/iso3166ma/index.html, http://www.egt.ie/stan- dards/iso3166/iso3166-1-en.html, http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/docs/app-d-1.html AUTHOR COPYRIGHT Locale::Currency - ISO three letter codes for currency identification (ISO 4217) SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION XTS, XXX CONVERSION ROUTINES code2currency(), currency2code() QUERY ROUTINES "all_currency_codes()", "all_currency_names()" EXAMPLES KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS SEE ALSO Locale::Country, Locale::Script, ISO 4217:1995, http://www.bsi-global.com/iso4217currency AUTHOR COPYRIGHT Locale::Language - ISO two letter codes for language identification (ISO 639) SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONVERSION ROUTINES code2language(), language2code() QUERY ROUTINES "all_language_codes()", "all_language_names()" EXAMPLES KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS SEE ALSO Locale::Country, Locale::Script, Locale::Currency, ISO 639:1988 (E/F), http://lcweb.loc.gov/stan- dards/iso639-2/langhome.html AUTHOR COPYRIGHT Locale::Maketext -- framework for localization SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION QUICK OVERVIEW METHODS Construction Methods The "maketext" Method $lh->fail_with or $lh->fail_with(PARAM), $lh->failure_handler_auto Utility Methods $language->quant($number, $singular), $language->quant($number, $singular, $plural), $lan- guage->quant($number, $singular, $plural, $negative), $language->numf($number), $lan- guage->sprintf($format, @items), $language->language_tag(), $language->encoding() Language Handle Attributes and Internals LANGUAGE CLASS HIERARCHIES ENTRIES IN EACH LEXICON BRACKET NOTATION AUTO LEXICONS CONTROLLING LOOKUP FAILURE HOW TO USE MAKETEXT SEE ALSO COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER AUTHOR Locale::Maketext::TPJ13 -- article about software localization SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Localization and Perl: gettext breaks, Maketext fixes A Localization Horror Story: It Could Happen To You The Linguistic View Breaking gettext Replacing gettext Buzzwords: Abstraction and Encapsulation Buzzword: Isomorphism Buzzword: Inheritance Buzzword: Concision The Devil in the Details The Proof in the Pudding: Localizing Web Sites References Locale::Script - ISO codes for script identification (ISO 15924) SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION alpha-2, alpha-3, numeric SPECIAL CODES CONVERSION ROUTINES code2script( CODE, [ CODESET ] ), script2code( STRING, [ CODESET ] ), script_code2code( CODE, CODESET, CODESET ) QUERY ROUTINES "all_script_codes ( [ CODESET ] )", "all_script_names ( [ CODESET ] )" EXAMPLES KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS SEE ALSO Locale::Language, Locale::Currency, Locale::Country, ISO 15924, http://www.evertype.com/stan- dards/iso15924/ AUTHOR COPYRIGHT MIME::Base64 - Encoding and decoding of base64 strings SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION encode_base64($str, [$eol]), decode_base64($str) DIAGNOSTICS Premature end of base64 data, Premature padding of base64 data EXAMPLES COPYRIGHT MIME::Base64::QuotedPrint, MIME::QuotedPrint - Encoding and decoding of quoted-printable strings SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION encode_qp($str), decode_qp($str); COPYRIGHT MIME::QuotedPrint - Encoding and decoding of quoted-printable strings SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION encode_qp($str), decode_qp($str); COPYRIGHT Math::BigFloat - Arbitrary size floating point math package SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Canonical notation Output "mantissa()", "exponent()" and "parts()" Accuracy vs. Precision Rounding ffround ( +$scale ), ffround ( -$scale ), ffround ( 0 ), fround ( +$scale ), fround ( -$scale ) and fround ( 0 ) EXAMPLES # not ready yet Autocreating constants Math library Using Math::BigInt::Lite BUGS CAVEAT stringify, bstr(), bdiv, Modifying and =, bpow LICENSE AUTHORS Math::BigInt - Arbitrary size integer math package SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Canonical notation, Input, Output METHODS config accuracy brsft new bnan bzero binf bone is_one()/is_zero()/is_nan()/is_inf() is_positive()/is_negative() $x->is_positive(); # true if >= 0 $x->is_negative(); # true if < 0 is_odd()/is_even()/is_int() bcmp bacmp sign bcmp bneg babs bnorm bnot binc bdec badd bsub bmul bdiv bmod bmodinv bmodpow bpow blsft brsft band bior bxor bnot bsqrt bfac round bround bfround bfloor bceil bgcd blcm exponent mantissa parts copy as_number bsstr as_hex as_bin ACCURACY and PRECISION Precision P Accuracy A Fallback F Rounding mode R 'trunc', 'even', 'odd', '+inf', '-inf', 'zero', Precision, Accuracy (significant digits), Set- ting/Accessing, Creating numbers, Usage, Precedence, Overriding globals, Local settings, Rounding, Default values, Remarks INTERNALS MATH LIBRARY SIGN mantissa(), exponent() and parts() EXAMPLES use Math::BigInt; Autocreating constants PERFORMANCE Alternative math libraries SUBCLASSING Subclassing Math::BigInt UPGRADING Auto-upgrade bsqrt(), div(), blog() BUGS Out of Memory!, Fails to load Calc on Perl prior 5.6.0 CAVEATS stringify, bstr(), bsstr() and 'cmp', int(), length, bdiv, infinity handling, Modifying and =, bpow, Over- loading -$x, Mixing different object types, bsqrt(), brsft() LICENSE SEE ALSO AUTHORS Math::BigInt::Calc - Pure Perl module to support Math::BigInt SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXPORT WRAP YOUR OWN LICENSE This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. AUTHORS SEE ALSO Math::BigRat - arbitrarily big rationals SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION MATH LIBRARY METHODS new() numerator() denominator() $d = $x->denominator(); parts() as_number() bfac() blog() bround()/round()/bfround() BUGS LICENSE SEE ALSO AUTHORS Math::Complex - complex numbers and associated mathematical functions SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OPERATIONS CREATION STRINGIFICATION CHANGED IN PERL 5.6 USAGE ERRORS DUE TO DIVISION BY ZERO OR LOGARITHM OF ZERO ERRORS DUE TO INDIGESTIBLE ARGUMENTS BUGS AUTHORS Math::Trig - trigonometric functions SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS tan ERRORS DUE TO DIVISION BY ZERO SIMPLE (REAL) ARGUMENTS, COMPLEX RESULTS PLANE ANGLE CONVERSIONS RADIAL COORDINATE CONVERSIONS COORDINATE SYSTEMS 3-D ANGLE CONVERSIONS cartesian_to_cylindrical, cartesian_to_spherical, cylindrical_to_cartesian, cylindrical_to_spherical, spherical_to_cartesian, spherical_to_cylindrical GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCES AND DIRECTIONS EXAMPLES CAVEAT FOR GREAT CIRCLE FORMULAS BUGS AUTHORS Memoize - Make functions faster by trading space for time SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION DETAILS OPTIONS INSTALL NORMALIZER "SCALAR_CACHE", "LIST_CACHE" "MEMORY", "HASH", "TIE", "FAULT", "MERGE" OTHER FACILITIES "unmemoize" "flush_cache" CAVEATS PERSISTENT CACHE SUPPORT EXPIRATION SUPPORT BUGS MAILING LIST AUTHOR COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE THANK YOU Memoize::AnyDBM_File - glue to provide EXISTS for AnyDBM_File for Storable use DESCRIPTION Memoize::Expire - Plug-in module for automatic expiration of memoized values SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION INTERFACE TIEHASH, EXISTS, STORE ALTERNATIVES CAVEATS AUTHOR SEE ALSO Memoize::ExpireFile - test for Memoize expiration semantics DESCRIPTION Memoize::ExpireTest - test for Memoize expiration semantics DESCRIPTION Memoize::NDBM_File - glue to provide EXISTS for NDBM_File for Storable use DESCRIPTION Memoize::SDBM_File - glue to provide EXISTS for SDBM_File for Storable use DESCRIPTION Memoize::Storable - store Memoized data in Storable database DESCRIPTION NDBM_File - Tied access to ndbm files SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION "O_RDONLY", "O_WRONLY", "O_RDWR" DIAGNOSTICS "ndbm store returned -1, errno 22, key "..." at ..." BUGS AND WARNINGS NEXT - Provide a pseudo-class NEXT that allows method redispatch SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Enforcing redispatch Avoiding repetitions AUTHOR BUGS AND IRRITATIONS COPYRIGHT Net::Cmd - Network Command class (as used by FTP, SMTP etc) SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION USER METHODS debug ( VALUE ), message (), code (), ok (), status (), datasend ( DATA ), dataend () CLASS METHODS debug_print ( DIR, TEXT ), debug_text ( TEXT ), command ( CMD [, ARGS, ... ]), unsupported (), response (), parse_response ( TEXT ), getline (), ungetline ( TEXT ), read_until_dot (), tied_fh () EXPORTS AUTHOR COPYRIGHT Net::Config - Local configuration data for libnet SYNOPSYS DESCRIPTION METHODS requires_firewall HOST NetConfig VALUES nntp_hosts, snpp_hosts, pop3_hosts, smtp_hosts, ph_hosts, daytime_hosts, time_hosts, inet_domain, ftp_firewall, ftp_firewall_type, ftp_ext_passive, ftp_int_pasive, local_netmask, test_hosts, test_exists Net::Domain - Attempt to evaluate the current host's internet name and domain SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION hostfqdn (), hostname (), hostdomain () AUTHOR COPYRIGHT Net::FTP - FTP Client class SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OVERVIEW CONSTRUCTOR new (HOST [,OPTIONS]) METHODS login ([LOGIN [,PASSWORD [, ACCOUNT] ] ]), authorize ( [AUTH [, RESP]]), site (ARGS), type (TYPE [, ARGS]), ascii ([ARGS]) binary([ARGS]) ebcdic([ARGS]) byte([ARGS]), rename ( OLDNAME, NEWNAME ), delete ( FILENAME ), cwd ( [ DIR ] ), cdup (), pwd (), restart ( WHERE ), rmdir ( DIR ), mkdir ( DIR [, RECURSE ]), ls ( [ DIR ] ), dir ( [ DIR ] ), get ( REMOTE_FILE [, LOCAL_FILE [, WHERE]] ), put ( LOCAL_FILE [, REMOTE_FILE ] ), put_unique ( LOCAL_FILE [, REMOTE_FILE ] ), append ( LOCAL_FILE [, REMOTE_FILE ] ), unique_name (), mdtm ( FILE ), size ( FILE ), supported ( CMD ), hash ( [FILEHANDLE_GLOB_REF],[ BYTES_PER_HASH_MARK] ), nlst ( [ DIR ] ), list ( [ DIR ] ), retr ( FILE ), stor ( FILE ), stou ( FILE ), appe ( FILE ), port ( [ PORT ] ), pasv (), pasv_xfer ( SRC_FILE, DEST_SERVER [, DEST_FILE ] ), pasv_xfer_unique ( SRC_FILE, DEST_SERVER [, DEST_FILE ] ), pasv_wait ( NON_PASV_SERVER ), abort (), quit () Methods for the adventurous quot (CMD [,ARGS]) THE dataconn CLASS read ( BUFFER, SIZE [, TIMEOUT ] ), write ( BUFFER, SIZE [, TIMEOUT ] ), bytes_read (), abort (), close () UNIMPLEMENTED ALLO, SMNT, HELP, MODE, SYST, STAT, STRU, REIN REPORTING BUGS AUTHOR SEE ALSO USE EXAMPLES http://www.csh.rit.edu/~adam/Progs/autoftp-2.0.tar.gz CREDITS COPYRIGHT Net::NNTP - NNTP Client class SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONSTRUCTOR new ( [ HOST ] [, OPTIONS ]) METHODS article ( [ MSGID|MSGNUM ], [FH] ), body ( [ MSGID|MSGNUM ], [FH] ), head ( [ MSGID|MSGNUM ], [FH] ), articlefh ( [ MSGID|MSGNUM ] ), bodyfh ( [ MSGID|MSGNUM ] ), headfh ( [ MSGID|MSGNUM ] ), nntpstat ( [ MSGID|MSGNUM ] ), group ( [ GROUP ] ), ihave ( MSGID [, MESSAGE ]), last (), date (), postok (), authinfo ( USER, PASS ), list (), newgroups ( SINCE [, DISTRIBUTIONS ]), newnews ( SINCE [, GROUPS [, DISTRIBUTIONS ]]), next (), post ( [ MESSAGE ] ), postfh (), slave (), quit () Extension methods newsgroups ( [ PATTERN ] ), distributions (), subscriptions (), overview_fmt (), active_times (), active ( [ PATTERN ] ), xgtitle ( PATTERN ), xhdr ( HEADER, MESSAGE-SPEC ), xover ( MESSAGE-SPEC ), xpath ( MESSAGE-ID ), xpat ( HEADER, PATTERN, MESSAGE-SPEC), xrover, listgroup ( [ GROUP ] ), reader UNSUPPORTED DEFINITIONS MESSAGE-SPEC, PATTERN, Examples, "[^]-]", *bdc, "[0-9a-zA-Z]", "a??d" SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT Net::POP3 - Post Office Protocol 3 Client class (RFC1939) SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES CONSTRUCTOR new ( [ HOST, ] [ OPTIONS ] ) METHODS user ( USER ), pass ( PASS ), login ( [ USER [, PASS ]] ), apop ( [ USER [, PASS ]] ), top ( MSGNUM [, NUMLINES ] ), list ( [ MSGNUM ] ), get ( MSGNUM [, FH ] ), getfh ( MSGNUM ), last (), popstat (), ping ( USER ), uidl ( [ MSGNUM ] ), delete ( MSGNUM ), reset (), quit () NOTES SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT Net::Ping - check a remote host for reachability SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Functions Net::Ping->new([$proto [, $def_timeout [, $bytes]]]);, $p->ping($host [, $timeout]);, $p->source_ver- ify( { 0 | 1 } );, $p->hires( { 0 | 1 } );, $p->bind($local_addr);, $p->open($host);, $p->close();, pingecho($host [, $timeout]); WARNING NOTES INSTALL AUTHORS COPYRIGHT Net::SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Client SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES CONSTRUCTOR new Net::SMTP [ HOST, ] [ OPTIONS ] METHODS banner (), domain (), hello ( DOMAIN ), etrn ( DOMAIN ), auth ( USERNAME, PASSWORD ), mail ( ADDRESS [, OPTIONS] ), send ( ADDRESS ), send_or_mail ( ADDRESS ), send_and_mail ( ADDRESS ), reset (), recipient ( ADDRESS [, ADDRESS [ ...]] [, OPTIONS ] ), to ( ADDRESS [, ADDRESS [...]] ), cc ( ADDRESS [, ADDRESS [...]] ), bcc ( ADDRESS [, ADDRESS [...]] ), data ( [ DATA ] ), expand ( ADDRESS ), verify ( ADDRESS ), help ( [ $subject ] ), quit () ADDRESSES SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT Net::Time - time and daytime network client interface SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION inet_time ( [HOST [, PROTOCOL [, TIMEOUT]]]), inet_daytime ( [HOST [, PROTOCOL [, TIMEOUT]]]) AUTHOR COPYRIGHT Net::hostent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in gethost*() functions SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES NOTE AUTHOR Net::libnetFAQ, libnetFAQ - libnet Frequently Asked Questions DESCRIPTION Where to get this document How to contribute to this document Author and Copyright Information Disclaimer Obtaining and installing libnet What is libnet ? Which version of perl do I need ? What other modules do I need ? What machines support libnet ? Where can I get the latest libnet release Using Net::FTP How do I download files from an FTP server ? How do I transfer files in binary mode ? How can I get the size of a file on a remote FTP server ? How can I get the modification time of a file on a remote FTP server ? How can I change the permissions of a file on a remote server ? Can I do a reget operation like the ftp command ? How do I get a directory listing from an FTP server ? Changing directory to "" does not fail ? I am behind a SOCKS firewall, but the Firewall option does not work ? I am behind an FTP proxy firewall, but cannot access machines outside ? My ftp proxy firewall does not listen on port 21 Is it possible to change the file permissions of a file on an FTP server ? I have seen scripts call a method message, but cannot find it documented ? Why does Net::FTP not implement mput and mget methods Using Net::SMTP Why can't the part of an Email address after the @ be used as the hostname ? Why does Net::SMTP not do DNS MX lookups ? The verify method always returns true ? Debugging scripts How can I debug my scripts that use Net::* modules ? AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT Net::netent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getnet*() functions SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES NOTE AUTHOR Net::protoent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getproto*() functions SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION NOTE AUTHOR Net::servent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getserv*() functions SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES NOTE AUTHOR Netrc, Net::Netrc - OO interface to users netrc file SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION THE .netrc FILE machine name, default, login name, password string, account string, macdef name CONSTRUCTOR lookup ( MACHINE [, LOGIN ]) METHODS login (), password (), account (), lpa () AUTHOR SEE ALSO COPYRIGHT O - Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CONVENTIONS IMPLEMENTATION BUGS AUTHOR ODBM_File - Tied access to odbm files SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION "O_RDONLY", "O_WRONLY", "O_RDWR" DIAGNOSTICS "odbm store returned -1, errno 22, key "..." at ..." BUGS AND WARNINGS Opcode - Disable named opcodes when compiling perl code SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION NOTE WARNING Operator Names and Operator Lists an operator name (opname), an operator tag name (optag), a negated opname or optag, an operator set (opset) Opcode Functions opcodes, opset (OP, ...), opset_to_ops (OPSET), opset_to_hex (OPSET), full_opset, empty_opset, invert_opset (OPSET), verify_opset (OPSET, ...), define_optag (OPTAG, OPSET), opmask_add (OPSET), opmask, opdesc (OP, ...), opdump (PAT) Manipulating Opsets TO DO (maybe) Predefined Opcode Tags :base_core, :base_mem, :base_loop, :base_io, :base_orig, :base_math, :base_thread, :default, :filesys_read, :sys_db, :browse, :filesys_open, :filesys_write, :subprocess, :ownprocess, :others, :still_to_be_decided, :dangerous SEE ALSO AUTHORS Opcode::Safe, Safe - Compile and execute code in restricted compartments SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION a new namespace, an operator mask WARNING RECENT CHANGES Methods in class Safe permit (OP, ...), permit_only (OP, ...), deny (OP, ...), deny_only (OP, ...), trap (OP, ...), untrap (OP, ...), share (NAME, ...), share_from (PACKAGE, ARRAYREF), varglob (VARNAME), reval (STRING), rdo (FILENAME), root (NAMESPACE), mask (MASK) Some Safety Issues Memory, CPU, Snooping, Signals, State Changes AUTHOR Opcode::ops, ops - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe operations when compiling SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO POSIX - Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1 SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION NOTE CAVEATS FUNCTIONS _exit, abort, abs, access, acos, alarm, asctime, asin, assert, atan, atan2, atexit, atof, atoi, atol, bsearch, calloc, ceil, chdir, chmod, chown, clearerr, clock, close, closedir, cos, cosh, creat, ctermid, ctime, cuserid, difftime, div, dup, dup2, errno, execl, execle, execlp, execv, execve, execvp, exit, exp, fabs, fclose, fcntl, fdopen, feof, ferror, fflush, fgetc, fgetpos, fgets, fileno, floor, fmod, fopen, fork, fpathconf, fprintf, fputc, fputs, fread, free, freopen, frexp, fscanf, fseek, fsetpos, fstat, ftell, fwrite, getc, getchar, getcwd, getegid, getenv, geteuid, getgid, getgrgid, getgrnam, getgroups, getlogin, getpgrp, getpid, getppid, getpwnam, getpwuid, gets, getuid, gmtime, isalnum, isalpha, isatty, iscntrl, isdigit, isgraph, islower, isprint, ispunct, isspace, isupper, isxdigit, kill, labs, ldexp, ldiv, link, localeconv, localtime, log, log10, longjmp, lseek, malloc, mblen, mbstowcs, mbtowc, memchr, memcmp, mem- cpy, memmove, memset, mkdir, mkfifo, mktime, modf, nice, offsetof, open, opendir, pathconf, pause, perror, pipe, pow, printf, putc, putchar, puts, qsort, raise, rand, read, readdir, realloc, remove, rename, rewind, rewinddir, rmdir, scanf, setgid, setjmp, setlocale, setpgid, setsid, setuid, sigaction, sig- longjmp, sigpending, sigprocmask, sigsetjmp, sigsuspend, sin, sinh, sleep, sprintf, sqrt, srand, sscanf, stat, strcat, strchr, strcmp, strcoll, strcpy, strcspn, strerror, strftime, strlen, strncat, strncmp, strncpy, strpbrk, strrchr, strspn, strstr, strtod, strtok, strtol, strtoul, strxfrm, sysconf, system, tan, tanh, tcdrain, tcflow, tcflush, tcgetpgrp, tcsendbreak, tcsetpgrp, time, times, tmpfile, tmpnam, tolower, toupper, ttyname, tzname, tzset, umask, uname, ungetc, unlink, utime, vfprintf, vprintf, vsprintf, wait, waitpid, wcstombs, wctomb, write CLASSES POSIX::SigAction new POSIX::SigSet new, addset, delset, emptyset, fillset, ismember POSIX::Termios new, getattr, getcc, getcflag, getiflag, getispeed, getlflag, getoflag, getospeed, setattr, setcc, setcflag, setiflag, setispeed, setlflag, setoflag, setospeed, Baud rate values, Terminal interface values, c_cc field values, c_cflag field values, c_iflag field values, c_lflag field values, c_oflag field values PATHNAME CONSTANTS Constants POSIX CONSTANTS Constants SYSTEM CONFIGURATION Constants ERRNO Constants FCNTL Constants FLOAT Constants LIMITS Constants LOCALE Constants MATH Constants SIGNAL Constants STAT Constants, Macros STDLIB Constants STDIO Constants TIME Constants UNISTD Constants WAIT Constants, WNOHANG, WUNTRACED, Macros, WIFEXITED, WEXITSTATUS, WIFSIGNALED, WTERMSIG, WIFSTOPPED, WSTOPSIG PerlIO - On demand loader for PerlIO layers and root of PerlIO::* name space SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION unix, stdio, perlio, crlf, utf8, bytes, raw, pop Alternatives to raw Defaults and how to override them AUTHOR SEE ALSO PerlIO::encoding - encoding layer SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO PerlIO::scalar - support module for in-memory IO. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION PerlIO::via - Helper class for PerlIO layers implemented in perl SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXPECTED METHODS $class->PUSHED([$mode[,$fh]]), $obj->POPPED([$fh]), $obj->OPEN($path,$mode[,$fh]), $obj->BINMODE([,$fh]), $obj->FDOPEN($fd[,$fh]), $obj->SYSOPEN($path,$imode,$perm,[,$fh]), $obj->FILENO($fh), $obj->READ($buf- fer,$len,$fh), $obj->WRITE($buffer,$fh), $obj->FILL($fh), $obj->CLOSE($fh), $obj->SEEK($posn,$whence,$fh), $obj->TELL($fh), $obj->UNREAD($buffer,$fh), $obj->FLUSH($fh), $obj->SETLINEBUF($fh), $obj->CLEARERR($fh), $obj->ERROR($fh), $obj->EOF($fh) EXAMPLES Example - a Hexadecimal Handle PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint - PerlIO layer for quoted-printable strings SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO COPYRIGHT Pod::Checker, podchecker() - check pod documents for syntax errors SYNOPSIS OPTIONS/ARGUMENTS podchecker() -warnings => val DESCRIPTION DIAGNOSTICS Errors empty =headn, =over on line N without closing =back, =item without previous =over, =back without pre- vious =over, No argument for =begin, =end without =begin, Nested =begin's, =for without formatter specification, unresolved internal link NAME, Unknown command "CMD", Unknown interior-sequence "SEQ", nested commands CMD<...CMD<...>...>, garbled entity STRING, Entity number out of range, malformed link L<>, nonempty Z<>, empty X<>, Spurious text after =pod / =cut, Spurious character(s) after =back Warnings multiple occurrence of link target name, line containing nothing but whitespace in paragraph, file does not start with =head, previous =item has no contents, preceding non-item paragraph(s), =item type mismatch (one vs. two), N unescaped "<>" in paragraph, Unknown entity, No items in =over, No argument for =item, empty section in previous paragraph, Verbatim paragraph in NAME section Hyperlinks ignoring leading/trailing whitespace in link, (section) in '$page' deprecated, alternative text/node '%s' contains non-escaped | or / RETURN VALUE EXAMPLES INTERFACE "Pod::Checker->new( %options )" "$checker->poderror( @args )", "$checker->poderror( {%opts}, @args )" "$checker->num_errors()" "$checker->name()" "$checker->node()" "$checker->idx()" "$checker->hyperlink()" AUTHOR Pod::Find - find POD documents in directory trees SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION "pod_find( { %opts } , @directories )" "-verbose => 1", "-perl => 1", "-script => 1", "-inc => 1" "simplify_name( $str )" "pod_where( { %opts }, $pod )" "-inc => 1", "-dirs => [ $dir1, $dir2, ... ]", "-verbose => 1" "contains_pod( $file , $verbose )" AUTHOR SEE ALSO Pod::Html - module to convert pod files to HTML SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION ARGUMENTS backlink, cachedir, css, flush, header, help, htmldir, htmlroot, index, infile, libpods, netscape, out- file, podpath, podroot, quiet, recurse, title, verbose EXAMPLE ENVIRONMENT AUTHOR SEE ALSO COPYRIGHT Pod::InputObjects - objects representing POD input paragraphs, commands, etc. SYNOPSIS REQUIRES EXPORTS DESCRIPTION package Pod::InputSource, package Pod::Paragraph, package Pod::InteriorSequence, package Pod::ParseTree Pod::InputSource new() name() handle() was_cutting() Pod::Paragraph Pod::Paragraph->new() $pod_para->cmd_name() $pod_para->text() $pod_para->raw_text() $pod_para->cmd_prefix() $pod_para->cmd_separator() $pod_para->parse_tree() $pod_para->file_line() Pod::InteriorSequence Pod::InteriorSequence->new() $pod_seq->cmd_name() $pod_seq->prepend() $pod_seq->append() $pod_seq->nested() $pod_seq->raw_text() $pod_seq->left_delimiter() $pod_seq->right_delimiter() $pod_seq->parse_tree() $pod_seq->file_line() Pod::InteriorSequence::DESTROY() Pod::ParseTree Pod::ParseTree->new() $ptree->top() $ptree->children() $ptree->prepend() $ptree->append() $ptree->raw_text() Pod::ParseTree::DESTROY() SEE ALSO AUTHOR Pod::LaTeX - Convert Pod data to formatted Latex SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OBJECT METHODS "initialize" Data Accessors AddPreamble AddPostamble Head1Level Label LevelNoNum MakeIndex ReplaceNAMEwithSection StartWithNewPage TableOfContents UniqueLabels UserPreamble UserPostamble Lists Subclassed methods begin_pod end_pod command verbatim textblock interior_sequence List Methods begin_list end_list add_item Methods for headings head Internal methods _output _replace_special_chars _replace_special_chars_late _create_label _create_index _clean_latex_commands _split_delimited NOTES SEE ALSO AUTHORS COPYRIGHT REVISION Pod::Man - Convert POD data to formatted *roff input SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION center, date, fixed, fixedbold, fixeditalic, fixedbolditalic, name, quotes, release, section DIAGNOSTICS roff font should be 1 or 2 chars, not "%s", Invalid link %s, Invalid quote specification "%s", %s:%d: Unknown command paragraph "%s", %s:%d: Unknown escape E<%s>, %s:%d: Unknown formatting code %s, %s:%d: Unmatched =back BUGS CAVEATS SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE Pod::ParseLink - Parse an L<> formatting code in POD text SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE Pod::ParseUtils - helpers for POD parsing and conversion SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Pod::List Pod::List->new() $list->file() $list->start() $list->indent() $list->type() $list->rx() $list->item() $list->parent() $list->tag() Pod::Hyperlink Pod::Hyperlink->new() $link->parse($string) $link->markup($string) $link->text() $link->warning() $link->file(), $link->line() $link->page() $link->node() $link->alttext() $link->type() $link->link() Pod::Cache Pod::Cache->new() $cache->item() $cache->find_page($name) Pod::Cache::Item Pod::Cache::Item->new() $cacheitem->page() $cacheitem->description() $cacheitem->path() $cacheitem->file() $cacheitem->nodes() $cacheitem->find_node($name) $cacheitem->idx() AUTHOR SEE ALSO Pod::Parser - base class for creating POD filters and translators SYNOPSIS REQUIRES EXPORTS DESCRIPTION QUICK OVERVIEW PARSING OPTIONS -want_nonPODs (default: unset), -process_cut_cmd (default: unset), -warnings (default: unset) RECOMMENDED SUBROUTINE/METHOD OVERRIDES command() $cmd, $text, $line_num, $pod_para verbatim() $text, $line_num, $pod_para textblock() $text, $line_num, $pod_para interior_sequence() OPTIONAL SUBROUTINE/METHOD OVERRIDES new() initialize() begin_pod() begin_input() end_input() end_pod() preprocess_line() preprocess_paragraph() METHODS FOR PARSING AND PROCESSING parse_text() -expand_seq => code-ref|method-name, -expand_text => code-ref|method-name, -expand_ptree => code- ref|method-name interpolate() parse_paragraph() parse_from_filehandle() parse_from_file() ACCESSOR METHODS errorsub() cutting() parseopts() output_file() output_handle() input_file() input_handle() input_streams() top_stream() PRIVATE METHODS AND DATA _push_input_stream() _pop_input_stream() TREE-BASED PARSING SEE ALSO AUTHOR Pod::Plainer - Perl extension for converting Pod to old style Pod. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXPORT AUTHOR SEE ALSO Pod::Select, podselect() - extract selected sections of POD from input SYNOPSIS REQUIRES EXPORTS DESCRIPTION SECTION SPECIFICATIONS RANGE SPECIFICATIONS OBJECT METHODS curr_headings() select() add_selection() clear_selections() match_section() is_selected() EXPORTED FUNCTIONS podselect() -output, -sections, -ranges PRIVATE METHODS AND DATA _compile_section_spec() $self->{_SECTION_HEADINGS} $self->{_SELECTED_SECTIONS} SEE ALSO AUTHOR Pod::Text - Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION alt, code, indent, loose, quotes, sentence, width DIAGNOSTICS Bizarre space in item, Item called without tag, Can't open %s for reading: %s, Invalid quote specification "%s", %s:%d: Unknown command paragraph: %s, %s:%d: Unknown escape: %s, %s:%d: Unknown formatting code: %s, %s:%d: Unmatched =back RESTRICTIONS NOTES SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE Pod::Text::Color - Convert POD data to formatted color ASCII text SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION BUGS SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE Pod::Text::Overstrike - Convert POD data to formatted overstrike text SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION BUGS SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE Pod::Text::Termcap - Convert POD data to ASCII text with format escapes SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION NOTES SEE ALSO AUTHOR COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE Pod::Usage, pod2usage() - print a usage message from embedded pod documentation SYNOPSIS ARGUMENTS "-message", "-msg", "-exitval", "-verbose", "-output", "-input", "-pathlist" DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES Recommended Use CAVEATS AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Pod::t::basic, basic.pod - Test of various basic POD features in translators. HEADINGS This "is" a "level 1" heading ``Level'' "2 heading This "is" a "level 1" heading ``Level'' 2 heading LINKS OVER AND ITEMS This is a test, a, b, a, b, c, d, "foo", bar, "baz", Some longer item text FORMATTING CODES &, ', <, >, ", / VERBATIM CONCLUSION Pod::t::htmlescp, Escape Sequences Test DESCRIPTION Pod::t::htmlview, Test HTML Rendering SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION METHODS => OTHER STUFF new() foo, bar, baz, "Black" Cat, Sat on the, Mat<!>, 1 Cat, 2 Sat, 3 Mat old() TESTING FOR AND BEGIN TESTING URLs hyperlinking SEE ALSO SDBM_File - Tied access to sdbm files SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION "O_RDONLY", "O_WRONLY", "O_RDWR" DIAGNOSTICS "sdbm store returned -1, errno 22, key "..." at ..." BUGS AND WARNINGS Safe - Compile and execute code in restricted compartments SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION a new namespace, an operator mask WARNING RECENT CHANGES Methods in class Safe permit (OP, ...), permit_only (OP, ...), deny (OP, ...), deny_only (OP, ...), trap (OP, ...), untrap (OP, ...), share (NAME, ...), share_from (PACKAGE, ARRAYREF), varglob (VARNAME), reval (STRING), rdo (FILENAME), root (NAMESPACE), mask (MASK) Some Safety Issues Memory, CPU, Snooping, Signals, State Changes AUTHOR Scalar::Util - A selection of general-utility scalar subroutines SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION blessed EXPR, dualvar NUM, STRING, isweak EXPR, openhandle FH, reftype EXPR, tainted EXPR, weaken REF KNOWN BUGS COPYRIGHT BLATANT PLUG Search::Dict, look - search for key in dictionary file SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION SelectSaver - save and restore selected file handle SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION SelfLoader - load functions only on demand SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION The __DATA__ token SelfLoader autoloading Autoloading and package lexicals SelfLoader and AutoLoader __DATA__, __END__, and the FOOBAR::DATA filehandle. Classes and inherited methods. Multiple packages and fully qualified subroutine names Shell - run shell commands transparently within perl SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OBJECT ORIENTED SYNTAX AUTHOR Socket, sockaddr_in, sockaddr_un, inet_aton, inet_ntoa - load the C socket.h defines and structure manipula- tors SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION inet_aton HOSTNAME, inet_ntoa IP_ADDRESS, INADDR_ANY, INADDR_BROADCAST, INADDR_LOOPBACK, INADDR_NONE, sockaddr_family SOCKADDR, sockaddr_in PORT, ADDRESS, sockaddr_in SOCKADDR_IN, pack_sockaddr_in PORT, IP_ADDRESS, unpack_sockaddr_in SOCKADDR_IN, sockaddr_un PATHNAME, sockaddr_un SOCKADDR_UN, pack_sock- addr_un PATH, unpack_sockaddr_un SOCKADDR_UN Storable - persistence for Perl data structures SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION MEMORY STORE ADVISORY LOCKING SPEED CANONICAL REPRESENTATION FORWARD COMPATIBILITY utf8 data, restricted hashes, files from future versions of Storable ERROR REPORTING WIZARDS ONLY Hooks "STORABLE_freeze" obj, cloning, "STORABLE_thaw" obj, cloning, serialized, .. Predicates "Storable::last_op_in_netorder", "Storable::is_storing", "Storable::is_retrieving" Recursion Deep Cloning Storable magic EXAMPLES WARNING BUGS 64 bit data in perl 5.6.0 and 5.6.1 CREDITS AUTHOR SEE ALSO Switch - A switch statement for Perl VERSION SYNOPSIS BACKGROUND DESCRIPTION Allowing fall-through Automating fall-through Alternative syntax Higher-order Operations DEPENDENCIES AUTHOR BUGS LIMITATION COPYRIGHT Symbol - manipulate Perl symbols and their names SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Sys::Hostname - Try every conceivable way to get hostname SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHOR Syslog, Sys::Syslog, openlog, closelog, setlogmask, syslog - Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION openlog $ident, $logopt, $facility, syslog $priority, $format, @args, setlogmask $mask_priority, setlog- sock $sock_type [$stream_location] (added in 5.004_02), closelog EXAMPLES SEE ALSO AUTHOR Syslog::Syslog, Sys::Syslog, openlog, closelog, setlogmask, syslog - Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION openlog $ident, $logopt, $facility, syslog $priority, $format, @args, setlogmask $mask_priority, setlog- sock $sock_type [$stream_location] (added in 5.004_02), closelog EXAMPLES SEE ALSO AUTHOR Term::ANSIColor - Color screen output using ANSI escape sequences SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION DIAGNOSTICS Bad escape sequence %s, Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use, Invalid attribute name %s, Name "%s" used only once: possible typo, No comma allowed after filehandle, No name for escape sequence %s ENVIRONMENT ANSI_COLORS_DISABLED RESTRICTIONS NOTES SEE ALSO AUTHORS COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE Term::Cap - Perl termcap interface SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION METHODS Tgetent, OSPEED, TERM Tpad, $string, $cnt, $FH Tputs, $cap, $cnt, $FH Tgoto, $cap, $col, $row, $FH Trequire EXAMPLES COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE AUTHOR SEE ALSO Term::Complete - Perl word completion module SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION <tab>, ^D, ^U, <del>, <bs> DIAGNOSTICS BUGS AUTHOR Term::ReadLine - Perl interface to various "readline" packages. If no real package is found, substitutes stubs instead of basic functions. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Minimal set of supported functions "ReadLine", "new", "readline", "addhistory", "IN", $"OUT", "MinLine", "findConsole", Attribs, "Features" Additional supported functions "tkRunning", "ornaments", "newTTY" EXPORTS ENVIRONMENT CAVEATS Test - provides a simple framework for writing test scripts SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Functions plan _to_value ok TEST TYPES NORMAL TESTS, SKIPPED TESTS, TODO TESTS ONFAIL BUGS and CAVEATS NOTE SEE ALSO AUTHOR Test::Builder - Backend for building test libraries SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Construction new Setting up tests exported_to plan expected_tests no_plan skip_all Running tests ok is_eq, is_num isnt_eq, isnt_num like, unlike maybe_regex cmp_ok BAILOUT skip todo_skip skip_rest Test style level use_numbers no_header, no_ending Output diag _print output, failure_output, todo_output Test Status and Info current_test summary details UNIMPLEMENTED, todo caller _sanity_check _whoa _my_exit THREADS EXAMPLES SEE ALSO AUTHORS COPYRIGHT Test::Harness - run perl standard test scripts with statistics SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION The test script output '1..M', 'ok', 'not ok'. Ok?, test numbers, test names, Skipping tests, Todo tests, Bail out!, Com- ments, Anything else Taint mode Configuration variables. $Test::Harness::verbose, $Test::Harness::switches Failure Failed Test, Stat, Wstat, Total, Fail, Failed, List of Failed Functions runtests _all_ok _globdir _run_all_tests _mk_leader _leader_width EXPORT DIAGNOSTICS "All tests successful.\nFiles=%d, Tests=%d, %s", "FAILED tests %s\n\tFailed %d/%d tests, %.2f%% okay.", "Test returned status %d (wstat %d)", "Failed 1 test, %.2f%% okay. %s", "Failed %d/%d tests, %.2f%% okay. %s", "FAILED--Further testing stopped: %s" ENVIRONMENT "HARNESS_ACTIVE", "HARNESS_COLUMNS", "HARNESS_COMPILE_TEST", "HARNESS_FILELEAK_IN_DIR", "HAR- NESS_IGNORE_EXITCODE", "HARNESS_NOTTY", "HARNESS_PERL_SWITCHES", "HARNESS_VERBOSE" EXAMPLE SEE ALSO AUTHORS TODO BUGS Test::Harness::Assert - simple assert SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Functions assert AUTHOR SEE ALSO Test::Harness::Iterator - Internal Test::Harness Iterator SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Test::Harness::Straps - detailed analysis of test results SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Construction new _init Analysis analyze analyze_fh analyze_file _switches _INC2PERL5LIB _filtered_INC _restore_PERL5LIB Parsing _is_comment _is_header _is_test _is_bail_out _reset_file_state Results _detailize EXAMPLES AUTHOR SEE ALSO Test::More - yet another framework for writing test scripts SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION I love it when a plan comes together Test names I'm ok, you're not ok. ok is, isnt like unlike cmp_ok can_ok isa_ok pass, fail Diagnostics diag Module tests use_ok require_ok Conditional tests SKIP: BLOCK TODO: BLOCK, todo_skip When do I use SKIP vs. TODO? Comparison functions is_deeply eq_array eq_hash eq_set Extending and Embedding Test::More builder NOTES BUGS and CAVEATS Making your own ok(), The eq_* family has some caveats, Test::Harness upgrades HISTORY SEE ALSO AUTHORS COPYRIGHT Test::Simple - Basic utilities for writing tests. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION ok EXAMPLE CAVEATS NOTES HISTORY SEE ALSO Test::More, Test, Test::Unit, Test::Inline, SelfTest, Test::Harness AUTHORS COPYRIGHT Test::Tutorial - A tutorial about writing really basic tests DESCRIPTION Nuts and bolts of testing. Where to start? Names Test the manual Sometimes the tests are wrong Testing lots of values Informative names Skipping tests Todo tests Testing with taint mode. FOOTNOTES AUTHORS COPYRIGHT Text::Abbrev, abbrev - create an abbreviation table from a list SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE Text::Balanced - Extract delimited text sequences from strings. SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION General behaviour in list contexts [0], [1], [2] General behaviour in scalar and void contexts A note about prefixes "extract_delimited" "extract_bracketed" "extract_tagged" "reject => $listref", "ignore => $listref", "fail => $str", [0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5] "gen_extract_tagged" "extract_quotelike" [0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10] "extract_quotelike" and "here documents" [0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7..10] "extract_codeblock" "extract_multiple" "gen_delimited_pat" DIAGNOSTICS C<Did not find a suitable bracket: "%s">, C<Did not find prefix: /%s/>, C<Did not find opening bracket after prefix: "%s">, C<No quotelike operator found after prefix: "%s">, C<Unmatched closing bracket: "%c">, C<Unmatched opening bracket(s): "%s">, C<Unmatched embedded quote (%s)>, C<Did not find closing delimiter to match '%s'>, C<Mismatched closing bracket: expected "%c" but found "%s">, C<No block delimiter found after quotelike "%s">, C<Did not find leading dereferencer>, C<Bad identifier after dereferencer>, C<Did not find expected opening bracket at %s>, C<Improperly nested codeblock at %s>, C<Missing second block for quotelike "%s">, C<No match found for opening bracket>, C<Did not find opening tag: /%s/>, C<Unable to construct closing tag to match: /%s/>, C<Found invalid nested tag: %s>, C<Found unbalanced nested tag: %s>, C<Did not find closing tag> AUTHOR BUGS AND IRRITATIONS COPYRIGHT Text::ParseWords - parse text into an array of tokens or array of arrays SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES AUTHORS Text::Soundex - Implementation of the Soundex Algorithm as Described by Knuth SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXAMPLES LIMITATIONS AUTHOR Text::Tabs -- expand and unexpand tabs per the unix expand(1) and unexpand(1) SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION BUGS AUTHOR Text::Wrap - line wrapping to form simple paragraphs SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION OVERRIDES EXAMPLE AUTHOR Thread - manipulate threads in Perl (for old code only) CAVEAT SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONS $thread = Thread->new(\&start_sub), $thread = Thread->new(\&start_sub, LIST), lock VARIABLE, async BLOCK;, Thread->self, cond_wait VARIABLE, cond_signal VARIABLE, cond_broadcast VARIABLE, yield METHODS join, eval, detach, equal, tid, flags, done LIMITATIONS SEE ALSO Thread::Queue - thread-safe queues SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONS AND METHODS new, enqueue LIST, dequeue, dequeue_nb, pending SEE ALSO Thread::Semaphore - thread-safe semaphores SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION FUNCTIONS AND METHODS new, new NUMBER, down, down NUMBER, up, up NUMBER Thread::Signal - Start a thread which runs signal handlers reliably (for old code) CAVEAT SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION BUGS Thread::Specific - thread-specific keys SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Tie::Array - base class for tied arrays SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION TIEARRAY classname, LIST, STORE this, index, value, FETCH this, index, FETCHSIZE this, STORESIZE this, count, EXTEND this, count, EXISTS this, key, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, DESTROY this, PUSH this, LIST, POP this, SHIFT this, UNSHIFT this, LIST, SPLICE this, offset, length, LIST CAVEATS AUTHOR Tie::File - Access the lines of a disk file via a Perl array SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION "recsep" "autochomp" "mode" "memory" "dw_size" Option Format Public Methods "flock" "autochomp" "defer", "flush", "discard", and "autodefer" Tying to an already-opened filehandle Deferred Writing Autodeferring CAVEATS SUBCLASSING WHAT ABOUT "DB_File"? AUTHOR LICENSE WARRANTY THANKS TODO Tie::Handle, Tie::StdHandle - base class definitions for tied handles SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, WRITE this, scalar, length, offset, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this, format, LIST, READ this, scalar, length, offset, READLINE this, GETC this, CLOSE this, OPEN this, filename, BIN- MODE this, EOF this, TELL this, SEEK this, offset, whence, DESTROY this MORE INFORMATION COMPATIBILITY Tie::Hash, Tie::StdHash, Tie::ExtraHash - base class definitions for tied hashes SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION TIEHASH classname, LIST, STORE this, key, value, FETCH this, key, FIRSTKEY this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, EXISTS this, key, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this Inheriting from Tie::StdHash Inheriting from Tie::ExtraHash "UNTIE" and "DESTROY" MORE INFORMATION Tie::Memoize - add data to hash when needed SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Inheriting from Tie::Memoize EXAMPLE BUGS AUTHOR Tie::RefHash - use references as hash keys SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE AUTHOR VERSION SEE ALSO Tie::Scalar, Tie::StdScalar - base class definitions for tied scalars SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION TIESCALAR classname, LIST, FETCH this, STORE this, value, DESTROY this MORE INFORMATION Tie::SubstrHash - Fixed-table-size, fixed-key-length hashing SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION CAVEATS Time::HiRes - High resolution alarm, sleep, gettimeofday, interval timers SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION gettimeofday (), usleep ( $useconds ), ualarm ( $useconds [, $interval_useconds ] ), tv_interval, time (), sleep ( $floating_seconds ), alarm ( $floating_seconds [, $interval_floating_seconds ] ), setitimer, getitimer ( $which ) EXAMPLES C API CAVEATS AUTHORS REVISION COPYRIGHT Time::Local - efficiently compute time from local and GMT time SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION IMPLEMENTATION BUGS Time::gmtime - by-name interface to Perl's built-in gmtime() function SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION NOTE AUTHOR Time::localtime - by-name interface to Perl's built-in localtime() function SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION NOTE AUTHOR Time::tm - internal object used by Time::gmtime and Time::localtime SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHOR UNIVERSAL - base class for ALL classes (blessed references) SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION $obj->isa( TYPE ), CLASS->isa( TYPE ), isa( VAL, TYPE ), $obj->can( METHOD ), CLASS->can( METHOD ), can( VAL, METHOD ), VERSION ( [ REQUIRE ] ) Unicode::Collate - Unicode Collation Algorithm SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Constructor and Tailoring alternate, backwards, entry, ignoreName, ignoreChar, level, normalization, overrideCJK, override- Hangul, preprocess, rearrange, table, undefName, undefChar, katakana_before_hiragana, upper_before_lower Methods for Collation "@sorted = $Collator->sort(@not_sorted)", "$result = $Collator->cmp($a, $b)", "$result = $Colla- tor->eq($a, $b)", "$result = $Collator->ne($a, $b)", "$result = $Collator->lt($a, $b)", "$result = $Collator->le($a, $b)", "$result = $Collator->gt($a, $b)", "$result = $Collator->ge($a, $b)", "$sortKey = $Collator->getSortKey($string)", "$sortKeyForm = $Collator->viewSortKey($string)", "$posi- tion = $Collator->index($string, $substring)", "($position, $length) = $Collator->index($string, $sub- string)" Other Methods UCA_Version, Base_Unicode_Version EXPORT TODO CAVEAT BUGS AUTHOR SEE ALSO http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr10/, http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr10/allkeys.txt, http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr15/, http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr18, Unicode::Nor- malize Unicode::Normalize - Unicode Normalization Forms SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION Normalization Forms "$NFD_string = NFD($string)", "$NFC_string = NFC($string)", "$NFKD_string = NFKD($string)", "$NFKC_string = NFKC($string)", "$normalized_string = normalize($form_name, $string)" Decomposition and Composition "$decomposed_string = decompose($string)", "$decomposed_string = decompose($string, $useCompatMap- ping)", "$reordered_string = reorder($string)", "$composed_string = compose($string)" Quick Check "$result = checkNFD($string)", "$result = checkNFC($string)", "$result = checkNFKD($string)", "$result = checkNFKC($string)", "$result = check($form_name, $string)" Character Data "$canonical_decomposed = getCanon($codepoint)", "$compatibility_decomposed = getCompat($codepoint)", "$codepoint_composite = getComposite($codepoint_here, $codepoint_next)", "$combining_class = getCom- binClass($codepoint)", "$is_exclusion = isExclusion($codepoint)", "$is_singleton = isSingleton($code- point)", "$is_non_startar_decomposition = isNonStDecomp($codepoint)", "$may_be_composed_with_prev_char = isComp2nd($codepoint)" EXPORT AUTHOR SEE ALSO http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr15/, http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/DerivedNormalization- Props.txt Unicode::UCD - Unicode character database SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION charinfo charblock charscript charblocks charscripts Blocks versus Scripts Matching Scripts and Blocks Code Point Arguments charinrange compexcl casefold casespec Unicode::UCD::UnicodeVersion Implementation Note BUGS AUTHOR User::grent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getgr*() functions SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION NOTE AUTHOR User::pwent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getpw*() functions SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION System Specifics NOTE AUTHOR HISTORY March 18th, 2000 Win32 - Interfaces to some Win32 API Functions DESCRIPTION Alphabetical Listing of Win32 Functions Win32::AbortSystemShutdown(MACHINE), Win32::BuildNumber(), Win32::CopyFile(FROM, TO, OVERWRITE), Win32::DomainName(), Win32::ExpandEnvironmentStrings(STRING), Win32::FormatMessage(ERRORCODE), Win32::FsType(), Win32::FreeLibrary(HANDLE), Win32::GetArchName(), Win32::GetChipName(), Win32::GetCwd(), Win32::GetFullPathName(FILENAME), Win32::GetLastError(), Win32::GetLongPathName(PATH- NAME), Win32::GetNextAvailDrive(), Win32::GetOSVersion(), Win32::GetOSName(), Win32::GetShortPath- Name(PATHNAME), Win32::GetProcAddress(INSTANCE, PROCNAME), Win32::GetTickCount(), Win32::InitiateSys- temShutdown, Win32::IsWinNT(), Win32::IsWin95(), Win32::LoadLibrary(LIBNAME), Win32::LoginName(), Win32::LookupAccountName(SYSTEM, ACCOUNT, DOMAIN, SID, SIDTYPE), Win32::LookupAccountSID(SYSTEM, SID, ACCOUNT, DOMAIN, SIDTYPE), Win32::MsgBox(MESSAGE [, FLAGS [, TITLE]]), Win32::NodeName(), Win32::Reg- isterServer(LIBRARYNAME), Win32::SetChildShowWindow(SHOWWINDOW), Win32::SetCwd(NEWDIRECTORY), Win32::SetLastError(ERROR), Win32::Sleep(TIME), Win32::Spawn(COMMAND, ARGS, PID), Win32::Unregis- terServer(LIBRARYNAME) XSLoader - Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code SYNOPSIS DESCRIPTION AUTHOR
AUXILIARY DOCUMENTATION
Here should be listed all the extra programs' documentation, but they don't all have manual pages yet: a2p s2p find2perl h2ph c2ph h2xs xsubpp pod2man wrapsuid
AUTHOR
Larry Wall <larry@wall.org>, with the help of oodles of other folks. perl v5.8.0 2003-02-18 PERLTOC(1)


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