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PERLSOLARIS(1)			 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		   PERLSOLARIS(1)

       README.solaris - Perl version 5 on Solaris systems

       This document describes various features of Sun's Solaris operating system that will
       affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just perl) is compiled and/or runs.  Some issues
       relating to the older SunOS 4.x are also discussed, though they may be out of date.

       For the most part, everything should just work.

       Starting with Solaris 8, perl5.00503 (or higher) is supplied with the operating system, so
       you might not even need to build a newer version of perl at all.  The Sun-supplied version
       is installed in /usr/perl5 with /usr/bin/perl pointing to /usr/perl5/bin/perl.  Do not
       disturb that installation unless you really know what you are doing.  If you remove the
       perl supplied with the OS, there is a good chance you will render some bits of your system
       inoperable.  If you wish to install a newer version of perl, install it under a different
       prefix from /usr/perl5.	Common prefixes to use are /usr/local and /opt/perl.

       You may wish to put your version of perl in the PATH of all users by changing the link
       /usr/bin/perl. This is OK, as all Perl scripts shipped with Solaris use

       Solaris Version Numbers.

       For consistency with common usage, perl's Configure script performs some minor manipula-
       tions on the operating system name and version number as reported by uname.  Here's a par-
       tial translation table:

		    Sun:		      perl's Configure:
	   uname    uname -r   Name	      osname	 osvers
	   SunOS    4.1.3     Solaris 1.1     sunos	 4.1.3
	   SunOS    5.6       Solaris 2.6     solaris	 2.6
	   SunOS    5.8       Solaris 8       solaris	 2.8

       The complete table can be found in the Sun Managers' FAQ
       <ftp://ftp.cs.toronto.edu/pub/jdd/sunmanagers/faq> under "9.1) Which Sun models run which
       versions of SunOS?".

       There are many, many sources for Solaris information.  A few of the important ones for

       Solaris FAQ
	   The Solaris FAQ is available at <http://www.science.uva.nl/pub/solaris/solaris2.html>.

	   The Sun Managers' FAQ is available at <ftp://ftp.cs.toronto.edu/pub/jdd/sunman-

       Precompiled Binaries
	   Precompiled binaries, links to many sites, and much, much more is available at

       Solaris Documentation
	   All Solaris documentation is available on-line at <http://docs.sun.com/>.

       File Extraction Problems on Solaris.

       Be sure to use a tar program compiled under Solaris (not SunOS 4.x) to extract the
       perl-5.x.x.tar.gz file.	Do not use GNU tar compiled for SunOS4 on Solaris.  (GNU tar com-
       piled for Solaris should be fine.)  When you run SunOS4 binaries on Solaris, the run-time
       system magically alters pathnames matching m#lib/locale# so that when tar tries to create
       lib/locale.pm, a file named lib/oldlocale.pm gets created instead.  If you found this
       advice too late and used a SunOS4-compiled tar anyway, you must find the incorrectly
       renamed file and move it back to lib/locale.pm.

       Compiler and Related Tools on Solaris.

       You must use an ANSI C compiler to build perl.  Perl can be compiled with either Sun's
       add-on C compiler or with gcc.  The C compiler that shipped with SunOS4 will not do.

       Include /usr/ccs/bin/ in your PATH.

       Several tools needed to build perl are located in /usr/ccs/bin/:  ar, as, ld, and make.
       Make sure that /usr/ccs/bin/ is in your PATH.

       You need to make sure the following packages are installed (this info is extracted from
       the Solaris FAQ):

       for tools (sccs, lex, yacc, make, nm, truss, ld, as): SUNWbtool, SUNWsprot, SUNWtoo

       for libraries & headers: SUNWhea, SUNWarc, SUNWlibm, SUNWlibms, SUNWdfbh, SUNWcg6h, SUN-
       Wxwinc, SUNWolinc

       for 64 bit development: SUNWarcx, SUNWbtoox, SUNWdplx, SUNWscpux, SUNWsprox, SUNWtoox,
       SUNWlmsx, SUNWlmx, SUNWlibCx

       If you are in doubt which package contains a file you are missing, try to find an instal-
       lation that has that file. Then do a

	       grep /my/missing/file /var/sadm/install/contents

       This will display a line like this:

       /usr/include/sys/errno.h f none 0644 root bin 7471 37605 956241356 SUNWhea

       The last item listed (SUNWhea in this example) is the package you need.

       Avoid /usr/ucb/cc.

       You don't need to have /usr/ucb/ in your PATH to build perl.  If you want /usr/ucb/ in
       your PATH anyway, make sure that /usr/ucb/ is NOT in your PATH before the directory con-
       taining the right C compiler.

       Sun's C Compiler

       If you use Sun's C compiler, make sure the correct directory (usually /opt/SUNWspro/bin/)
       is in your PATH (before /usr/ucb/).


       If you use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and complete.  As a point of refer-
       ence, perl-5.6.0 built fine with gcc-2.8.1 on both Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 8.  You should
       Configure perl with

	       sh Configure -Dcc=gcc

       If you have updated your Solaris version, you may also have to update your GCC.	For exam-
       ple, if you are running Solaris 2.6 and your gcc is installed under /usr/local, check in
       /usr/local/lib/gcc-lib and make sure you have the appropriate directory,
       sparc-sun-solaris2.6/ or i386-pc-solaris2.6/.  If gcc's directory is for a different ver-
       sion of Solaris than you are running, then you will need to rebuild gcc for your new ver-
       sion of Solaris.

       You can get a precompiled version of gcc from <http://www.sunfreeware.com/>. Make sure you
       pick up the package for your Solaris release.

       GNU as and GNU ld

       The following information applies to gcc version 2.  Volunteers to update it as appropro-
       priate for gcc version 3 would be appreciated.

       The versions of as and ld supplied with Solaris work fine for building perl.  There is
       normally no need to install the GNU versions to compile perl.

       If you decide to ignore this advice and use the GNU versions anyway, then be sure that
       they are relatively recent.  Versions newer than 2.7 are apparently new enough.	Older
       versions may have trouble with dynamic loading.

       If you wish to use GNU ld, then you need to pass it the -Wl,-E flag.  The
       hints/solaris_2.sh file tries to do this automatically by executing the following com-

	       ccdlflags="$ccdlflags -Wl,-E"
	       lddlflags="$lddlflags -Wl,-E -G"

       However, over the years, changes in gcc, GNU ld, and Solaris ld have made it difficult to
       automatically detect which ld ultimately gets called.  You may have to manually edit con-
       fig.sh and add the -Wl,-E flags yourself, or else run Configure interactively and add the
       flags at the appropriate prompts.

       If your gcc is configured to use GNU as and ld but you want to use the Solaris ones
       instead to build perl, then you'll need to add -B/usr/ccs/bin/ to the gcc command line.
       One convenient way to do that is with

	       sh Configure -Dcc='gcc -B/usr/ccs/bin/'

       Note that the trailing slash is required.  This will result in some harmless warnings as
       Configure is run:

	       gcc: file path prefix `/usr/ccs/bin/' never used

       These messages may safely be ignored.  (Note that for a SunOS4 system, you must use
       -B/bin/ instead.)

       Alternatively, you can use the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX environment variable to ensure that Sun's
       as and ld are used.  Consult your gcc documentation for further information on the -B
       option and the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX variable.

       GNU make

       Sun's make works fine for building perl.  If you wish to use GNU make anyway, be sure that
       the set-group-id bit is not set.  If it is, then arrange your PATH so that
       /usr/ccs/bin/make is before GNU make or else have the system administrator disable the
       set-group-id bit on GNU make.

       Avoid libucb.

       Solaris provides some BSD-compatibility functions in /usr/ucblib/libucb.a.  Perl will not
       build and run correctly if linked against -lucb since it contains routines that are incom-
       patible with the standard Solaris libc.	Normally this is not a problem since the solaris
       hints file prevents Configure from even looking in /usr/ucblib for libraries, and also
       explicitly omits -lucb.

       Environment for Compiling Perl on Solaris


       Make sure your PATH includes the compiler (/opt/SUNWspro/bin/ if you're using Sun's com-
       piler) as well as /usr/ccs/bin/ to pick up the other development tools (such as make, ar,
       as, and ld).  Make sure your path either doesn't include /usr/ucb or that it includes it
       after the compiler and compiler tools and other standard Solaris directories.  You defi-
       nitely don't want /usr/ucb/cc.


       If you have the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable set, be sure that it does NOT include
       /lib or /usr/lib.  If you will be building extensions that call third-party shared
       libraries (e.g. Berkeley DB) then make sure that your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable
       includes the directory with that library (e.g. /usr/local/lib).

       If you get an error message

	       dlopen: stub interception failed

       it is probably because your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes a directory
       which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib).  The reason this causes a problem is quite
       subtle.	The file libdl.so.1.0 actually *only* contains functions which generate 'stub
       interception failed' errors!  The runtime linker intercepts links to
       "/usr/lib/libdl.so.1.0" and links in internal implementations of those functions instead.
       [Thanks to Tim Bunce for this explanation.]

       See the INSTALL file for general information regarding Configure.  Only Solaris-specific
       issues are discussed here.  Usually, the defaults should be fine.

       64-bit Issues with Perl on Solaris.

       See the INSTALL file for general information regarding 64-bit compiles.	In general, the
       defaults should be fine for most people.

       By default, perl-5.6.0 (or later) is compiled as a 32-bit application with largefile and
       long-long support.

       General 32-bit vs. 64-bit issues.

       Solaris 7 and above will run in either 32 bit or 64 bit mode on SPARC CPUs, via a reboot.
       You can build 64 bit apps whilst running 32 bit mode and vice-versa. 32 bit apps will run
       under Solaris running in either 32 or 64 bit mode.  64 bit apps require Solaris to be run-
       ning 64 bit mode.

       Existing 32 bit apps are properly known as LP32, i.e. Longs and Pointers are 32 bit.
       64-bit apps are more properly known as LP64.  The discriminating feature of a LP64 bit app
       is its ability to utilise a 64-bit address space.  It is perfectly possible to have a LP32
       bit app that supports both 64-bit integers (long long) and largefiles (> 2GB), and this is
       the default for perl-5.6.0.

       For a more complete explanation of 64-bit issues, see the Solaris 64-bit Developer's Guide
       at <http://docs.sun.com:80/ab2/coll.45.13/SOL64TRANS/>

       You can detect the OS mode using "isainfo -v", e.g.

	     fubar$ isainfo -v	 # Ultra 30 in 64 bit mode
	     64-bit sparcv9 applications
	     32-bit sparc applications

       By default, perl will be compiled as a 32-bit application.  Unless you want to allocate
       more than ~ 4GB of memory inside Perl, you probably don't need Perl to be a 64-bit app.

       Large File Support

       For Solaris 2.6 and onwards, there are two different ways for 32-bit applications to
       manipulate large files (files whose size is > 2GByte).  (A 64-bit application automati-
       cally has largefile support built in by default.)

       First is the "transitional compilation environment", described in lfcompile64(5).  Accord-
       ing to the man page,

	   The transitional compilation  environment  exports  all  the
	   explicit 64-bit functions (xxx64()) and types in addition to
	   all the regular functions (xxx()) and types. Both xxx()  and
	   xxx64()  functions  are  available to the program source.  A
	   32-bit application must use the xxx64() functions in  order
	   to  access  large  files.  See the lf64(5) manual page for a
	   complete listing of the 64-bit transitional interfaces.

       The transitional compilation environment is obtained with the following compiler and
       linker flags:

	   getconf LFS64_CFLAGS        -D_LARGEFILE64_SOURCE
	   getconf LFS64_LDFLAG        # nothing special needed
	   getconf LFS64_LIBS	       # nothing special needed

       Second is the "large file compilation environment", described in lfcompile(5).  According
       to the man page,

	   Each interface named xxx() that needs to access 64-bit entities
	   to  access  large  files maps to a xxx64() call in the
	   resulting binary. All relevant data types are defined to  be
	   of correct size (for example, off_t has a typedef definition
	   for a 64-bit entity).

	   An application compiled in this environment is able	to  use
	   the	xxx()  source interfaces to access both large and small
	   files, rather than having to explicitly utilize the	transitional
	   xxx64()  interface  calls to access large files.

       Two exceptions are fseek() and ftell().	32-bit applications should use fseeko(3C) and
       ftello(3C).  These will get automatically mapped to fseeko64() and ftello64().

       The large file compilation environment is obtained with

	       getconf LFS_LDFLAGS     # nothing special needed
	       getconf LFS_LIBS        # nothing special needed

       By default, perl uses the large file compilation environment and relies on Solaris to do
       the underlying mapping of interfaces.

       Building an LP64 Perl

       To compile a 64-bit application on an UltraSparc with a recent Sun Compiler, you need to
       use the flag "-xarch=v9".  getconf(1) will tell you this, e.g.

	     fubar$ getconf -a | grep v9
	     XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS:	     -xarch=v9
	     XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS:	     -xarch=v9
	     XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LINTFLAGS:      -xarch=v9
	     XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_CFLAGS:	     -xarch=v9
	     XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS:      -xarch=v9
	     XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS:    -xarch=v9
	     _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS:	     -xarch=v9
	     _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS:	     -xarch=v9
	     _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LINTFLAGS:     -xarch=v9
	     _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_CFLAGS:      -xarch=v9
	     _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS:     -xarch=v9
	     _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS:   -xarch=v9

       This flag is supported in Sun WorkShop Compilers 5.0 and onwards (now marketed under the
       name Forte) when used on Solaris 7 or later on UltraSparc systems.

       If you are using gcc, you would need to use -mcpu=v9 -m64 instead.  This option is not yet
       supported as of gcc 2.95.2; from install/SPECIFIC in that release:

       GCC version 2.95 is not able to compile code correctly for sparc64 targets. Users of the
       Linux kernel, at least, can use the sparc32 program to start up a new shell invocation
       with an environment that causes configure to recognize (via uname -a) the system as
       sparc-*-* instead.

       All this should be handled automatically by the hints file, if requested.

       Long Doubles.

       As of 5.6.0, long doubles are not working.

       Threads in Perl on Solaris.

       It is possible to build a threaded version of perl on Solaris.  The entire perl thread
       implementation is still experimental, however, so beware.  Perl uses the sched_yield(3RT)
       function.  In versions of Solaris up to 2.6, that function is in -lposix4.  Starting with
       Solaris 7, it is in -lrt.  The hints file should handle adding this automatically.

       Malloc Issues with Perl on Solaris.

       Starting from Perl 5.7.1 Perl uses the Solaris malloc, since the perl malloc breaks when
       dealing with more than 2GB of memory, and the Solaris malloc also seems to be faster.

       If you for some reason (such as binary backward compatibility) really need to use perl's
       malloc, you can rebuild Perl from the sources and Configure the build with

	       sh Configure -Dusemymalloc

       You should not use perl's malloc if you are building with gcc.  There are reports of core
       dumps, especially in the PDL module.  The problem appears to go away under -DDEBUGGING, so
       it has been difficult to track down.  Sun's compiler appears to be okay with or without
       perl's malloc. [XXX further investigation is needed here.]

       Dynamic Loading Problems With GNU as and GNU ld
	   If you have problems with dynamic loading using gcc on SunOS or Solaris, and you are
	   using GNU as and GNU ld, see the section "GNU as and GNU ld" above.

       ld.so.1: ./perl: fatal: relocation error:
	   If you get this message on SunOS or Solaris, and you're using gcc, it's probably the
	   GNU as or GNU ld problem in the previous item "GNU as and GNU ld".

       dlopen: stub interception failed
	   The primary cause of the 'dlopen: stub interception failed' message is that the
	   LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes a directory which is a symlink to
	   /usr/lib (such as /lib).  See "LD_LIBRARY_PATH" above.

       #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified"
	   This is a common error when trying to build perl on Solaris 2.6 with a gcc installa-
	   tion from Solaris 2.5 or 2.5.1.  The Solaris header files changed, so you need to
	   update your gcc installation.  You can either rerun the fixincludes script from gcc or
	   take the opportunity to update your gcc installation.

       sh: ar: not found
	   This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar' was not found.
	   You need to check your PATH environment variable to make sure that it includes the
	   directory with the 'ar' command.  This is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is
	   in the /usr/ccs/bin/ directory.

       op/stat.t test 4 in Solaris

       op/stat.t test 4 may fail if you are on a tmpfs of some sort.  Building in /tmp sometimes
       shows this behavior.  The test suite detects if you are building in /tmp, but it may not
       be able to catch all tmpfs situations.

       nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent

       See "nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent" in perlhpux.

       You can pick up prebuilt binaries for Solaris from <http://www.sunfreeware.com/>, ActiveS-
       tate <http://www.activestate.com/>, and <http://www.perl.com/> under the Binaries list at
       the top of the page.  There are probably other sources as well.	Please note that these
       sites are under the control of their respective owners, not the perl developers.

       Limits on Numbers of Open Files on Solaris.

       The stdio(3C) manpage notes that only 255 files may be opened using fopen(), and only file
       descriptors 0 through 255 can be used in a stream.  Since perl calls open() and then
       fdopen(3C) with the resulting file descriptor, perl is limited to 255 simultaneous open

       See the modules under the Solaris:: namespace on CPAN, <http://www.cpan.org/mod-

       Proc::ProcessTable on Solaris

       Proc::ProcessTable does not compile on Solaris with perl5.6.0 and higher if you have
       LARGEFILES defined.  Since largefile support is the default in 5.6.0 and later, you have
       to take special steps to use this module.

       The problem is that various structures visible via procfs use off_t, and if you compile
       with largefile support these change from 32 bits to 64 bits.  Thus what you get back from
       procfs doesn't match up with the structures in perl, resulting in garbage.  See proc(4)
       for further discussion.

       A fix for Proc::ProcessTable is to edit Makefile to explicitly remove the largefile flags
       from the ones MakeMaker picks up from Config.pm.  This will result in Proc::ProcessTable
       being built under the correct environment.  Everything should then be OK as long as
       Proc::ProcessTable doesn't try to share off_t's with the rest of perl, or if it does they
       should be explicitly specified as off64_t.

       BSD::Resource on Solaris

       BSD::Resource versions earlier than 1.09 do not compile on Solaris with perl 5.6.0 and
       higher, for the same reasons as Proc::ProcessTable.  BSD::Resource versions starting from
       1.09 have a workaround for the problem.

       Net::SSLeay on Solaris

       Net::SSLeay requires a /dev/urandom to be present. This device is not part of Solaris. You
       can either get the package SUNWski (packaged with several Sun software products, for exam-
       ple the Sun WebServer, which is part of the Solaris Server Intranet Extension, or the Sun
       Directory Services, part of Solaris for ISPs) or download the ANDIrand package from
       <http://www.cosy.sbg.ac.at/~andi/>. If you use SUNWski, make a symbolic link /dev/urandom
       pointing to /dev/random.

       It may be possible to use the Entropy Gathering Daemon (written in Perl!), available from

       The original was written by Andy Dougherty doughera@lafayette.edu drawing heavily on
       advice from Alan Burlison, Nick Ing-Simmons, Tim Bunce, and many other Solaris users over
       the years.

       Please report any errors, updates, or suggestions to perlbug@perl.org.

       $Id: README.solaris,v 1.4 2000/11/11 20:29:58 doughera Exp $

perl v5.8.0				    2003-02-18				   PERLSOLARIS(1)

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