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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for perlmodlib (redhat section 1)

PERLMODLIB(1)			 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		    PERLMODLIB(1)

NAME
       perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones

THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
       Many modules are included in the Perl distribution.  These are described below, and all
       end in .pm.  You may discover compiled library files (usually ending in .so) or small
       pieces of modules to be autoloaded (ending in .al); these were automatically generated by
       the installation process.  You may also discover files in the library directory that end
       in either .pl or .ph.  These are old libraries supplied so that old programs that use them
       still run.  The .pl files will all eventually be converted into standard modules, and the
       .ph files made by h2ph will probably end up as extension modules made by h2xs.  (Some .ph
       values may already be available through the POSIX, Errno, or Fcntl modules.)  The pl2pm
       file in the distribution may help in your conversion, but it's just a mechanical process
       and therefore far from bulletproof.

       Pragmatic Modules

       They work somewhat like compiler directives (pragmata) in that they tend to affect the
       compilation of your program, and thus will usually work well only when used within a
       "use", or "no".	Most of these are lexically scoped, so an inner BLOCK may countermand
       them by saying:

	   no integer;
	   no strict 'refs';
	   no warnings;

       which lasts until the end of that BLOCK.

       Some pragmas are lexically scoped--typically those that affect the $^H hints variable.
       Others affect the current package instead, like "use vars" and "use subs", which allow you
       to predeclare a variables or subroutines within a particular file rather than just a
       block.  Such declarations are effective for the entire file for which they were declared.
       You cannot rescind them with "no vars" or "no subs".

       The following pragmas are defined (and have their own documentation).

       attributes  Get/set subroutine or variable attributes

       attrs	   Set/get attributes of a subroutine (deprecated)

       autouse	   Postpone load of modules until a function is used

       base	   Establish IS-A relationship with base class at compile time

       bigint	   Transparent BigInteger support for Perl

       bignum	   Transparent BigNumber support for Perl

       bigrat	   Transparent BigNumber/BigRationale support for Perl

       blib	   Use MakeMaker's uninstalled version of a package

       bytes	   Force byte semantics rather than character semantics

       charnames   Define character names for "\N{named}" string literal escapes

       constant    Declare constants

       diagnostics Perl compiler pragma to force verbose warning diagnostics

       encoding    Allows you to write your script in non-ascii or non-utf8

       fields	   Compile-time class fields

       filetest    Control the filetest permission operators

       if	   "use" a Perl module if a condition holds

       integer	   Use integer arithmetic instead of floating point

       less	   Request less of something from the compiler

       lib	   Manipulate @INC at compile time

       locale	   Use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in operations

       open	   Set default PerlIO layers for input and output

       ops	   Restrict unsafe operations when compiling

       overload    Package for overloading perl operations

       re	   Alter regular expression behaviour

       sigtrap	   Enable simple signal handling

       sort	   Control sort() behaviour

       strict	   Restrict unsafe constructs

       subs	   Predeclare sub names

       threads	   Perl extension allowing use of interpreter based threads from perl

       threads::shared
		   Perl extension for sharing data structures between threads

       utf8	   Enable/disable UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) in source code

       vars	   Predeclare global variable names (obsolete)

       version	   Perl extension for Version Objects

       vmsish	   Control VMS-specific language features

       warnings    Control optional warnings

       warnings::register
		   Warnings import function

       Standard Modules

       Standard, bundled modules are all expected to behave in a well-defined manner with respect
       to namespace pollution because they use the Exporter module.  See their own documentation
       for details.

       It's possible that not all modules listed below are installed on your system. For example,
       the GDBM_File module will not be installed if you don't have the gdbm library.

       AnyDBM_File Provide framework for multiple DBMs

       Attribute::Handlers
		   Simpler definition of attribute handlers

       AutoLoader  Load subroutines only on demand

       AutoSplit   Split a package for autoloading

       B	   The Perl Compiler

       B::Asmdata  Autogenerated data about Perl ops, used to generate bytecode

       B::Assembler
		   Assemble Perl bytecode

       B::Bblock   Walk basic blocks

       B::Bytecode Perl compiler's bytecode backend

       B::C	   Perl compiler's C backend

       B::CC	   Perl compiler's optimized C translation backend

       B::Concise  Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops

       B::Debug    Walk Perl syntax tree, printing debug info about ops

       B::Deparse  Perl compiler backend to produce perl code

       B::Disassembler
		   Disassemble Perl bytecode

       B::Lint	   Perl lint

       B::Showlex  Show lexical variables used in functions or files

       B::Stackobj Helper module for CC backend

       B::Stash    Show what stashes are loaded

       B::Terse    Walk Perl syntax tree, printing terse info about ops

       B::Xref	   Generates cross reference reports for Perl programs

       Benchmark   Benchmark running times of Perl code

       ByteLoader  Load byte compiled perl code

       CGI	   Simple Common Gateway Interface Class

       CGI::Apache Backward compatibility module for CGI.pm

       CGI::Carp   CGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or other) error log

       CGI::Cookie Interface to Netscape Cookies

       CGI::Fast   CGI Interface for Fast CGI

       CGI::Pretty Module to produce nicely formatted HTML code

       CGI::Push   Simple Interface to Server Push

       CGI::Switch Backward compatibility module for defunct CGI::Switch

       CGI::Util   Internal utilities used by CGI module

       CPAN	   Query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sites

       CPAN::FirstTime
		   Utility for CPAN::Config file Initialization

       CPAN::Nox   Wrapper around CPAN.pm without using any XS module

       Carp	   Warn of errors (from perspective of caller)

       Carp::Heavy No user serviceable parts inside

       Class::ISA  Report the search path for a class's ISA tree

       Class::Struct
		   Declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes

       Config	   Access Perl configuration information

       Cwd	   Get pathname of current working directory

       DB	   Programmatic interface to the Perl debugging API (draft, subject to

       DB_File	   Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x

       Data::Dumper
		   Stringified perl data structures, suitable for both printing and "eval"

       Devel::DProf
		   A Perl code profiler

       Devel::Peek A data debugging tool for the XS programmer

       Devel::SelfStubber
		   Generate stubs for a SelfLoading module

       Digest	   Modules that calculate message digests

       Digest::MD5 Perl interface to the MD5 Algorithm

       DirHandle   Supply object methods for directory handles

       Dumpvalue   Provides screen dump of Perl data.

       DynaLoader  Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code

       Encode	   Character encodings

       Encode::Alias
		   Alias definitions to encodings

       Encode::Byte
		   Single Byte Encodings

       Encode::CJKConstants
		   Internally used by Encode::??::ISO_2022_*

       Encode::CN  China-based Chinese Encodings

       Encode::CN::HZ
		   Internally used by Encode::CN

       Encode::Config
		   Internally used by Encode

       Encode::EBCDIC
		   EBCDIC Encodings

       Encode::Encoder
		   Object Oriented Encoder

       Encode::Encoding
		   Encode Implementation Base Class

       Encode::Guess
		   Guesses encoding from data

       Encode::JP  Japanese Encodings

       Encode::JP::H2Z
		   Internally used by Encode::JP::2022_JP*

       Encode::JP::JIS7
		   Internally used by Encode::JP

       Encode::KR  Korean Encodings

       Encode::KR::2022_KR
		   Internally used by Encode::KR

       Encode::MIME::Header
		   MIME 'B' and 'Q' header encoding

       Encode::PerlIO
		   A detailed document on Encode and PerlIO

       Encode::Supported
		   Encodings supported by Encode

       Encode::Symbol
		   Symbol Encodings

       Encode::TW  Taiwan-based Chinese Encodings

       Encode::Unicode
		   Various Unicode Transformation Formats

       English	   Use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punctuation variables

       Env	   Perl module that imports environment variables as scalars or arrays

       Errno	   System errno constants

       Exporter    Implements default import method for modules

       Exporter::Heavy
		   Exporter guts

       ExtUtils::Command
		   Utilities to replace common UNIX commands in Makefiles etc.

       ExtUtils::Command::MM
		   Commands for the MM's to use in Makefiles

       ExtUtils::Constant
		   Generate XS code to import C header constants

       ExtUtils::Embed
		   Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C++ applications

       ExtUtils::Install
		   Install files from here to there

       ExtUtils::Installed
		   Inventory management of installed modules

       ExtUtils::Liblist
		   Determine libraries to use and how to use them

       ExtUtils::MM
		   OS adjusted ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass

       ExtUtils::MM_Any
		   Platform agnostic MM methods

       ExtUtils::MM_BeOS
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_DOS
		   DOS specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

       ExtUtils::MM_MacOS
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_NW5
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_OS2
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_UWIN
		   U/WIN specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

       ExtUtils::MM_Unix
		   Methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_VMS
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_Win32
		   Methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

       ExtUtils::MM_Win95
		   Method to customize MakeMaker for Win9X

       ExtUtils::MY
		   ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass for customization

       ExtUtils::MakeMaker
		   Create an extension Makefile

       ExtUtils::Manifest
		   Utilities to write and check a MANIFEST file

       ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap
		   Make a bootstrap file for use by DynaLoader

       ExtUtils::Mksymlists
		   Write linker options files for dynamic extension

       ExtUtils::Packlist
		   Manage .packlist files

       ExtUtils::testlib
		   Add blib/* directories to @INC

       Fatal	   Replace functions with equivalents which succeed or die

       Fcntl	   Load the C Fcntl.h defines

       File::Basename
		   Split a pathname into pieces

       File::CheckTree
		   Run many filetest checks on a tree

       File::Compare
		   Compare files or filehandles

       File::Copy  Copy files or filehandles

       File::DosGlob
		   DOS like globbing and then some

       File::Find  Traverse a directory tree.

       File::Glob  Perl extension for BSD glob routine

       File::Path  Create or remove directory trees

       File::Spec  Portably perform operations on file names

       File::Spec::Cygwin
		   Methods for Cygwin file specs

       File::Spec::Epoc
		   Methods for Epoc file specs

       File::Spec::Functions
		   Portably perform operations on file names

       File::Spec::Mac
		   File::Spec for Mac OS (Classic)

       File::Spec::OS2
		   Methods for OS/2 file specs

       File::Spec::Unix
		   File::Spec for Unix, base for other File::Spec modules

       File::Spec::VMS
		   Methods for VMS file specs

       File::Spec::Win32
		   Methods for Win32 file specs

       File::Temp  Return name and handle of a temporary file safely

       File::stat  By-name interface to Perl's built-in stat() functions

       FileCache   Keep more files open than the system permits

       FileHandle  Supply object methods for filehandles

       Filter::Simple
		   Simplified source filtering

       Filter::Util::Call
		   Perl Source Filter Utility Module

       FindBin	   Locate directory of original perl script

       GDBM_File   Perl5 access to the gdbm library.

       Getopt::Long
		   Extended processing of command line options

       Getopt::Std Process single-character switches with switch clustering

       Hash::Util  A selection of general-utility hash subroutines

       I18N::Collate
		   Compare 8-bit scalar data according to the current locale

       I18N::LangTags
		   Functions for dealing with RFC3066-style language tags

       I18N::LangTags::List
		   Tags and names for human languages

       I18N::Langinfo
		   Query locale information

       IO	   Load various IO modules

       IO::Dir	   Supply object methods for directory handles

       IO::File    Supply object methods for filehandles

       IO::Handle  Supply object methods for I/O handles

       IO::Pipe    Supply object methods for pipes

       IO::Poll    Object interface to system poll call

       IO::Seekable
		   Supply seek based methods for I/O objects

       IO::Select  OO interface to the select system call

       IO::Socket  Object interface to socket communications

       IO::Socket::INET
		   Object interface for AF_INET domain sockets

       IO::Socket::UNIX
		   Object interface for AF_UNIX domain sockets

       IPC::Open2  Open a process for both reading and writing

       IPC::Open3  Open a process for reading, writing, and error handling

       IPC::SysV   SysV IPC constants

       IPC::SysV::Msg
		   SysV Msg IPC object class

       IPC::SysV::Semaphore
		   SysV Semaphore IPC object class

       List::Util  A selection of general-utility list subroutines

       Locale::Constants
		   Constants for Locale codes

       Locale::Country
		   ISO codes for country identification (ISO 3166)

       Locale::Currency
		   ISO three letter codes for currency identification (ISO 4217)

       Locale::Language
		   ISO two letter codes for language identification (ISO 639)

       Locale::Maketext
		   Framework for localization

       Locale::Maketext::TPJ13
		   Article about software localization

       Locale::Script
		   ISO codes for script identification (ISO 15924)

       MIME::Base64
		   Encoding and decoding of base64 strings

       MIME::Base64::QuotedPrint
		   Encoding and decoding of quoted-printable strings

       Math::BigFloat
		   Arbitrary size floating point math package

       Math::BigInt
		   Arbitrary size integer math package

       Math::BigInt::Calc
		   Pure Perl module to support Math::BigInt

       Math::BigInt::Scalar
		   Pure Perl module to test Math::BigInt with scalars

       Math::BigRat
		   Arbitrarily big rationales

       Math::Complex
		   Complex numbers and associated mathematical functions

       Math::Trig  Trigonometric functions

       Memoize	   Make functions faster by trading space for time

       Memoize::AnyDBM_File
		   Glue to provide EXISTS for AnyDBM_File for Storable use

       Memoize::Expire
		   Plug-in module for automatic expiration of memoized values

       Memoize::ExpireFile
		   Test for Memoize expiration semantics

       Memoize::ExpireTest
		   Test for Memoize expiration semantics

       Memoize::NDBM_File
		   Glue to provide EXISTS for NDBM_File for Storable use

       Memoize::SDBM_File
		   Glue to provide EXISTS for SDBM_File for Storable use

       Memoize::Storable
		   Store Memoized data in Storable database

       NDBM_File   Tied access to ndbm files

       NEXT	   Provide a pseudo-class NEXT that allows method redispatch

       Net::Cmd    Network Command class (as used by FTP, SMTP etc)

       Net::Config Local configuration data for libnet

       Net::Domain Attempt to evaluate the current host's internet name and domain

       Net::FTP    FTP Client class

       Net::NNTP   NNTP Client class

       Net::Netrc  OO interface to users netrc file

       Net::POP3   Post Office Protocol 3 Client class (RFC1939)

       Net::Ping   Check a remote host for reachability

       Net::SMTP   Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Client

       Net::Time   Time and daytime network client interface

       Net::hostent
		   By-name interface to Perl's built-in gethost*() functions

       Net::libnetFAQ
		   Libnet Frequently Asked Questions

       Net::netent By-name interface to Perl's built-in getnet*() functions

       Net::protoent
		   By-name interface to Perl's built-in getproto*() functions

       Net::servent
		   By-name interface to Perl's built-in getserv*() functions

       O	   Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends

       ODBM_File   Tied access to odbm files

       Opcode	   Disable named opcodes when compiling perl code

       POSIX	   Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1

       PerlIO	   On demand loader for PerlIO layers and root of PerlIO::* name space

       PerlIO::encoding
		   Encoding layer

       PerlIO::scalar
		   Support module for in-memory IO.

       PerlIO::via Helper class for PerlIO layers implemented in perl

       PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint
		   PerlIO layer for quoted-printable strings

       Pod::Checker
		   Check pod documents for syntax errors

       Pod::Find   Find POD documents in directory trees

       Pod::Functions
		   Group Perl's functions a la perlfunc.pod

       Pod::Html   Module to convert pod files to HTML

       Pod::InputObjects
		   Objects representing POD input paragraphs, commands, etc.

       Pod::LaTeX  Convert Pod data to formatted Latex

       Pod::Man    Convert POD data to formatted *roff input

       Pod::ParseLink
		   Parse an L<> formatting code in POD text

       Pod::ParseUtils
		   Helpers for POD parsing and conversion

       Pod::Parser Base class for creating POD filters and translators

       Pod::Plainer
		   Perl extension for converting Pod to old style Pod.

       Pod::Select Extract selected sections of POD from input

       Pod::Text   Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text

       Pod::Text::Color
		   Convert POD data to formatted color ASCII text

       Pod::Text::Overstrike
		   Convert POD data to formatted overstrike text

       Pod::Text::Termcap
		   Convert POD data to ASCII text with format escapes

       Pod::Usage  Print a usage message from embedded pod documentation

       SDBM_File   Tied access to sdbm files

       Safe	   Compile and execute code in restricted compartments

       Scalar::Util
		   A selection of general-utility scalar subroutines

       Search::Dict
		   Search for key in dictionary file

       SelectSaver Save and restore selected file handle

       SelfLoader  Load functions only on demand

       Shell	   Run shell commands transparently within perl

       Socket	   Load the C socket.h defines and structure manipulators

       Storable    Persistence for Perl data structures

       Switch	   A switch statement for Perl

       Symbol	   Manipulate Perl symbols and their names

       Sys::Hostname
		   Try every conceivable way to get hostname

       Sys::Syslog Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls

       Term::ANSIColor
		   Color screen output using ANSI escape sequences

       Term::Cap   Perl termcap interface

       Term::Complete
		   Perl word completion module

       Term::ReadLine
		   Perl interface to various "readline" packages.

       Test	   Provides a simple framework for writing test scripts

       Test::Builder
		   Backend for building test libraries

       Test::Harness
		   Run perl standard test scripts with statistics

       Test::Harness::Assert
		   Simple assert

       Test::Harness::Iterator
		   Internal Test::Harness Iterator

       Test::Harness::Straps
		   Detailed analysis of test results

       Test::More  Yet another framework for writing test scripts

       Test::Simple
		   Basic utilities for writing tests.

       Test::Tutorial
		   A tutorial about writing really basic tests

       Text::Abbrev
		   Create an abbreviation table from a list

       Text::Balanced
		   Extract delimited text sequences from strings.

       Text::ParseWords
		   Parse text into an array of tokens or array of arrays

       Text::Soundex
		   Implementation of the Soundex Algorithm as Described by Knuth

       Text::Tabs  Expand and unexpand tabs per the unix expand(1) and unexpand(1)

       Text::Wrap  Line wrapping to form simple paragraphs

       Thread	   Manipulate threads in Perl (for old code only)

       Thread::Queue
		   Thread-safe queues

       Thread::Semaphore
		   Thread-safe semaphores

       Thread::Signal
		   Start a thread which runs signal handlers reliably (for old code)

       Thread::Specific
		   Thread-specific keys

       Tie::Array  Base class for tied arrays

       Tie::File   Access the lines of a disk file via a Perl array

       Tie::Handle Base class definitions for tied handles

       Tie::Hash   Base class definitions for tied hashes

       Tie::Memoize
		   Add data to hash when needed

       Tie::RefHash
		   Use references as hash keys

       Tie::Scalar Base class definitions for tied scalars

       Tie::SubstrHash
		   Fixed-table-size, fixed-key-length hashing

       Time::HiRes High resolution alarm, sleep, gettimeofday, interval timers

       Time::Local Efficiently compute time from local and GMT time

       Time::gmtime
		   By-name interface to Perl's built-in gmtime() function

       Time::localtime
		   By-name interface to Perl's built-in localtime() function

       Time::tm    Internal object used by Time::gmtime and Time::localtime

       UNIVERSAL   Base class for ALL classes (blessed references)

       Unicode::Collate
		   Unicode Collation Algorithm

       Unicode::Normalize
		   Unicode Normalization Forms

       Unicode::UCD
		   Unicode character database

       User::grent By-name interface to Perl's built-in getgr*() functions

       User::pwent By-name interface to Perl's built-in getpw*() functions

       Win32	   Interfaces to some Win32 API Functions

       XS::APItest Test the perl C API

       XS::Typemap Module to test the XS typemaps distributed with perl

       XSLoader    Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code

       To find out all modules installed on your system, including those without documentation or
       outside the standard release, just do this:

	   % find `perl -Te 'print "@INC"'` -name '*.pm' -print

       (The -T is here to prevent '.' from being listed in @INC.)  They should all have their own
       documentation installed and accessible via your system man(1) command.  If you do not have
       a find program, you can use the Perl find2perl program instead, which generates Perl code
       as output you can run through perl.  If you have a man program but it doesn't find your
       modules, you'll have to fix your manpath.  See perl for details.  If you have no system
       man command, you might try the perldoc program.

       Note also that the command "perldoc perllocal" gives you a (possibly incomplete) list of
       the modules that have been further installed on your system. (The perllocal.pod file is
       updated by the standard MakeMaker install process.)

       Extension Modules

       Extension modules are written in C (or a mix of Perl and C).  They are usually dynamically
       loaded into Perl if and when you need them, but may also be linked in statically.  Sup-
       ported extension modules include Socket, Fcntl, and POSIX.

       Many popular C extension modules do not come bundled (at least, not completely) due to
       their sizes, volatility, or simply lack of time for adequate testing and configuration
       across the multitude of platforms on which Perl was beta-tested.  You are encouraged to
       look for them on CPAN (described below), or using web search engines like Alta Vista or
       Google.

CPAN
       CPAN stands for Comprehensive Perl Archive Network; it's a globally replicated trove of
       Perl materials, including documentation, style guides, tricks and traps, alternate ports
       to non-Unix systems and occasional binary distributions for these.   Search engines for
       CPAN can be found at http://www.cpan.org/

       Most importantly, CPAN includes around a thousand unbundled modules, some of which require
       a C compiler to build.  Major categories of modules are:

       o   Language Extensions and Documentation Tools

       o   Development Support

       o   Operating System Interfaces

       o   Networking, Device Control (modems) and InterProcess Communication

       o   Data Types and Data Type Utilities

       o   Database Interfaces

       o   User Interfaces

       o   Interfaces to / Emulations of Other Programming Languages

       o   File Names, File Systems and File Locking (see also File Handles)

       o   String Processing, Language Text Processing, Parsing, and Searching

       o   Option, Argument, Parameter, and Configuration File Processing

       o   Internationalization and Locale

       o   Authentication, Security, and Encryption

       o   World Wide Web, HTML, HTTP, CGI, MIME

       o   Server and Daemon Utilities

       o   Archiving and Compression

       o   Images, Pixmap and Bitmap Manipulation, Drawing, and Graphing

       o   Mail and Usenet News

       o   Control Flow Utilities (callbacks and exceptions etc)

       o   File Handle and Input/Output Stream Utilities

       o   Miscellaneous Modules

       The list of the registered CPAN sites as of this writing follows.  Please note that the
       sorting order is alphabetical on fields:

       Continent
	  |
	  |-->Country
		|
		|-->[state/province]
			  |
			  |-->ftp
			  |
			  |-->[http]

       and thus the North American servers happen to be listed between the European and the South
       American sites.

       You should try to choose one close to you.

       Africa

       South Africa
				 ftp://ftp.is.co.za/programming/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.mweb.co.za/pub/mirrors/cpan/
				 ftp://ftp.saix.net/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.sun.ac.za/CPAN/CPAN/

       Asia

       China
				 ftp://freesoft.cei.gov.cn/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 http://www2.linuxforum.net/mirror/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.shellhung.org/
				 ftp://ftp.shellhung.org/pub/CPAN

       India
				 http://cpan.in.freeos.com
				 ftp://cpan.in.freeos.com/pub/CPAN/

       Indonesia
				 http://cpan.itb.web.id/
				 ftp://mirrors.piksi.itb.ac.id/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.cbn.net.id/
				 ftp://ftp.cbn.net.id/mirror/CPAN
				 http://CPAN.mweb.co.id/
				 ftp://ftp.mweb.co.id/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/

       Israel
				 http://www.iglu.org.il:/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.iglu.org.il/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.lerner.co.il/
				 http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/pub/software/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/pub/software/perl/CPAN/

       Japan
				 ftp://ftp.u-aizu.ac.jp/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.kddlabs.co.jp/CPAN/
				 http://mirror.nucba.ac.jp/mirror/Perl/
				 ftp://mirror.nucba.ac.jp/mirror/Perl/
				 ftp://ftp.meisei-u.ac.jp/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.ayamura.org/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.jaist.ac.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.dti.ad.jp/pub/lang/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.ring.gr.jp/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/

       Korea
				 http://mirror.Mazic.org/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://mirror.Mazic.org/pub/CPAN

       Philippines
				 http://www.adzu.edu.ph/CPAN

       Russian Federation
				 http://cpan.tomsk.ru
				 ftp://cpan.tomsk.ru/pub/CPAN

       Saudi Arabia
				 ftp://ftp.isu.net.sa/pub/CPAN/

       Singapore
				 http://cpan.hjc.edu.sg
				 http://mirror.averse.net/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://mirror.averse.net/pub/CPAN

       South Korea
				 http://CPAN.bora.net/
				 ftp://ftp.bora.net/pub/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.kornet.net/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.kornet.net/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.nuri.net/pub/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.xgate.co.kr/cpan/
				 ftp://ftp.xgate.co.kr/pub/mirror/CPAN

       Taiwan
				 ftp://ftp.nctu.edu.tw/UNIX/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.ee.ncku.edu.tw/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp1.sinica.edu.tw/pub1/perl/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.tku.edu.tw/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.tku.edu.tw/pub/CPAN/

       Thailand
				 ftp://ftp.loxinfo.co.th/pub/cpan/
				 ftp://ftp.cs.riubon.ac.th/pub/mirrors/CPAN/

       Central America

       Costa Rica
				 ftp://ftp.linux.co.cr/mirrors/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.ucr.ac.cr/Unix/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.ucr.ac.cr/pub/Unix/CPAN/

       Europe

       Austria
				 ftp://ftp.tuwien.ac.at/pub/CPAN/

       Belgium
				 http://ftp.easynet.be/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.easynet.be/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.skynet.be
				 ftp://ftp.skynet.be/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.kulnet.kuleuven.ac.be/pub/mirror/CPAN/

       Bulgaria
				 http://cpan.lirex.net/
				 ftp://ftp.lirex.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN

       Croatia
				 http://ftp.linux.hr/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.linux.hr/pub/CPAN/

       Czech Republic
				 http://ftp.fi.muni.cz/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.fi.muni.cz/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://sunsite.mff.cuni.cz/MIRRORS/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/

       Denmark
				 http://mirrors.sunsite.dk/cpan/
				 ftp://sunsite.dk/mirrors/cpan/
				 http://cpan.cybercity.dk
				 http://www.cpan.dk/CPAN/
				 ftp://www.cpan.dk/ftp.cpan.org/CPAN/

       Estonia
				 ftp://ftp.ut.ee/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/

       Finland
				 ftp://ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.kpnqwest.fi/

       France
				 http://ftp.u-paris10.fr/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.u-paris10.fr/perl/CPAN
				 http://cpan.mirrors.easynet.fr/
				 ftp://cpan.mirrors.easynet.fr/pub/ftp.cpan.org/
				 ftp://ftp.club-internet.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 http://fr.cpan.org/
				 ftp://ftp.lip6.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.oleane.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.pasteur.fr/pub/computing/CPAN/
				 http://mir2.ovh.net/ftp.cpan.org
				 ftp://mir1.ovh.net/ftp.cpan.org
				 http://ftp.u-strasbg.fr/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.u-strasbg.fr/CPAN
				 http://cpan.cict.fr/
				 ftp://cpan.cict.fr/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.uvsq.fr/pub/perl/CPAN/

       Germany
				 ftp://ftp.rz.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.freenet.de/pub/ftp.cpan.org/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.uni-erlangen.de/pub/source/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp-stud.fht-esslingen.de/pub/Mirrors/CPAN
				 http://pandemonium.tiscali.de/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://pandemonium.tiscali.de/pub/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.gwdg.de/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.uni-hamburg.de/pub/soft/lang/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.leo.org/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.noris.de/
				 ftp://cpan.noris.de/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.mpi-sb.mpg.de/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.gmd.de/mirrors/CPAN/

       Greece
				 ftp://ftp.acn.gr/pub/lang/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.forthnet.gr/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.ntua.gr/pub/lang/perl/

       Hungary
				 http://cpan.artifact.hu/
				 ftp://cpan.artifact.hu/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.kfki.hu/packages/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.kfki.hu/pub/packages/perl/CPAN/

       Iceland
				 http://ftp.rhnet.is/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.rhnet.is/pub/CPAN/

       Ireland
				 http://cpan.indigo.ie/
				 ftp://cpan.indigo.ie/pub/CPAN/
				 http://sunsite.compapp.dcu.ie/pub/perl/
				 ftp://sunsite.compapp.dcu.ie/pub/perl/

       Italy
				 http://cpan.nettuno.it/
				 http://gusp.dyndns.org/CPAN/
				 ftp://gusp.dyndns.org/pub/CPAN
				 http://softcity.iol.it/cpan
				 ftp://softcity.iol.it/pub/cpan
				 ftp://ftp.unina.it/pub/Other/CPAN/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.unipi.it/pub/mirror/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://cis.uniRoma2.it/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.edisontel.it/pub/CPAN_Mirror/
				 ftp://ftp.flashnet.it/pub/CPAN/

       Latvia
				 http://kvin.lv/pub/CPAN/

       Lithuania
				 ftp://ftp.unix.lt/pub/CPAN/

       Netherlands
				 ftp://download.xs4all.nl/pub/mirror/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.nl.uu.net/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.nluug.nl/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.cybercomm.nl/
				 ftp://mirror.cybercomm.nl/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.cpan.nl/pub/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.easynet.nl/mirror/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.easynet.nl/mirror/CPAN
				 http://archive.cs.uu.nl/mirror/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.cs.uu.nl/mirror/CPAN/

       Norway
				 ftp://ftp.uninett.no/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.uit.no/pub/languages/perl/cpan/

       Poland
				 ftp://ftp.pk.edu.pl/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.mega.net.pl/pub/mirrors/ftp.perl.com/
				 ftp://ftp.man.torun.pl/pub/doc/CPAN/
				 ftp://sunsite.icm.edu.pl/pub/CPAN/

       Portugal
				 ftp://ftp.ua.pt/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://perl.di.uminho.pt/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.dei.uc.pt/
				 ftp://ftp.dei.uc.pt/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.ist.utl.pt/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.ip.pt/
				 ftp://cpan.ip.pt/pub/cpan/
				 ftp://ftp.netc.pt/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.up.pt/pub/CPAN

       Romania
				 ftp://ftp.kappa.ro/pub/mirrors/ftp.perl.org/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.dntis.ro/pub/cpan/
				 ftp://ftp.dnttm.ro/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.lasting.ro/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.timisoara.roedu.net/mirrors/CPAN/

       Russia
				 ftp://ftp.chg.ru/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.rinet.ru/
				 ftp://cpan.rinet.ru/pub/mirror/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.aha.ru/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.sai.msu.ru/
				 ftp://ftp.sai.msu.su/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/

       Slovakia
				 http://ftp.cvt.stuba.sk/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.cvt.stuba.sk/pub/CPAN/

       Slovenia
				 ftp://ftp.arnes.si/software/perl/CPAN/

       Spain
				 http://cpan.imasd.elmundo.es/
				 ftp://ftp.rediris.es/mirror/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.etse.urv.es/pub/perl/

       Sweden
				 http://ftp.du.se/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.du.se/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://mirror.dataphone.se/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/lang/perl/CPAN/

       Switzerland
				 ftp://ftp.danyk.ch/CPAN/
				 ftp://sunsite.cnlab-switch.ch/mirror/CPAN/

       Turkey
				 http://ftp.ulak.net.tr/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.ulak.net.tr/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://sunsite.bilkent.edu.tr/pub/languages/CPAN/

       Ukraine
				 http://cpan.org.ua/
				 ftp://cpan.org.ua/
				 ftp://ftp.perl.org.ua/pub/CPAN/

       United Kingdom
				 http://www.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.mirror.ac.uk/sites/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.teleglobe.net/
				 ftp://cpan.teleglobe.net/pub/CPAN
				 http://cpan.crazygreek.co.uk
				 ftp://ftp.demon.co.uk/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.m.flirble.org/
				 ftp://ftp.flirble.org/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.plig.org/pub/CPAN/
				 http://mirror.uklinux.net/CPAN/
				 ftp://mirror.uklinux.net/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.mirrors.clockerz.net/
				 ftp://ftp.clockerz.net/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://usit.shef.ac.uk/pub/packages/CPAN/

       North America

       Alberta
				 http://sunsite.ualberta.ca/pub/Mirror/CPAN/
				 ftp://sunsite.ualberta.ca/pub/Mirror/CPAN/

       Manitoba
				 http://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca/pub/CPAN/

       Nova Scotia
				 ftp://cpan.chebucto.ns.ca/pub/CPAN/

       Ontario
				 ftp://ftp.crc.ca/pub/CPAN/

       Quebec
				 http://cpan.mirror.smartworker.org/

       Mexico
				 http://cpan.azc.uam.mx
				 ftp://cpan.azc.uam.mx/mirrors/CPAN
				 http://cpan.unam.mx/
				 ftp://cpan.unam.mx/pub/CPAN
				 http://www.msg.com.mx/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.msg.com.mx/pub/CPAN/

       United States

       Alabama
				 http://mirror.hiwaay.net/CPAN/
				 ftp://mirror.hiwaay.net/CPAN/

       California
				 http://cpan.develooper.com/
				 http://www.cpan.org/
				 ftp://cpan.valueclick.com/pub/CPAN/
				 http://mirrors.gossamer-threads.com/CPAN
				 ftp://cpan.nas.nasa.gov/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 http://mirrors.kernel.org/cpan/
				 ftp://mirrors.kernel.org/pub/CPAN
				 http://cpan.digisle.net/
				 ftp://cpan.digisle.net/pub/CPAN
				 http://www.perl.com/CPAN/
				 http://download.sourceforge.net/mirrors/CPAN/

       Colorado
				 ftp://ftp.cs.colorado.edu/pub/perl/CPAN/

       Delaware
				 http://ftp.lug.udel.edu/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://ftp.lug.udel.edu/pub/CPAN

       District of Columbia
				 ftp://ftp.dc.aleron.net/pub/CPAN/

       Florida
				 ftp://ftp.cise.ufl.edu/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
				 http://mirror.csit.fsu.edu/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://mirror.csit.fsu.edu/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.mirrors.nks.net/

       Illinois
				 http://uiarchive.uiuc.edu/mirrors/ftp/cpan.cse.msu.edu/
				 ftp://uiarchive.uiuc.edu/mirrors/ftp/cpan.cse.msu.edu/

       Indiana
				 ftp://ftp.uwsg.iu.edu/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.netnitco.net/
				 ftp://cpan.netnitco.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
				 http://archive.progeny.com/CPAN/
				 ftp://archive.progeny.com/CPAN/
				 ftp://cpan.in-span.net/
				 http://csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu/pub/CPAN
				 ftp://csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu/pub/CPAN

       Kentucky
				 http://cpan.uky.edu/
				 ftp://cpan.uky.edu/pub/CPAN/

       Massachusetts
				 ftp://ftp.ccs.neu.edu/net/mirrors/ftp.funet.fi/pub/languages/perl/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.mirrors.netnumina.com/
				 ftp://mirrors.netnumina.com/cpan/

       Michigan
				 ftp://cpan.cse.msu.edu/

       New Jersey
				 ftp://ftp.cpanel.net/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.teleglobe.net/
				 ftp://cpan.teleglobe.net/pub/CPAN

       New York
				 ftp://ftp.exobit.org/pub/perl/CPAN
				 http://cpan.belfry.net/
				 http://cpan.thepirtgroup.com/
				 ftp://cpan.thepirtgroup.com/
				 ftp://ftp.stealth.net/pub/CPAN/
				 http://www.rge.com/pub/languages/perl/
				 ftp://ftp.rge.com/pub/languages/perl/
				 ftp://mirrors.cloud9.net/pub/mirrors/CPAN/

       North Carolina
				 ftp://ftp.duke.edu/pub/perl/

       Ohio
				 ftp://ftp.loaded.net/pub/CPAN/

       Oklahoma
				 ftp://ftp.ou.edu/mirrors/CPAN/

       Oregon
				 ftp://ftp.orst.edu/pub/CPAN

       Pennsylvania
				 http://ftp.epix.net/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.epix.net/pub/languages/perl/
				 http://mirrors.phenominet.com/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://mirrors.phenominet.com/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.pair.com/
				 ftp://cpan.pair.com/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://carroll.cac.psu.edu/pub/CPAN/

       Tennessee
				 ftp://ftp.sunsite.utk.edu/pub/CPAN/

       Texas
				 http://ftp.sedl.org/pub/mirrors/CPAN/
				 ftp://mirror.telentente.com/pub/CPAN

       Utah
				 ftp://mirror.xmission.com/CPAN/

       Virginia
				 http://mirrors.rcn.net/pub/lang/CPAN/
				 ftp://mirrors.rcn.net/pub/lang/CPAN/
				 http://perl.secsup.org/
				 ftp://perl.secsup.org/pub/perl/
				 http://mirrors.phihost.com/CPAN/
				 ftp://mirrors.phihost.com/CPAN/
				 ftp://ruff.cs.jmu.edu/pub/CPAN/
				 http://perl.Liquidation.com/CPAN/

       ashington
				 http://cpan.llarian.net/
				 ftp://cpan.llarian.net/pub/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.mirrorcentral.com/
				 ftp://ftp.mirrorcentral.com/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp-mirror.internap.com/pub/CPAN/

       Wisconsin
				 http://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://mirror.sit.wisc.edu/pub/CPAN/

       Oceania

       Australia
				 http://ftp.planetmirror.com/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.planetmirror.com/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://mirror.aarnet.edu.au/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 ftp://cpan.topend.com.au/pub/CPAN/

       New Zealand
				 ftp://ftp.auckland.ac.nz/pub/perl/CPAN/
				 http://cpan.soa.co.nz/CPAN/

       South America

       Argentina
				 ftp://mirrors.bannerlandia.com.ar/mirrors/CPAN/
				 http://ftp.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar/pub/CPAN/

       Brazil
				 ftp://cpan.pop-mg.com.br/pub/CPAN/
				 ftp://ftp.matrix.com.br/pub/perl/CPAN/

       Chile
				 http://cpan.netglobalis.net/
				 ftp://cpan.netglobalis.net/pub/CPAN/

       RSYNC Mirrors

			     ftp.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar::CPAN
			     cpan.mirror.smartworker.org::CPAN
			     theoryx5.uwinnipeg.ca::CPAN
			     ftp.shellhung.org::CPAN
			     ftp.funet.fi::CPAN
			     ftp.u-paris10.fr::CPAN
			     mir1.ovh.net::CPAN
			     ftp.gwdg.de::FTP/languages/perl/CPAN/
			     ftp.leo.org::CPAN
			     CPAN.piksi.itb.ac.id::CPAN
			     ftp.cbn.net.id::CPAN
			     ftp.iglu.org.il::CPAN
			     gusp.dyndns.org::cpan
			     ftp.kddlabs.co.jp::cpan
			     ftp.ayamura.org::pub/CPAN/
			     mirror.averse.net::cpan
			     cpan.teleglobe.net::CPAN
			     ftp.sedl.org::cpan
			     archive.progeny.com::CPAN
			     cpan.teleglobe.net::CPAN
			     ftp.lug.udel.edu::cpan
			     mirrors.kernel.org::mirrors/CPAN
			     mirrors.phenominet.com::CPAN
			     mirror.csit.fsu.edu::CPAN
			     csociety-ftp.ecn.purdue.edu::CPAN

       For an up-to-date listing of CPAN sites, see http://www.cpan.org/SITES or
       ftp://www.cpan.org/SITES .

Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
       (The following section is borrowed directly from Tim Bunce's modules file, available at
       your nearest CPAN site.)

       Perl implements a class using a package, but the presence of a package doesn't imply the
       presence of a class.  A package is just a namespace.  A class is a package that provides
       subroutines that can be used as methods.  A method is just a subroutine that expects, as
       its first argument, either the name of a package (for "static" methods), or a reference to
       something (for "virtual" methods).

       A module is a file that (by convention) provides a class of the same name (sans the .pm),
       plus an import method in that class that can be called to fetch exported symbols.  This
       module may implement some of its methods by loading dynamic C or C++ objects, but that
       should be totally transparent to the user of the module.  Likewise, the module might set
       up an AUTOLOAD function to slurp in subroutine definitions on demand, but this is also
       transparent.  Only the .pm file is required to exist.  See perlsub, perltoot, and
       AutoLoader for details about the AUTOLOAD mechanism.

       Guidelines for Module Creation

       o   Do similar modules already exist in some form?

	   If so, please try to reuse the existing modules either in whole or by inheriting use-
	   ful features into a new class.  If this is not practical try to get together with the
	   module authors to work on extending or enhancing the functionality of the existing
	   modules.  A perfect example is the plethora of packages in perl4 for dealing with com-
	   mand line options.

	   If you are writing a module to expand an already existing set of modules, please coor-
	   dinate with the author of the package.  It helps if you follow the same naming scheme
	   and module interaction scheme as the original author.

       o   Try to design the new module to be easy to extend and reuse.

	   Try to "use warnings;" (or "use warnings qw(...);").  Remember that you can add "no
	   warnings qw(...);" to individual blocks of code that need less warnings.

	   Use blessed references.  Use the two argument form of bless to bless into the class
	   name given as the first parameter of the constructor, e.g.,:

	    sub new {
		my $class = shift;
		return bless {}, $class;
	    }

	   or even this if you'd like it to be used as either a static or a virtual method.

	    sub new {
		my $self  = shift;
		my $class = ref($self) || $self;
		return bless {}, $class;
	    }

	   Pass arrays as references so more parameters can be added later (it's also faster).
	   Convert functions into methods where appropriate.  Split large methods into smaller
	   more flexible ones.	Inherit methods from other modules if appropriate.

	   Avoid class name tests like: "die "Invalid" unless ref $ref eq 'FOO'".  Generally you
	   can delete the "eq 'FOO'" part with no harm at all.	Let the objects look after them-
	   selves! Generally, avoid hard-wired class names as far as possible.

	   Avoid "$r->Class::func()" where using "@ISA=qw(... Class ...)" and "$r->func()" would
	   work (see perlbot for more details).

	   Use autosplit so little used or newly added functions won't be a burden to programs
	   that don't use them. Add test functions to the module after __END__ either using
	   AutoSplit or by saying:

	    eval join('',<main::DATA>) || die $@ unless caller();

	   Does your module pass the 'empty subclass' test? If you say "@SUBCLASS::ISA = qw(YOUR-
	   CLASS);" your applications should be able to use SUBCLASS in exactly the same way as
	   YOURCLASS.  For example, does your application still work if you change:  "$obj = new
	   YOURCLASS;" into: "$obj = new SUBCLASS;" ?

	   Avoid keeping any state information in your packages. It makes it difficult for multi-
	   ple other packages to use yours. Keep state information in objects.

	   Always use -w.

	   Try to "use strict;" (or "use strict qw(...);").  Remember that you can add "no strict
	   qw(...);" to individual blocks of code that need less strictness.

	   Always use -w.

	   Follow the guidelines in the perlstyle(1) manual.

	   Always use -w.

       o   Some simple style guidelines

	   The perlstyle manual supplied with Perl has many helpful points.

	   Coding style is a matter of personal taste. Many people evolve their style over sev-
	   eral years as they learn what helps them write and maintain good code.  Here's one set
	   of assorted suggestions that seem to be widely used by experienced developers:

	   Use underscores to separate words.  It is generally easier to read
	   $var_names_like_this than $VarNamesLikeThis, especially for non-native speakers of
	   English. It's also a simple rule that works consistently with VAR_NAMES_LIKE_THIS.

	   Package/Module names are an exception to this rule. Perl informally reserves lowercase
	   module names for 'pragma' modules like integer and strict. Other modules normally
	   begin with a capital letter and use mixed case with no underscores (need to be short
	   and portable).

	   You may find it helpful to use letter case to indicate the scope or nature of a vari-
	   able. For example:

	    $ALL_CAPS_HERE   constants only (beware clashes with Perl vars)
	    $Some_Caps_Here  package-wide global/static
	    $no_caps_here    function scope my() or local() variables

	   Function and method names seem to work best as all lowercase.  e.g.,
	   "$obj->as_string()".

	   You can use a leading underscore to indicate that a variable or function should not be
	   used outside the package that defined it.

       o   Select what to export.

	   Do NOT export method names!

	   Do NOT export anything else by default without a good reason!

	   Exports pollute the namespace of the module user.  If you must export try to use
	   @EXPORT_OK in preference to @EXPORT and avoid short or common names to reduce the risk
	   of name clashes.

	   Generally anything not exported is still accessible from outside the module using the
	   ModuleName::item_name (or "$blessed_ref->method") syntax.  By convention you can use a
	   leading underscore on names to indicate informally that they are 'internal' and not
	   for public use.

	   (It is actually possible to get private functions by saying: "my $subref = sub { ...
	   };  &$subref;".  But there's no way to call that directly as a method, because a
	   method must have a name in the symbol table.)

	   As a general rule, if the module is trying to be object oriented then export nothing.
	   If it's just a collection of functions then @EXPORT_OK anything but use @EXPORT with
	   caution.

       o   Select a name for the module.

	   This name should be as descriptive, accurate, and complete as possible.  Avoid any
	   risk of ambiguity. Always try to use two or more whole words.  Generally the name
	   should reflect what is special about what the module does rather than how it does it.
	   Please use nested module names to group informally or categorize a module.  There
	   should be a very good reason for a module not to have a nested name.  Module names
	   should begin with a capital letter.

	   Having 57 modules all called Sort will not make life easy for anyone (though having 23
	   called Sort::Quick is only marginally better :-).  Imagine someone trying to install
	   your module alongside many others.  If in any doubt ask for suggestions in
	   comp.lang.perl.misc.

	   If you are developing a suite of related modules/classes it's good practice to use
	   nested classes with a common prefix as this will avoid namespace clashes. For example:
	   Xyz::Control, Xyz::View, Xyz::Model etc. Use the modules in this list as a naming
	   guide.

	   If adding a new module to a set, follow the original author's standards for naming
	   modules and the interface to methods in those modules.

	   If developing modules for private internal or project specific use, that will never be
	   released to the public, then you should ensure that their names will not clash with
	   any future public module. You can do this either by using the reserved Local::* cate-
	   gory or by using a category name that includes an underscore like Foo_Corp::*.

	   To be portable each component of a module name should be limited to 11 characters. If
	   it might be used on MS-DOS then try to ensure each is unique in the first 8 charac-
	   ters. Nested modules make this easier.

       o   Have you got it right?

	   How do you know that you've made the right decisions? Have you picked an interface
	   design that will cause problems later? Have you picked the most appropriate name? Do
	   you have any questions?

	   The best way to know for sure, and pick up many helpful suggestions, is to ask someone
	   who knows. Comp.lang.perl.misc is read by just about all the people who develop mod-
	   ules and it's the best place to ask.

	   All you need to do is post a short summary of the module, its purpose and interfaces.
	   A few lines on each of the main methods is probably enough. (If you post the whole
	   module it might be ignored by busy people - generally the very people you want to read
	   it!)

	   Don't worry about posting if you can't say when the module will be ready - just say so
	   in the message. It might be worth inviting others to help you, they may be able to
	   complete it for you!

       o   README and other Additional Files.

	   It's well known that software developers usually fully document the software they
	   write. If, however, the world is in urgent need of your software and there is not
	   enough time to write the full documentation please at least provide a README file con-
	   taining:

	   o	     A description of the module/package/extension etc.

	   o	     A copyright notice - see below.

	   o	     Prerequisites - what else you may need to have.

	   o	     How to build it - possible changes to Makefile.PL etc.

	   o	     How to install it.

	   o	     Recent changes in this release, especially incompatibilities

	   o	     Changes / enhancements you plan to make in the future.

	   If the README file seems to be getting too large you may wish to split out some of the
	   sections into separate files: INSTALL, Copying, ToDo etc.

	   o   Adding a Copyright Notice.

	       How you choose to license your work is a personal decision.  The general mechanism
	       is to assert your Copyright and then make a declaration of how others may
	       copy/use/modify your work.

	       Perl, for example, is supplied with two types of licence: The GNU GPL and The
	       Artistic Licence (see the files README, Copying, and Artistic).	Larry has good
	       reasons for NOT just using the GNU GPL.

	       My personal recommendation, out of respect for Larry, Perl, and the Perl community
	       at large is to state something simply like:

		Copyright (c) 1995 Your Name. All rights reserved.
		This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
		modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

	       This statement should at least appear in the README file. You may also wish to
	       include it in a Copying file and your source files.  Remember to include the other
	       words in addition to the Copyright.

	   o   Give the module a version/issue/release number.

	       To be fully compatible with the Exporter and MakeMaker modules you should store
	       your module's version number in a non-my package variable called $VERSION.  This
	       should be a floating point number with at least two digits after the decimal
	       (i.e., hundredths, e.g, "$VERSION = "0.01"").  Don't use a "1.3.2" style version.
	       See Exporter for details.

	       It may be handy to add a function or method to retrieve the number.  Use the num-
	       ber in announcements and archive file names when releasing the module (Module-
	       Name-1.02.tar.Z).  See perldoc ExtUtils::MakeMaker.pm for details.

	   o   How to release and distribute a module.

	       It's good idea to post an announcement of the availability of your module (or the
	       module itself if small) to the comp.lang.perl.announce Usenet newsgroup.  This
	       will at least ensure very wide once-off distribution.

	       If possible, register the module with CPAN.  You should include details of its
	       location in your announcement.

	       Some notes about ftp archives: Please use a long descriptive file name that
	       includes the version number. Most incoming directories will not be read-
	       able/listable, i.e., you won't be able to see your file after uploading it. Remem-
	       ber to send your email notification message as soon as possible after uploading
	       else your file may get deleted automatically. Allow time for the file to be pro-
	       cessed and/or check the file has been processed before announcing its location.

	       FTP Archives for Perl Modules:

	       Follow the instructions and links on:

		  http://www.cpan.org/modules/00modlist.long.html
		  http://www.cpan.org/modules/04pause.html

	       or upload to one of these sites:

		  https://pause.kbx.de/pause/
		  http://pause.perl.org/pause/

	       and notify <modules@perl.org>.

	       By using the WWW interface you can ask the Upload Server to mirror your modules
	       from your ftp or WWW site into your own directory on CPAN!

	       Please remember to send me an updated entry for the Module list!

	   o   Take care when changing a released module.

	       Always strive to remain compatible with previous released versions.  Otherwise try
	       to add a mechanism to revert to the old behavior if people rely on it.  Document
	       incompatible changes.

       Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules

       o   There is no requirement to convert anything.

	   If it ain't broke, don't fix it! Perl 4 library scripts should continue to work with
	   no problems. You may need to make some minor changes (like escaping non-array @'s in
	   double quoted strings) but there is no need to convert a .pl file into a Module for
	   just that.

       o   Consider the implications.

	   All Perl applications that make use of the script will need to be changed (slightly)
	   if the script is converted into a module.  Is it worth it unless you plan to make
	   other changes at the same time?

       o   Make the most of the opportunity.

	   If you are going to convert the script to a module you can use the opportunity to
	   redesign the interface.  The guidelines for module creation above include many of the
	   issues you should consider.

       o   The pl2pm utility will get you started.

	   This utility will read *.pl files (given as parameters) and write corresponding *.pm
	   files. The pl2pm utilities does the following:

	   o	     Adds the standard Module prologue lines

	   o	     Converts package specifiers from ' to ::

	   o	     Converts die(...) to croak(...)

	   o	     Several other minor changes

	   Being a mechanical process pl2pm is not bullet proof. The converted code will need
	   careful checking, especially any package statements.  Don't delete the original .pl
	   file till the new .pm one works!

       Guidelines for Reusing Application Code

       o   Complete applications rarely belong in the Perl Module Library.

       o   Many applications contain some Perl code that could be reused.

	   Help save the world! Share your code in a form that makes it easy to reuse.

       o   Break-out the reusable code into one or more separate module files.

       o   Take the opportunity to reconsider and redesign the interfaces.

       o   In some cases the 'application' can then be reduced to a small

	   fragment of code built on top of the reusable modules. In these cases the application
	   could invoked as:

		% perl -e 'use Module::Name; method(@ARGV)' ...
	   or
		% perl -mModule::Name ...    (in perl5.002 or higher)

NOTE
       Perl does not enforce private and public parts of its modules as you may have been used to
       in other languages like C++, Ada, or Modula-17.	Perl doesn't have an infatuation with
       enforced privacy.  It would prefer that you stayed out of its living room because you
       weren't invited, not because it has a shotgun.

       The module and its user have a contract, part of which is common law, and part of which is
       "written".  Part of the common law contract is that a module doesn't pollute any namespace
       it wasn't asked to.  The written contract for the module (A.K.A. documentation) may make
       other provisions.  But then you know when you "use RedefineTheWorld" that you're redefin-
       ing the world and willing to take the consequences.

perl v5.8.0				    2003-02-18				    PERLMODLIB(1)


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