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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for perlapi (redhat section 1)

PERLAPI(1)			 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		       PERLAPI(1)

NAME
       perlapi - autogenerated documentation for the perl public API

DESCRIPTION
       This file contains the documentation of the perl public API generated by embed.pl, specif-
       ically a listing of functions, macros, flags, and variables that may be used by extension
       writers.  The interfaces of any functions that are not listed here are subject to change
       without notice.	For this reason, blindly using functions listed in proto.h is to be
       avoided when writing extensions.

       Note that all Perl API global variables must be referenced with the "PL_" prefix.  Some
       macros are provided for compatibility with the older, unadorned names, but this support
       may be disabled in a future release.

       The listing is alphabetical, case insensitive.

"Gimme" Values
       GIMME   A backward-compatible version of "GIMME_V" which can only return "G_SCALAR" or
	       "G_ARRAY"; in a void context, it returns "G_SCALAR".  Deprecated.  Use "GIMME_V"
	       instead.

		       U32     GIMME

       GIMME_V The XSUB-writer's equivalent to Perl's "wantarray".  Returns "G_VOID", "G_SCALAR"
	       or "G_ARRAY" for void, scalar or list context, respectively.

		       U32     GIMME_V

       G_ARRAY Used to indicate list context.  See "GIMME_V", "GIMME" and perlcall.

       G_DISCARD
	       Indicates that arguments returned from a callback should be discarded.  See perl-
	       call.

       G_EVAL  Used to force a Perl "eval" wrapper around a callback.  See perlcall.

       G_NOARGS
	       Indicates that no arguments are being sent to a callback.  See perlcall.

       G_SCALAR
	       Used to indicate scalar context.  See "GIMME_V", "GIMME", and perlcall.

       G_VOID  Used to indicate void context.  See "GIMME_V" and perlcall.

Array Manipulation Functions
       AvFILL  Same as "av_len()".  Deprecated, use "av_len()" instead.

		       int     AvFILL(AV* av)

       av_clear
	       Clears an array, making it empty.  Does not free the memory used by the array
	       itself.

		       void    av_clear(AV* ar)

       av_delete
	       Deletes the element indexed by "key" from the array.  Returns the deleted element.
	       "flags" is currently ignored.

		       SV*     av_delete(AV* ar, I32 key, I32 flags)

       av_exists
	       Returns true if the element indexed by "key" has been initialized.

	       This relies on the fact that uninitialized array elements are set to &PL_sv_undef.

		       bool    av_exists(AV* ar, I32 key)

       av_extend
	       Pre-extend an array.  The "key" is the index to which the array should be
	       extended.

		       void    av_extend(AV* ar, I32 key)

       av_fetch
	       Returns the SV at the specified index in the array.  The "key" is the index.  If
	       "lval" is set then the fetch will be part of a store.  Check that the return value
	       is non-null before dereferencing it to a "SV*".

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in perlguts for more
	       information on how to use this function on tied arrays.

		       SV**    av_fetch(AV* ar, I32 key, I32 lval)

       av_fill Ensure than an array has a given number of elements, equivalent to Perl's "$#array
	       = $fill;".

		       void    av_fill(AV* ar, I32 fill)

       av_len  Returns the highest index in the array.	Returns -1 if the array is empty.

		       I32     av_len(AV* ar)

       av_make Creates a new AV and populates it with a list of SVs.  The SVs are copied into the
	       array, so they may be freed after the call to av_make.  The new AV will have a
	       reference count of 1.

		       AV*     av_make(I32 size, SV** svp)

       av_pop  Pops an SV off the end of the array.  Returns &PL_sv_undef if the array is empty.

		       SV*     av_pop(AV* ar)

       av_push Pushes an SV onto the end of the array.	The array will grow automatically to
	       accommodate the addition.

		       void    av_push(AV* ar, SV* val)

       av_shift
	       Shifts an SV off the beginning of the array.

		       SV*     av_shift(AV* ar)

       av_store
	       Stores an SV in an array.  The array index is specified as "key".  The return
	       value will be NULL if the operation failed or if the value did not need to be
	       actually stored within the array (as in the case of tied arrays). Otherwise it can
	       be dereferenced to get the original "SV*".  Note that the caller is responsible
	       for suitably incrementing the reference count of "val" before the call, and decre-
	       menting it if the function returned NULL.

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in perlguts for more
	       information on how to use this function on tied arrays.

		       SV**    av_store(AV* ar, I32 key, SV* val)

       av_undef
	       Undefines the array.  Frees the memory used by the array itself.

		       void    av_undef(AV* ar)

       av_unshift
	       Unshift the given number of "undef" values onto the beginning of the array.  The
	       array will grow automatically to accommodate the addition.  You must then use
	       "av_store" to assign values to these new elements.

		       void    av_unshift(AV* ar, I32 num)

       get_av  Returns the AV of the specified Perl array.  If "create" is set and the Perl vari-
	       able does not exist then it will be created.  If "create" is not set and the vari-
	       able does not exist then NULL is returned.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       AV*     get_av(const char* name, I32 create)

       newAV   Creates a new AV.  The reference count is set to 1.

		       AV*     newAV()

       Nullav  Null AV pointer.

       sortsv  Sort an array. Here is an example:

		   sortsv(AvARRAY(av), av_len(av)+1, Perl_sv_cmp_locale);

	       See lib/sort.pm for details about controlling the sorting algorithm.

		       void    sortsv(SV ** array, size_t num_elts, SVCOMPARE_t cmp)

Callback Functions
       call_argv
	       Performs a callback to the specified Perl sub.  See perlcall.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       I32     call_argv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags, char** argv)

       call_method
	       Performs a callback to the specified Perl method.  The blessed object must be on
	       the stack.  See perlcall.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       I32     call_method(const char* methname, I32 flags)

       call_pv Performs a callback to the specified Perl sub.  See perlcall.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       I32     call_pv(const char* sub_name, I32 flags)

       call_sv Performs a callback to the Perl sub whose name is in the SV.  See perlcall.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       I32     call_sv(SV* sv, I32 flags)

       ENTER   Opening bracket on a callback.  See "LEAVE" and perlcall.

			       ENTER;

       eval_pv Tells Perl to "eval" the given string and return an SV* result.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       SV*     eval_pv(const char* p, I32 croak_on_error)

       eval_sv Tells Perl to "eval" the string in the SV.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       I32     eval_sv(SV* sv, I32 flags)

       FREETMPS
	       Closing bracket for temporaries on a callback.  See "SAVETMPS" and perlcall.

			       FREETMPS;

       LEAVE   Closing bracket on a callback.  See "ENTER" and perlcall.

			       LEAVE;

       SAVETMPS
	       Opening bracket for temporaries on a callback.  See "FREETMPS" and perlcall.

			       SAVETMPS;

Character classes
       isALNUM Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is an ASCII alphanumeric charac-
	       ter (including underscore) or digit.

		       bool    isALNUM(char ch)

       isALPHA Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is an ASCII alphabetic charac-
	       ter.

		       bool    isALPHA(char ch)

       isDIGIT Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is an ASCII digit.

		       bool    isDIGIT(char ch)

       isLOWER Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is a lowercase character.

		       bool    isLOWER(char ch)

       isSPACE Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is whitespace.

		       bool    isSPACE(char ch)

       isUPPER Returns a boolean indicating whether the C "char" is an uppercase character.

		       bool    isUPPER(char ch)

       toLOWER Converts the specified character to lowercase.

		       char    toLOWER(char ch)

       toUPPER Converts the specified character to uppercase.

		       char    toUPPER(char ch)

Cloning an interpreter
       perl_clone
	       Create and return a new interpreter by cloning the current one.

	       perl_clone takes these flags as paramters:

	       CLONEf_COPY_STACKS - is used to, well, copy the stacks also, without it we only
	       clone the data and zero the stacks, with it we copy the stacks and the new perl
	       interpreter is ready to run at the exact same point as the previous one.  The
	       pseudo-fork code uses COPY_STACKS while the threads->new doesn't.

	       CLONEf_KEEP_PTR_TABLE perl_clone keeps a ptr_table with the pointer of the old
	       variable as a key and the new variable as a value, this allows it to check if
	       something has been cloned and not clone it again but rather just use the value and
	       increase the refcount. If KEEP_PTR_TABLE is not set then perl_clone will kill the
	       ptr_table using the function "ptr_table_free(PL_ptr_table); PL_ptr_table = NULL;",
	       reason to keep it around is if you want to dup some of your own variable who are
	       outside the graph perl scans, example of this code is in threads.xs create

	       CLONEf_CLONE_HOST This is a win32 thing, it is ignored on unix, it tells perls
	       win32host code (which is c++) to clone itself, this is needed on win32 if you want
	       to run two threads at the same time, if you just want to do some stuff in a sepa-
	       rate perl interpreter and then throw it away and return to the original one, you
	       don't need to do anything.

		       PerlInterpreter*        perl_clone(PerlInterpreter* interp, UV flags)

CV Manipulation Functions
       CvSTASH Returns the stash of the CV.

		       HV*     CvSTASH(CV* cv)

       get_cv  Returns the CV of the specified Perl subroutine.  If "create" is set and the Perl
	       subroutine does not exist then it will be declared (which has the same effect as
	       saying "sub name;").  If "create" is not set and the subroutine does not exist
	       then NULL is returned.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       CV*     get_cv(const char* name, I32 create)

       Nullcv  Null CV pointer.

Embedding Functions
       load_module
	       Loads the module whose name is pointed to by the string part of name.  Note that
	       the actual module name, not its filename, should be given.  Eg, "Foo::Bar" instead
	       of "Foo/Bar.pm".  flags can be any of PERL_LOADMOD_DENY, PERL_LOADMOD_NOIMPORT, or
	       PERL_LOADMOD_IMPORT_OPS (or 0 for no flags). ver, if specified, provides version
	       semantics similar to "use Foo::Bar VERSION".  The optional trailing SV* arguments
	       can be used to specify arguments to the module's import() method, similar to "use
	       Foo::Bar VERSION LIST".

		       void    load_module(U32 flags, SV* name, SV* ver, ...)

       nothreadhook
	       Stub that provides thread hook for perl_destruct when there are no threads.

		       int     nothreadhook()

       perl_alloc
	       Allocates a new Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

		       PerlInterpreter*        perl_alloc()

       perl_construct
	       Initializes a new Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

		       void    perl_construct(PerlInterpreter* interp)

       perl_destruct
	       Shuts down a Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

		       int     perl_destruct(PerlInterpreter* interp)

       perl_free
	       Releases a Perl interpreter.  See perlembed.

		       void    perl_free(PerlInterpreter* interp)

       perl_parse
	       Tells a Perl interpreter to parse a Perl script.  See perlembed.

		       int     perl_parse(PerlInterpreter* interp, XSINIT_t xsinit, int argc, char** argv, char** env)

       perl_run
	       Tells a Perl interpreter to run.  See perlembed.

		       int     perl_run(PerlInterpreter* interp)

       require_pv
	       Tells Perl to "require" the file named by the string argument.  It is analogous to
	       the Perl code "eval "require '$file'"".	It's even implemented that way; consider
	       using Perl_load_module instead.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       void    require_pv(const char* pv)

Functions in file pp_pack.c
       pack_cat
	       The engine implementing pack() Perl function.

		       void    pack_cat(SV *cat, char *pat, char *patend, SV **beglist, SV **endlist, SV ***next_in_list, U32 flags)

       unpack_str
	       The engine implementing unpack() Perl function.

		       I32     unpack_str(char *pat, char *patend, char *s, char *strbeg, char *strend, char **new_s, I32 ocnt, U32 flags)

Global Variables
       PL_modglobal
	       "PL_modglobal" is a general purpose, interpreter global HV for use by extensions
	       that need to keep information on a per-interpreter basis.  In a pinch, it can also
	       be used as a symbol table for extensions to share data among each other.  It is a
	       good idea to use keys prefixed by the package name of the extension that owns the
	       data.

		       HV*     PL_modglobal

       PL_na   A convenience variable which is typically used with "SvPV" when one doesn't care
	       about the length of the string.	It is usually more efficient to either declare a
	       local variable and use that instead or to use the "SvPV_nolen" macro.

		       STRLEN  PL_na

       PL_sv_no
	       This is the "false" SV.	See "PL_sv_yes".  Always refer to this as &PL_sv_no.

		       SV      PL_sv_no

       PL_sv_undef
	       This is the "undef" SV.	Always refer to this as &PL_sv_undef.

		       SV      PL_sv_undef

       PL_sv_yes
	       This is the "true" SV.  See "PL_sv_no".	Always refer to this as &PL_sv_yes.

		       SV      PL_sv_yes

GV Functions
       GvSV    Return the SV from the GV.

		       SV*     GvSV(GV* gv)

       gv_fetchmeth
	       Returns the glob with the given "name" and a defined subroutine or "NULL".  The
	       glob lives in the given "stash", or in the stashes accessible via @ISA and UNIVER-
	       SAL::.

	       The argument "level" should be either 0 or -1.  If "level==0", as a side-effect
	       creates a glob with the given "name" in the given "stash" which in the case of
	       success contains an alias for the subroutine, and sets up caching info for this
	       glob.  Similarly for all the searched stashes.

	       This function grants "SUPER" token as a postfix of the stash name. The GV returned
	       from "gv_fetchmeth" may be a method cache entry, which is not visible to Perl
	       code.  So when calling "call_sv", you should not use the GV directly; instead, you
	       should use the method's CV, which can be obtained from the GV with the "GvCV"
	       macro.

		       GV*     gv_fetchmeth(HV* stash, const char* name, STRLEN len, I32 level)

       gv_fetchmethod
	       See gv_fetchmethod_autoload.

		       GV*     gv_fetchmethod(HV* stash, const char* name)

       gv_fetchmethod_autoload
	       Returns the glob which contains the subroutine to call to invoke the method on the
	       "stash".  In fact in the presence of autoloading this may be the glob for
	       "AUTOLOAD".  In this case the corresponding variable $AUTOLOAD is already setup.

	       The third parameter of "gv_fetchmethod_autoload" determines whether AUTOLOAD
	       lookup is performed if the given method is not present: non-zero means yes, look
	       for AUTOLOAD; zero means no, don't look for AUTOLOAD.  Calling "gv_fetchmethod" is
	       equivalent to calling "gv_fetchmethod_autoload" with a non-zero "autoload" parame-
	       ter.

	       These functions grant "SUPER" token as a prefix of the method name. Note that if
	       you want to keep the returned glob for a long time, you need to check for it being
	       "AUTOLOAD", since at the later time the call may load a different subroutine due
	       to $AUTOLOAD changing its value. Use the glob created via a side effect to do
	       this.

	       These functions have the same side-effects and as "gv_fetchmeth" with "level==0".
	       "name" should be writable if contains ':' or "' ''". The warning against passing
	       the GV returned by "gv_fetchmeth" to "call_sv" apply equally to these functions.

		       GV*     gv_fetchmethod_autoload(HV* stash, const char* name, I32 autoload)

       gv_fetchmeth_autoload
	       Same as gv_fetchmeth(), but looks for autoloaded subroutines too.  Returns a glob
	       for the subroutine.

	       For an autoloaded subroutine without a GV, will create a GV even if "level < 0".
	       For an autoloaded subroutine without a stub, GvCV() of the result may be zero.

		       GV*     gv_fetchmeth_autoload(HV* stash, const char* name, STRLEN len, I32 level)

       gv_stashpv
	       Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package.	"name" should be a valid
	       UTF-8 string.  If "create" is set then the package will be created if it does not
	       already exist.  If "create" is not set and the package does not exist then NULL is
	       returned.

		       HV*     gv_stashpv(const char* name, I32 create)

       gv_stashsv
	       Returns a pointer to the stash for a specified package, which must be a valid
	       UTF-8 string.  See "gv_stashpv".

		       HV*     gv_stashsv(SV* sv, I32 create)

Handy Values
       HEf_SVKEY
	       This flag, used in the length slot of hash entries and magic structures, specifies
	       the structure contains an "SV*" pointer where a "char*" pointer is to be expected.
	       (For information only--not to be used).

       Nullch  Null character pointer.	=for hackers Found in file handy.h

       Nullsv  Null SV pointer.

Hash Manipulation Functions
       get_hv  Returns the HV of the specified Perl hash.  If "create" is set and the Perl vari-
	       able does not exist then it will be created.  If "create" is not set and the vari-
	       able does not exist then NULL is returned.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       HV*     get_hv(const char* name, I32 create)

       HeHASH  Returns the computed hash stored in the hash entry.

		       U32     HeHASH(HE* he)

       HeKEY   Returns the actual pointer stored in the key slot of the hash entry. The pointer
	       may be either "char*" or "SV*", depending on the value of "HeKLEN()".  Can be
	       assigned to.  The "HePV()" or "HeSVKEY()" macros are usually preferable for find-
	       ing the value of a key.

		       void*   HeKEY(HE* he)

       HeKLEN  If this is negative, and amounts to "HEf_SVKEY", it indicates the entry holds an
	       "SV*" key.  Otherwise, holds the actual length of the key.  Can be assigned to.
	       The "HePV()" macro is usually preferable for finding key lengths.

		       STRLEN  HeKLEN(HE* he)

       HePV    Returns the key slot of the hash entry as a "char*" value, doing any necessary
	       dereferencing of possibly "SV*" keys.  The length of the string is placed in "len"
	       (this is a macro, so do not use &len).  If you do not care about what the length
	       of the key is, you may use the global variable "PL_na", though this is rather less
	       efficient than using a local variable.  Remember though, that hash keys in perl
	       are free to contain embedded nulls, so using "strlen()" or similar is not a good
	       way to find the length of hash keys. This is very similar to the "SvPV()" macro
	       described elsewhere in this document.

		       char*   HePV(HE* he, STRLEN len)

       HeSVKEY Returns the key as an "SV*", or "Nullsv" if the hash entry does not contain an
	       "SV*" key.

		       SV*     HeSVKEY(HE* he)

       HeSVKEY_force
	       Returns the key as an "SV*".  Will create and return a temporary mortal "SV*" if
	       the hash entry contains only a "char*" key.

		       SV*     HeSVKEY_force(HE* he)

       HeSVKEY_set
	       Sets the key to a given "SV*", taking care to set the appropriate flags to indi-
	       cate the presence of an "SV*" key, and returns the same "SV*".

		       SV*     HeSVKEY_set(HE* he, SV* sv)

       HeVAL   Returns the value slot (type "SV*") stored in the hash entry.

		       SV*     HeVAL(HE* he)

       HvNAME  Returns the package name of a stash.  See "SvSTASH", "CvSTASH".

		       char*   HvNAME(HV* stash)

       hv_clear
	       Clears a hash, making it empty.

		       void    hv_clear(HV* tb)

       hv_delete
	       Deletes a key/value pair in the hash.  The value SV is removed from the hash and
	       returned to the caller.	The "klen" is the length of the key.  The "flags" value
	       will normally be zero; if set to G_DISCARD then NULL will be returned.

		       SV*     hv_delete(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen, I32 flags)

       hv_delete_ent
	       Deletes a key/value pair in the hash.  The value SV is removed from the hash and
	       returned to the caller.	The "flags" value will normally be zero; if set to G_DIS-
	       CARD then NULL will be returned.  "hash" can be a valid precomputed hash value, or
	       0 to ask for it to be computed.

		       SV*     hv_delete_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, I32 flags, U32 hash)

       hv_exists
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified hash key exists.  The "klen" is
	       the length of the key.

		       bool    hv_exists(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen)

       hv_exists_ent
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the specified hash key exists. "hash" can be
	       a valid precomputed hash value, or 0 to ask for it to be computed.

		       bool    hv_exists_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, U32 hash)

       hv_fetch
	       Returns the SV which corresponds to the specified key in the hash.  The "klen" is
	       the length of the key.  If "lval" is set then the fetch will be part of a store.
	       Check that the return value is non-null before dereferencing it to an "SV*".

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in perlguts for more
	       information on how to use this function on tied hashes.

		       SV**    hv_fetch(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen, I32 lval)

       hv_fetch_ent
	       Returns the hash entry which corresponds to the specified key in the hash.  "hash"
	       must be a valid precomputed hash number for the given "key", or 0 if you want the
	       function to compute it.	IF "lval" is set then the fetch will be part of a store.
	       Make sure the return value is non-null before accessing it.  The return value when
	       "tb" is a tied hash is a pointer to a static location, so be sure to make a copy
	       of the structure if you need to store it somewhere.

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in perlguts for more
	       information on how to use this function on tied hashes.

		       HE*     hv_fetch_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, I32 lval, U32 hash)

       hv_iterinit
	       Prepares a starting point to traverse a hash table.  Returns the number of keys in
	       the hash (i.e. the same as "HvKEYS(tb)").  The return value is currently only
	       meaningful for hashes without tie magic.

	       NOTE: Before version 5.004_65, "hv_iterinit" used to return the number of hash
	       buckets that happen to be in use.  If you still need that esoteric value, you can
	       get it through the macro "HvFILL(tb)".

		       I32     hv_iterinit(HV* tb)

       hv_iterkey
	       Returns the key from the current position of the hash iterator.	See
	       "hv_iterinit".

		       char*   hv_iterkey(HE* entry, I32* retlen)

       hv_iterkeysv
	       Returns the key as an "SV*" from the current position of the hash iterator.  The
	       return value will always be a mortal copy of the key.  Also see "hv_iterinit".

		       SV*     hv_iterkeysv(HE* entry)

       hv_iternext
	       Returns entries from a hash iterator.  See "hv_iterinit".

	       You may call "hv_delete" or "hv_delete_ent" on the hash entry that the iterator
	       currently points to, without losing your place or invalidating your iterator.
	       Note that in this case the current entry is deleted from the hash with your itera-
	       tor holding the last reference to it.  Your iterator is flagged to free the entry
	       on the next call to "hv_iternext", so you must not discard your iterator immedi-
	       ately else the entry will leak - call "hv_iternext" to trigger the resource deal-
	       location.

		       HE*     hv_iternext(HV* tb)

       hv_iternextsv
	       Performs an "hv_iternext", "hv_iterkey", and "hv_iterval" in one operation.

		       SV*     hv_iternextsv(HV* hv, char** key, I32* retlen)

       hv_iternext_flags
	       Returns entries from a hash iterator.  See "hv_iterinit" and "hv_iternext".  The
	       "flags" value will normally be zero; if HV_ITERNEXT_WANTPLACEHOLDERS is set the
	       placeholders keys (for restricted hashes) will be returned in addition to normal
	       keys. By default placeholders are automatically skipped over.  Currently a place-
	       holder is implemented with a value that is literally <&Perl_sv_undef> (a regular
	       "undef" value is a normal read-write SV for which "!SvOK" is false). Note that the
	       implementation of placeholders and restricted hashes may change, and the implemen-
	       tation currently is insufficiently abstracted for any change to be tidy.

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

		       HE*     hv_iternext_flags(HV* tb, I32 flags)

       hv_iterval
	       Returns the value from the current position of the hash iterator.  See
	       "hv_iterkey".

		       SV*     hv_iterval(HV* tb, HE* entry)

       hv_magic
	       Adds magic to a hash.  See "sv_magic".

		       void    hv_magic(HV* hv, GV* gv, int how)

       hv_store
	       Stores an SV in a hash.	The hash key is specified as "key" and "klen" is the
	       length of the key.  The "hash" parameter is the precomputed hash value; if it is
	       zero then Perl will compute it.	The return value will be NULL if the operation
	       failed or if the value did not need to be actually stored within the hash (as in
	       the case of tied hashes).  Otherwise it can be dereferenced to get the original
	       "SV*".  Note that the caller is responsible for suitably incrementing the refer-
	       ence count of "val" before the call, and decrementing it if the function returned
	       NULL.

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in perlguts for more
	       information on how to use this function on tied hashes.

		       SV**    hv_store(HV* tb, const char* key, I32 klen, SV* val, U32 hash)

       hv_store_ent
	       Stores "val" in a hash.	The hash key is specified as "key".  The "hash" parameter
	       is the precomputed hash value; if it is zero then Perl will compute it.	The
	       return value is the new hash entry so created.  It will be NULL if the operation
	       failed or if the value did not need to be actually stored within the hash (as in
	       the case of tied hashes).  Otherwise the contents of the return value can be
	       accessed using the "He?" macros described here.	Note that the caller is responsi-
	       ble for suitably incrementing the reference count of "val" before the call, and
	       decrementing it if the function returned NULL.

	       See "Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays" in perlguts for more
	       information on how to use this function on tied hashes.

		       HE*     hv_store_ent(HV* tb, SV* key, SV* val, U32 hash)

       hv_undef
	       Undefines the hash.

		       void    hv_undef(HV* tb)

       newHV   Creates a new HV.  The reference count is set to 1.

		       HV*     newHV()

       Nullhv  Null HV pointer.

Magical Functions
       mg_clear
	       Clear something magical that the SV represents.	See "sv_magic".

		       int     mg_clear(SV* sv)

       mg_copy Copies the magic from one SV to another.  See "sv_magic".

		       int     mg_copy(SV* sv, SV* nsv, const char* key, I32 klen)

       mg_find Finds the magic pointer for type matching the SV.  See "sv_magic".

		       MAGIC*  mg_find(SV* sv, int type)

       mg_free Free any magic storage used by the SV.  See "sv_magic".

		       int     mg_free(SV* sv)

       mg_get  Do magic after a value is retrieved from the SV.  See "sv_magic".

		       int     mg_get(SV* sv)

       mg_length
	       Report on the SV's length.  See "sv_magic".

		       U32     mg_length(SV* sv)

       mg_magical
	       Turns on the magical status of an SV.  See "sv_magic".

		       void    mg_magical(SV* sv)

       mg_set  Do magic after a value is assigned to the SV.  See "sv_magic".

		       int     mg_set(SV* sv)

       SvGETMAGIC
	       Invokes "mg_get" on an SV if it has 'get' magic.  This macro evaluates its argu-
	       ment more than once.

		       void    SvGETMAGIC(SV* sv)

       SvLOCK  Arranges for a mutual exclusion lock to be obtained on sv if a suitable module has
	       been loaded.

		       void    SvLOCK(SV* sv)

       SvSETMAGIC
	       Invokes "mg_set" on an SV if it has 'set' magic.  This macro evaluates its argu-
	       ment more than once.

		       void    SvSETMAGIC(SV* sv)

       SvSetMagicSV
	       Like "SvSetSV", but does any set magic required afterwards.

		       void    SvSetMagicSV(SV* dsb, SV* ssv)

       SvSetMagicSV_nosteal
	       Like "SvSetMagicSV", but does any set magic required afterwards.

		       void    SvSetMagicSV_nosteal(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       SvSetSV Calls "sv_setsv" if dsv is not the same as ssv.	May evaluate arguments more than
	       once.

		       void    SvSetSV(SV* dsb, SV* ssv)

       SvSetSV_nosteal
	       Calls a non-destructive version of "sv_setsv" if dsv is not the same as ssv. May
	       evaluate arguments more than once.

		       void    SvSetSV_nosteal(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       SvSHARE Arranges for sv to be shared between threads if a suitable module has been loaded.

		       void    SvSHARE(SV* sv)

Memory Management
       Copy    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "memcpy" function.	The "src" is the source,
	       "dest" is the destination, "nitems" is the number of items, and "type" is the
	       type.  May fail on overlapping copies.  See also "Move".

		       void    Copy(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

       Move    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "memmove" function.  The "src" is the source,
	       "dest" is the destination, "nitems" is the number of items, and "type" is the
	       type.  Can do overlapping moves.  See also "Copy".

		       void    Move(void* src, void* dest, int nitems, type)

       New     The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "malloc" function.

		       void    New(int id, void* ptr, int nitems, type)

       Newc    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "malloc" function, with cast.

		       void    Newc(int id, void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)

       NEWSV   Creates a new SV.  A non-zero "len" parameter indicates the number of bytes of
	       preallocated string space the SV should have.  An extra byte for a tailing NUL is
	       also reserved.  (SvPOK is not set for the SV even if string space is allocated.)
	       The reference count for the new SV is set to 1.	"id" is an integer id between 0
	       and 1299 (used to identify leaks).

		       SV*     NEWSV(int id, STRLEN len)

       Newz    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "malloc" function.	The allocated memory is
	       zeroed with "memzero".

		       void    Newz(int id, void* ptr, int nitems, type)

       Poison  Fill up memory with a pattern (byte 0xAB over and over again) that hopefully
	       catches attempts to access uninitialized memory.

		       void    Poison(void* dest, int nitems, type)

       Renew   The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "realloc" function.

		       void    Renew(void* ptr, int nitems, type)

       Renewc  The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "realloc" function, with cast.

		       void    Renewc(void* ptr, int nitems, type, cast)

       Safefree
	       The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "free" function.

		       void    Safefree(void* ptr)

       savepv  Perl's version of "strdup()". Returns a pointer to a newly allocated string which
	       is a duplicate of "pv". The size of the string is determined by "strlen()". The
	       memory allocated for the new string can be freed with the "Safefree()" function.

		       char*   savepv(const char* pv)

       savepvn Perl's version of what "strndup()" would be if it existed. Returns a pointer to a
	       newly allocated string which is a duplicate of the first "len" bytes from "pv".
	       The memory allocated for the new string can be freed with the "Safefree()" func-
	       tion.

		       char*   savepvn(const char* pv, I32 len)

       savesharedpv
	       A version of "savepv()" which allocates the duplicate string in memory which is
	       shared between threads.

		       char*   savesharedpv(const char* pv)

       StructCopy
	       This is an architecture-independent macro to copy one structure to another.

		       void    StructCopy(type src, type dest, type)

       Zero    The XSUB-writer's interface to the C "memzero" function.  The "dest" is the desti-
	       nation, "nitems" is the number of items, and "type" is the type.

		       void    Zero(void* dest, int nitems, type)

Miscellaneous Functions
       fbm_compile
	       Analyses the string in order to make fast searches on it using fbm_instr() -- the
	       Boyer-Moore algorithm.

		       void    fbm_compile(SV* sv, U32 flags)

       fbm_instr
	       Returns the location of the SV in the string delimited by "str" and "strend".  It
	       returns "Nullch" if the string can't be found.  The "sv" does not have to be
	       fbm_compiled, but the search will not be as fast then.

		       char*   fbm_instr(unsigned char* big, unsigned char* bigend, SV* littlesv, U32 flags)

       form    Takes a sprintf-style format pattern and conventional (non-SV) arguments and
	       returns the formatted string.

		   (char *) Perl_form(pTHX_ const char* pat, ...)

	       can be used any place a string (char *) is required:

		   char * s = Perl_form("%d.%d",major,minor);

	       Uses a single private buffer so if you want to format several strings you must
	       explicitly copy the earlier strings away (and free the copies when you are done).

		       char*   form(const char* pat, ...)

       getcwd_sv
	       Fill the sv with current working directory

		       int     getcwd_sv(SV* sv)

       strEQ   Test two strings to see if they are equal.  Returns true or false.

		       bool    strEQ(char* s1, char* s2)

       strGE   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is greater than or equal to the sec-
	       ond, "s2".  Returns true or false.

		       bool    strGE(char* s1, char* s2)

       strGT   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is greater than the second, "s2".
	       Returns true or false.

		       bool    strGT(char* s1, char* s2)

       strLE   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is less than or equal to the second,
	       "s2".  Returns true or false.

		       bool    strLE(char* s1, char* s2)

       strLT   Test two strings to see if the first, "s1", is less than the second, "s2".
	       Returns true or false.

		       bool    strLT(char* s1, char* s2)

       strNE   Test two strings to see if they are different.  Returns true or false.

		       bool    strNE(char* s1, char* s2)

       strnEQ  Test two strings to see if they are equal.  The "len" parameter indicates the num-
	       ber of bytes to compare.  Returns true or false. (A wrapper for "strncmp").

		       bool    strnEQ(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)

       strnNE  Test two strings to see if they are different.  The "len" parameter indicates the
	       number of bytes to compare.  Returns true or false. (A wrapper for "strncmp").

		       bool    strnNE(char* s1, char* s2, STRLEN len)

Numeric functions
       grok_bin
	       converts a string representing a binary number to numeric form.

	       On entry start and *len give the string to scan, *flags gives conversion flags,
	       and result should be NULL or a pointer to an NV.  The scan stops at the end of the
	       string, or the first invalid character.	On return *len is set to the length
	       scanned string, and *flags gives output flags.

	       If the value is <= UV_MAX it is returned as a UV, the output flags are clear, and
	       nothing is written to *result. If the value is > UV_MAX "grok_bin" returns UV_MAX,
	       sets "PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX" in the output flags, and writes the value to
	       *result (or the value is discarded if result is NULL).

	       The hex number may optionally be prefixed with "0b" or "b" unless "PERL_SCAN_DIS-
	       ALLOW_PREFIX" is set in *flags on entry. If "PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES" is set
	       in *flags then the binary number may use '_' characters to separate digits.

		       UV      grok_bin(char* start, STRLEN* len, I32* flags, NV *result)

       grok_hex
	       converts a string representing a hex number to numeric form.

	       On entry start and *len give the string to scan, *flags gives conversion flags,
	       and result should be NULL or a pointer to an NV.  The scan stops at the end of the
	       string, or the first non-hex-digit character.  On return *len is set to the length
	       scanned string, and *flags gives output flags.

	       If the value is <= UV_MAX it is returned as a UV, the output flags are clear, and
	       nothing is written to *result. If the value is > UV_MAX "grok_hex" returns UV_MAX,
	       sets "PERL_SCAN_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX" in the output flags, and writes the value to
	       *result (or the value is discarded if result is NULL).

	       The hex number may optionally be prefixed with "0x" or "x" unless "PERL_SCAN_DIS-
	       ALLOW_PREFIX" is set in *flags on entry. If "PERL_SCAN_ALLOW_UNDERSCORES" is set
	       in *flags then the hex number may use '_' characters to separate digits.

		       UV      grok_hex(char* start, STRLEN* len, I32* flags, NV *result)

       grok_number
	       Recognise (or not) a number.  The type of the number is returned (0 if unrecog-
	       nised), otherwise it is a bit-ORed combination of IS_NUMBER_IN_UV, IS_NUM-
	       BER_GREATER_THAN_UV_MAX, IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT, IS_NUMBER_NEG, IS_NUMBER_INFINITY,
	       IS_NUMBER_NAN (defined in perl.h).

	       If the value of the number can fit an in UV, it is returned in the *valuep IS_NUM-
	       BER_IN_UV will be set to indicate that *valuep is valid, IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will
	       never be set unless *valuep is valid, but *valuep may have been assigned to during
	       processing even though IS_NUMBER_IN_UV is not set on return.  If valuep is NULL,
	       IS_NUMBER_IN_UV will be set for the same cases as when valuep is non-NULL, but no
	       actual assignment (or SEGV) will occur.

	       IS_NUMBER_NOT_INT will be set with IS_NUMBER_IN_UV if trailing decimals were seen
	       (in which case *valuep gives the true value truncated to an integer), and IS_NUM-
	       BER_NEG if the number is negative (in which case *valuep holds the absolute
	       value).	IS_NUMBER_IN_UV is not set if e notation was used or the number is larger
	       than a UV.

		       int     grok_number(const char *pv, STRLEN len, UV *valuep)

       grok_numeric_radix
	       Scan and skip for a numeric decimal separator (radix).

		       bool    grok_numeric_radix(const char **sp, const char *send)

       grok_oct
		       UV      grok_oct(char* start, STRLEN* len, I32* flags, NV *result)

       scan_bin
	       For backwards compatibility. Use "grok_bin" instead.

		       NV      scan_bin(char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)

       scan_hex
	       For backwards compatibility. Use "grok_hex" instead.

		       NV      scan_hex(char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)

       scan_oct
	       For backwards compatibility. Use "grok_oct" instead.

		       NV      scan_oct(char* start, STRLEN len, STRLEN* retlen)

Optree Manipulation Functions
       cv_const_sv
	       If "cv" is a constant sub eligible for inlining. returns the constant value
	       returned by the sub.  Otherwise, returns NULL.

	       Constant subs can be created with "newCONSTSUB" or as described in "Constant Func-
	       tions" in perlsub.

		       SV*     cv_const_sv(CV* cv)

       newCONSTSUB
	       Creates a constant sub equivalent to Perl "sub FOO () { 123 }" which is eligible
	       for inlining at compile-time.

		       CV*     newCONSTSUB(HV* stash, char* name, SV* sv)

       newXS   Used by "xsubpp" to hook up XSUBs as Perl subs.

Stack Manipulation Macros
       dMARK   Declare a stack marker variable, "mark", for the XSUB.  See "MARK" and "dORIG-
	       MARK".

			       dMARK;

       dORIGMARK
	       Saves the original stack mark for the XSUB.  See "ORIGMARK".

			       dORIGMARK;

       dSP     Declares a local copy of perl's stack pointer for the XSUB, available via the "SP"
	       macro.  See "SP".

			       dSP;

       EXTEND  Used to extend the argument stack for an XSUB's return values. Once used, guaran-
	       tees that there is room for at least "nitems" to be pushed onto the stack.

		       void    EXTEND(SP, int nitems)

       MARK    Stack marker variable for the XSUB.  See "dMARK".

       ORIGMARK
	       The original stack mark for the XSUB.  See "dORIGMARK".

       POPi    Pops an integer off the stack.

		       IV      POPi

       POPl    Pops a long off the stack.

		       long    POPl

       POPn    Pops a double off the stack.

		       NV      POPn

       POPp    Pops a string off the stack. Deprecated. New code should provide a STRLEN n_a and
	       use POPpx.

		       char*   POPp

       POPpbytex
	       Pops a string off the stack which must consist of bytes i.e. characters < 256.
	       Requires a variable STRLEN n_a in scope.

		       char*   POPpbytex

       POPpx   Pops a string off the stack.  Requires a variable STRLEN n_a in scope.

		       char*   POPpx

       POPs    Pops an SV off the stack.

		       SV*     POPs

       PUSHi   Push an integer onto the stack.	The stack must have room for this element.  Han-
	       dles 'set' magic.  See "XPUSHi".

		       void    PUSHi(IV iv)

       PUSHMARK
	       Opening bracket for arguments on a callback.  See "PUTBACK" and perlcall.

			       PUSHMARK;

       PUSHn   Push a double onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this element.  Handles
	       'set' magic.  See "XPUSHn".

		       void    PUSHn(NV nv)

       PUSHp   Push a string onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this element.  The
	       "len" indicates the length of the string.  Handles 'set' magic.	See "XPUSHp".

		       void    PUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

       PUSHs   Push an SV onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this element.  Does not
	       handle 'set' magic.  See "XPUSHs".

		       void    PUSHs(SV* sv)

       PUSHu   Push an unsigned integer onto the stack.  The stack must have room for this ele-
	       ment.  See "XPUSHu".

		       void    PUSHu(UV uv)

       PUTBACK Closing bracket for XSUB arguments.  This is usually handled by "xsubpp".  See
	       "PUSHMARK" and perlcall for other uses.

			       PUTBACK;

       SP      Stack pointer.  This is usually handled by "xsubpp".  See "dSP" and "SPAGAIN".

       SPAGAIN Refetch the stack pointer.  Used after a callback.  See perlcall.

			       SPAGAIN;

       XPUSHi  Push an integer onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.  Handles 'set'
	       magic. See "PUSHi".

		       void    XPUSHi(IV iv)

       XPUSHn  Push a double onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.	Handles 'set'
	       magic.  See "PUSHn".

		       void    XPUSHn(NV nv)

       XPUSHp  Push a string onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.	The "len" indi-
	       cates the length of the string.	Handles 'set' magic.  See "PUSHp".

		       void    XPUSHp(char* str, STRLEN len)

       XPUSHs  Push an SV onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.  Does not handle
	       'set' magic.  See "PUSHs".

		       void    XPUSHs(SV* sv)

       XPUSHu  Push an unsigned integer onto the stack, extending the stack if necessary.  See
	       "PUSHu".

		       void    XPUSHu(UV uv)

       XSRETURN
	       Return from XSUB, indicating number of items on the stack.  This is usually han-
	       dled by "xsubpp".

		       void    XSRETURN(int nitems)

       XSRETURN_IV
	       Return an integer from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mIV".

		       void    XSRETURN_IV(IV iv)

       XSRETURN_NO
	       Return &PL_sv_no from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mNO".

			       XSRETURN_NO;

       XSRETURN_NV
	       Return a double from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mNV".

		       void    XSRETURN_NV(NV nv)

       XSRETURN_PV
	       Return a copy of a string from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mPV".

		       void    XSRETURN_PV(char* str)

       XSRETURN_UNDEF
	       Return &PL_sv_undef from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mUNDEF".

			       XSRETURN_UNDEF;

       XSRETURN_YES
	       Return &PL_sv_yes from an XSUB immediately.  Uses "XST_mYES".

			       XSRETURN_YES;

       XST_mIV Place an integer into the specified position "pos" on the stack.  The value is
	       stored in a new mortal SV.

		       void    XST_mIV(int pos, IV iv)

       XST_mNO Place &PL_sv_no into the specified position "pos" on the stack.

		       void    XST_mNO(int pos)

       XST_mNV Place a double into the specified position "pos" on the stack.  The value is
	       stored in a new mortal SV.

		       void    XST_mNV(int pos, NV nv)

       XST_mPV Place a copy of a string into the specified position "pos" on the stack.  The
	       value is stored in a new mortal SV.

		       void    XST_mPV(int pos, char* str)

       XST_mUNDEF
	       Place &PL_sv_undef into the specified position "pos" on the stack.

		       void    XST_mUNDEF(int pos)

       XST_mYES
	       Place &PL_sv_yes into the specified position "pos" on the stack.

		       void    XST_mYES(int pos)

SV Flags
       svtype  An enum of flags for Perl types.  These are found in the file sv.h in the "svtype"
	       enum.  Test these flags with the "SvTYPE" macro.

       SVt_IV  Integer type flag for scalars.  See "svtype".

       SVt_NV  Double type flag for scalars.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PV  Pointer type flag for scalars.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PVAV
	       Type flag for arrays.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PVCV
	       Type flag for code refs.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PVHV
	       Type flag for hashes.  See "svtype".

       SVt_PVMG
	       Type flag for blessed scalars.  See "svtype".

SV Manipulation Functions
       get_sv  Returns the SV of the specified Perl scalar.  If "create" is set and the Perl
	       variable does not exist then it will be created.  If "create" is not set and the
	       variable does not exist then NULL is returned.

	       NOTE: the perl_ form of this function is deprecated.

		       SV*     get_sv(const char* name, I32 create)

       looks_like_number
	       Test if the content of an SV looks like a number (or is a number).  "Inf" and
	       "Infinity" are treated as numbers (so will not issue a non-numeric warning), even
	       if your atof() doesn't grok them.

		       I32     looks_like_number(SV* sv)

       newRV_inc
	       Creates an RV wrapper for an SV.  The reference count for the original SV is
	       incremented.

		       SV*     newRV_inc(SV* sv)

       newRV_noinc
	       Creates an RV wrapper for an SV.  The reference count for the original SV is not
	       incremented.

		       SV*     newRV_noinc(SV *sv)

       newSV   Create a new null SV, or if len > 0, create a new empty SVt_PV type SV with an
	       initial PV allocation of len+1. Normally accessed via the "NEWSV" macro.

		       SV*     newSV(STRLEN len)

       newSViv Creates a new SV and copies an integer into it.	The reference count for the SV is
	       set to 1.

		       SV*     newSViv(IV i)

       newSVnv Creates a new SV and copies a floating point value into it.  The reference count
	       for the SV is set to 1.

		       SV*     newSVnv(NV n)

       newSVpv Creates a new SV and copies a string into it.  The reference count for the SV is
	       set to 1.  If "len" is zero, Perl will compute the length using strlen().  For
	       efficiency, consider using "newSVpvn" instead.

		       SV*     newSVpv(const char* s, STRLEN len)

       newSVpvf
	       Creates a new SV and initializes it with the string formatted like "sprintf".

		       SV*     newSVpvf(const char* pat, ...)

       newSVpvn
	       Creates a new SV and copies a string into it.  The reference count for the SV is
	       set to 1.  Note that if "len" is zero, Perl will create a zero length string.  You
	       are responsible for ensuring that the source string is at least "len" bytes long.

		       SV*     newSVpvn(const char* s, STRLEN len)

       newSVpvn_share
	       Creates a new SV with its SvPVX pointing to a shared string in the string table.
	       If the string does not already exist in the table, it is created first.	Turns on
	       READONLY and FAKE.  The string's hash is stored in the UV slot of the SV; if the
	       "hash" parameter is non-zero, that value is used; otherwise the hash is computed.
	       The idea here is that as the string table is used for shared hash keys these
	       strings will have SvPVX == HeKEY and hash lookup will avoid string compare.

		       SV*     newSVpvn_share(const char* s, I32 len, U32 hash)

       newSVrv Creates a new SV for the RV, "rv", to point to.	If "rv" is not an RV then it will
	       be upgraded to one.  If "classname" is non-null then the new SV will be blessed in
	       the specified package.  The new SV is returned and its reference count is 1.

		       SV*     newSVrv(SV* rv, const char* classname)

       newSVsv Creates a new SV which is an exact duplicate of the original SV.  (Uses
	       "sv_setsv").

		       SV*     newSVsv(SV* old)

       newSVuv Creates a new SV and copies an unsigned integer into it.  The reference count for
	       the SV is set to 1.

		       SV*     newSVuv(UV u)

       new_vstring
	       Returns a pointer to the next character after the parsed vstring, as well as
	       updating the passed in sv.

	       Function must be called like

		       sv = NEWSV(92,5);
		       s = new_vstring(s,sv);

	       The sv must already be large enough to store the vstring passed in.

		       char*   new_vstring(char *vstr, SV *sv)

       SvCUR   Returns the length of the string which is in the SV.  See "SvLEN".

		       STRLEN  SvCUR(SV* sv)

       SvCUR_set
	       Set the length of the string which is in the SV.  See "SvCUR".

		       void    SvCUR_set(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvEND   Returns a pointer to the last character in the string which is in the SV.  See
	       "SvCUR".  Access the character as *(SvEND(sv)).

		       char*   SvEND(SV* sv)

       SvGROW  Expands the character buffer in the SV so that it has room for the indicated num-
	       ber of bytes (remember to reserve space for an extra trailing NUL character).
	       Calls "sv_grow" to perform the expansion if necessary.  Returns a pointer to the
	       character buffer.

		       char *  SvGROW(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvIOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an integer.

		       bool    SvIOK(SV* sv)

       SvIOKp  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an integer.  Checks the pri-
	       vate setting.  Use "SvIOK".

		       bool    SvIOKp(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_notUV
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a signed integer.

		       void    SvIOK_notUV(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_off
	       Unsets the IV status of an SV.

		       void    SvIOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_on
	       Tells an SV that it is an integer.

		       void    SvIOK_on(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_only
	       Tells an SV that it is an integer and disables all other OK bits.

		       void    SvIOK_only(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_only_UV
	       Tells and SV that it is an unsigned integer and disables all other OK bits.

		       void    SvIOK_only_UV(SV* sv)

       SvIOK_UV
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an unsigned integer.

		       void    SvIOK_UV(SV* sv)

       SvIV    Coerces the given SV to an integer and returns it. See  "SvIVx" for a version
	       which guarantees to evaluate sv only once.

		       IV      SvIV(SV* sv)

       SvIVx   Coerces the given SV to an integer and returns it. Guarantees to evaluate sv only
	       once. Use the more efficient "SvIV" otherwise.

		       IV      SvIVx(SV* sv)

       SvIVX   Returns the raw value in the SV's IV slot, without checks or conversions.  Only
	       use when you are sure SvIOK is true. See also "SvIV()".

		       IV      SvIVX(SV* sv)

       SvLEN   Returns the size of the string buffer in the SV, not including any part attribut-
	       able to "SvOOK".  See "SvCUR".

		       STRLEN  SvLEN(SV* sv)

       SvNIOK  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a number, integer or double.

		       bool    SvNIOK(SV* sv)

       SvNIOKp Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a number, integer or double.
	       Checks the private setting.  Use "SvNIOK".

		       bool    SvNIOKp(SV* sv)

       SvNIOK_off
	       Unsets the NV/IV status of an SV.

		       void    SvNIOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvNOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a double.

		       bool    SvNOK(SV* sv)

       SvNOKp  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a double.  Checks the private
	       setting.  Use "SvNOK".

		       bool    SvNOKp(SV* sv)

       SvNOK_off
	       Unsets the NV status of an SV.

		       void    SvNOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvNOK_on
	       Tells an SV that it is a double.

		       void    SvNOK_on(SV* sv)

       SvNOK_only
	       Tells an SV that it is a double and disables all other OK bits.

		       void    SvNOK_only(SV* sv)

       SvNV    Coerce the given SV to a double and return it. See  "SvNVx" for a version which
	       guarantees to evaluate sv only once.

		       NV      SvNV(SV* sv)

       SvNVX   Returns the raw value in the SV's NV slot, without checks or conversions.  Only
	       use when you are sure SvNOK is true. See also "SvNV()".

		       NV      SvNVX(SV* sv)

       SvNVx   Coerces the given SV to a double and returns it. Guarantees to evaluate sv only
	       once. Use the more efficient "SvNV" otherwise.

		       NV      SvNVx(SV* sv)

       SvOK    Returns a boolean indicating whether the value is an SV.

		       bool    SvOK(SV* sv)

       SvOOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SvIVX is a valid offset value for the
	       SvPVX.  This hack is used internally to speed up removal of characters from the
	       beginning of a SvPV.  When SvOOK is true, then the start of the allocated string
	       buffer is really (SvPVX - SvIVX).

		       bool    SvOOK(SV* sv)

       SvPOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a character string.

		       bool    SvPOK(SV* sv)

       SvPOKp  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains a character string.  Checks
	       the private setting.  Use "SvPOK".

		       bool    SvPOKp(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_off
	       Unsets the PV status of an SV.

		       void    SvPOK_off(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_on
	       Tells an SV that it is a string.

		       void    SvPOK_on(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_only
	       Tells an SV that it is a string and disables all other OK bits.	Will also turn
	       off the UTF8 status.

		       void    SvPOK_only(SV* sv)

       SvPOK_only_UTF8
	       Tells an SV that it is a string and disables all other OK bits, and leaves the
	       UTF8 status as it was.

		       void    SvPOK_only_UTF8(SV* sv)

       SvPV    Returns a pointer to the string in the SV, or a stringified form of the SV if the
	       SV does not contain a string.  The SV may cache the stringified version becoming
	       "SvPOK".  Handles 'get' magic. See also "SvPVx" for a version which guarantees to
	       evaluate sv only once.

		       char*   SvPV(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbyte
	       Like "SvPV", but converts sv to byte representation first if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVbyte(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbytex
	       Like "SvPV", but converts sv to byte representation first if necessary.	Guaran-
	       tees to evaluate sv only once; use the more efficient "SvPVbyte" otherwise.

		       char*   SvPVbytex(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbytex_force
	       Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to byte representation first if necessary.
	       Guarantees to evaluate sv only once; use the more efficient "SvPVbyte_force" oth-
	       erwise.

		       char*   SvPVbytex_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbyte_force
	       Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to byte representation first if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVbyte_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVbyte_nolen
	       Like "SvPV_nolen", but converts sv to byte representation first if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVbyte_nolen(SV* sv)

       SvPVutf8
	       Like "SvPV", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVutf8(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8x
	       Like "SvPV", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.  Guarantees to evaluate
	       sv only once; use the more efficient "SvPVutf8" otherwise.

		       char*   SvPVutf8x(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8x_force
	       Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.  Guarantees to
	       evaluate sv only once; use the more efficient "SvPVutf8_force" otherwise.

		       char*   SvPVutf8x_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8_force
	       Like "SvPV_force", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVutf8_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVutf8_nolen
	       Like "SvPV_nolen", but converts sv to utf8 first if necessary.

		       char*   SvPVutf8_nolen(SV* sv)

       SvPVx   A version of "SvPV" which guarantees to evaluate sv only once.

		       char*   SvPVx(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPVX   Returns a pointer to the physical string in the SV.  The SV must contain a string.

		       char*   SvPVX(SV* sv)

       SvPV_force
	       Like "SvPV" but will force the SV into containing just a string ("SvPOK_only").
	       You want force if you are going to update the "SvPVX" directly.

		       char*   SvPV_force(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPV_force_nomg
	       Like "SvPV" but will force the SV into containing just a string ("SvPOK_only").
	       You want force if you are going to update the "SvPVX" directly. Doesn't process
	       magic.

		       char*   SvPV_force_nomg(SV* sv, STRLEN len)

       SvPV_nolen
	       Returns a pointer to the string in the SV, or a stringified form of the SV if the
	       SV does not contain a string.  The SV may cache the stringified form becoming
	       "SvPOK".  Handles 'get' magic.

		       char*   SvPV_nolen(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT
	       Returns the value of the object's reference count.

		       U32     SvREFCNT(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT_dec
	       Decrements the reference count of the given SV.

		       void    SvREFCNT_dec(SV* sv)

       SvREFCNT_inc
	       Increments the reference count of the given SV.

		       SV*     SvREFCNT_inc(SV* sv)

       SvROK   Tests if the SV is an RV.

		       bool    SvROK(SV* sv)

       SvROK_off
	       Unsets the RV status of an SV.

		       void    SvROK_off(SV* sv)

       SvROK_on
	       Tells an SV that it is an RV.

		       void    SvROK_on(SV* sv)

       SvRV    Dereferences an RV to return the SV.

		       SV*     SvRV(SV* sv)

       SvSTASH Returns the stash of the SV.

		       HV*     SvSTASH(SV* sv)

       SvTAINT Taints an SV if tainting is enabled

		       void    SvTAINT(SV* sv)

       SvTAINTED
	       Checks to see if an SV is tainted. Returns TRUE if it is, FALSE if not.

		       bool    SvTAINTED(SV* sv)

       SvTAINTED_off
	       Untaints an SV. Be very careful with this routine, as it short-circuits some of
	       Perl's fundamental security features. XS module authors should not use this func-
	       tion unless they fully understand all the implications of unconditionally untaint-
	       ing the value. Untainting should be done in the standard perl fashion, via a care-
	       fully crafted regexp, rather than directly untainting variables.

		       void    SvTAINTED_off(SV* sv)

       SvTAINTED_on
	       Marks an SV as tainted.

		       void    SvTAINTED_on(SV* sv)

       SvTRUE  Returns a boolean indicating whether Perl would evaluate the SV as true or false,
	       defined or undefined.  Does not handle 'get' magic.

		       bool    SvTRUE(SV* sv)

       SvTYPE  Returns the type of the SV.  See "svtype".

		       svtype  SvTYPE(SV* sv)

       SvUNLOCK
	       Releases a mutual exclusion lock on sv if a suitable module has been loaded.

		       void    SvUNLOCK(SV* sv)

       SvUOK   Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains an unsigned integer.

		       void    SvUOK(SV* sv)

       SvUPGRADE
	       Used to upgrade an SV to a more complex form.  Uses "sv_upgrade" to perform the
	       upgrade if necessary.  See "svtype".

		       void    SvUPGRADE(SV* sv, svtype type)

       SvUTF8  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV contains UTF-8 encoded data.

		       void    SvUTF8(SV* sv)

       SvUTF8_off
	       Unsets the UTF8 status of an SV.

		       void    SvUTF8_off(SV *sv)

       SvUTF8_on
	       Turn on the UTF8 status of an SV (the data is not changed, just the flag).  Do not
	       use frivolously.

		       void    SvUTF8_on(SV *sv)

       SvUV    Coerces the given SV to an unsigned integer and returns it.  See "SvUVx" for a
	       version which guarantees to evaluate sv only once.

		       UV      SvUV(SV* sv)

       SvUVX   Returns the raw value in the SV's UV slot, without checks or conversions.  Only
	       use when you are sure SvIOK is true. See also "SvUV()".

		       UV      SvUVX(SV* sv)

       SvUVx   Coerces the given SV to an unsigned integer and returns it. Guarantees to evaluate
	       sv only once. Use the more efficient "SvUV" otherwise.

		       UV      SvUVx(SV* sv)

       sv_2bool
	       This function is only called on magical items, and is only used by sv_true() or
	       its macro equivalent.

		       bool    sv_2bool(SV* sv)

       sv_2cv  Using various gambits, try to get a CV from an SV; in addition, try if possible to
	       set *st and *gvp to the stash and GV associated with it.

		       CV*     sv_2cv(SV* sv, HV** st, GV** gvp, I32 lref)

       sv_2io  Using various gambits, try to get an IO from an SV: the IO slot if its a GV; or
	       the recursive result if we're an RV; or the IO slot of the symbol named after the
	       PV if we're a string.

		       IO*     sv_2io(SV* sv)

       sv_2iv  Return the integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string conversion, magic
	       etc. Normally used via the "SvIV(sv)" and "SvIVx(sv)" macros.

		       IV      sv_2iv(SV* sv)

       sv_2mortal
	       Marks an existing SV as mortal.	The SV will be destroyed "soon", either by an
	       explicit call to FREETMPS, or by an implicit call at places such as statement
	       boundaries.  See also "sv_newmortal" and "sv_mortalcopy".

		       SV*     sv_2mortal(SV* sv)

       sv_2nv  Return the num value of an SV, doing any necessary string or integer conversion,
	       magic etc. Normally used via the "SvNV(sv)" and "SvNVx(sv)" macros.

		       NV      sv_2nv(SV* sv)

       sv_2pvbyte
	       Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp to its
	       length.	May cause the SV to be downgraded from UTF8 as a side-effect.

	       Usually accessed via the "SvPVbyte" macro.

		       char*   sv_2pvbyte(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_2pvbyte_nolen
	       Return a pointer to the byte-encoded representation of the SV.  May cause the SV
	       to be downgraded from UTF8 as a side-effect.

	       Usually accessed via the "SvPVbyte_nolen" macro.

		       char*   sv_2pvbyte_nolen(SV* sv)

       sv_2pvutf8
	       Return a pointer to the UTF8-encoded representation of the SV, and set *lp to its
	       length.	May cause the SV to be upgraded to UTF8 as a side-effect.

	       Usually accessed via the "SvPVutf8" macro.

		       char*   sv_2pvutf8(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_2pvutf8_nolen
	       Return a pointer to the UTF8-encoded representation of the SV.  May cause the SV
	       to be upgraded to UTF8 as a side-effect.

	       Usually accessed via the "SvPVutf8_nolen" macro.

		       char*   sv_2pvutf8_nolen(SV* sv)

       sv_2pv_flags
	       Returns a pointer to the string value of an SV, and sets *lp to its length.  If
	       flags includes SV_GMAGIC, does an mg_get() first. Coerces sv to a string if neces-
	       sary.  Normally invoked via the "SvPV_flags" macro. "sv_2pv()" and "sv_2pv_nomg"
	       usually end up here too.

		       char*   sv_2pv_flags(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp, I32 flags)

       sv_2pv_nolen
	       Like "sv_2pv()", but doesn't return the length too. You should usually use the
	       macro wrapper "SvPV_nolen(sv)" instead.	     char*     sv_2pv_nolen(SV* sv)

       sv_2uv  Return the unsigned integer value of an SV, doing any necessary string conversion,
	       magic etc. Normally used via the "SvUV(sv)" and "SvUVx(sv)" macros.

		       UV      sv_2uv(SV* sv)

       sv_backoff
	       Remove any string offset. You should normally use the "SvOOK_off" macro wrapper
	       instead.

		       int     sv_backoff(SV* sv)

       sv_bless
	       Blesses an SV into a specified package.	The SV must be an RV.  The package must
	       be designated by its stash (see "gv_stashpv()").  The reference count of the SV is
	       unaffected.

		       SV*     sv_bless(SV* sv, HV* stash)

       sv_catpv
	       Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in the SV.  If the SV
	       has the UTF8 status set, then the bytes appended should be valid UTF8.  Handles
	       'get' magic, but not 'set' magic.  See "sv_catpv_mg".

		       void    sv_catpv(SV* sv, const char* ptr)

       sv_catpvf
	       Processes its arguments like "sprintf" and appends the formatted output to an SV.
	       If the appended data contains "wide" characters (including, but not limited to,
	       SVs with a UTF-8 PV formatted with %s, and characters >255 formatted with %c), the
	       original SV might get upgraded to UTF-8.  Handles 'get' magic, but not 'set'
	       magic.  "SvSETMAGIC()" must typically be called after calling this function to
	       handle 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_catpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_catpvf_mg
	       Like "sv_catpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_catpvf_mg(SV *sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_catpvn
	       Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in the SV.  The "len"
	       indicates number of bytes to copy.  If the SV has the UTF8 status set, then the
	       bytes appended should be valid UTF8.  Handles 'get' magic, but not 'set' magic.
	       See "sv_catpvn_mg".

		       void    sv_catpvn(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_catpvn_flags
	       Concatenates the string onto the end of the string which is in the SV.  The "len"
	       indicates number of bytes to copy.  If the SV has the UTF8 status set, then the
	       bytes appended should be valid UTF8.  If "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will
	       "mg_get" on "dsv" if appropriate, else not. "sv_catpvn" and "sv_catpvn_nomg" are
	       implemented in terms of this function.

		       void    sv_catpvn_flags(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len, I32 flags)

       sv_catpvn_mg
	       Like "sv_catpvn", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_catpvn_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_catpv_mg
	       Like "sv_catpv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_catpv_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr)

       sv_catsv
	       Concatenates the string from SV "ssv" onto the end of the string in SV "dsv".
	       Modifies "dsv" but not "ssv".  Handles 'get' magic, but not 'set' magic.  See
	       "sv_catsv_mg".

		       void    sv_catsv(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_catsv_flags
	       Concatenates the string from SV "ssv" onto the end of the string in SV "dsv".
	       Modifies "dsv" but not "ssv".  If "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get"
	       on the SVs if appropriate, else not. "sv_catsv" and "sv_catsv_nomg" are imple-
	       mented in terms of this function.

		       void    sv_catsv_flags(SV* dsv, SV* ssv, I32 flags)

       sv_catsv_mg
	       Like "sv_catsv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_catsv_mg(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)

       sv_chop Efficient removal of characters from the beginning of the string buffer.
	       SvPOK(sv) must be true and the "ptr" must be a pointer to somewhere inside the
	       string buffer.  The "ptr" becomes the first character of the adjusted string. Uses
	       the "OOK hack".

		       void    sv_chop(SV* sv, char* ptr)

       sv_clear
	       Clear an SV: call any destructors, free up any memory used by the body, and free
	       the body itself. The SV's head is not freed, although its type is set to all 1's
	       so that it won't inadvertently be assumed to be live during global destruction
	       etc.  This function should only be called when REFCNT is zero. Most of the time
	       you'll want to call "sv_free()" (or its macro wrapper "SvREFCNT_dec") instead.

		       void    sv_clear(SV* sv)

       sv_cmp  Compares the strings in two SVs.  Returns -1, 0, or 1 indicating whether the
	       string in "sv1" is less than, equal to, or greater than the string in "sv2". Is
	       UTF-8 and 'use bytes' aware, handles get magic, and will coerce its args to
	       strings if necessary.  See also "sv_cmp_locale".

		       I32     sv_cmp(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)

       sv_cmp_locale
	       Compares the strings in two SVs in a locale-aware manner. Is UTF-8 and 'use bytes'
	       aware, handles get magic, and will coerce its args to strings if necessary.  See
	       also "sv_cmp_locale".  See also "sv_cmp".

		       I32     sv_cmp_locale(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)

       sv_collxfrm
	       Add Collate Transform magic to an SV if it doesn't already have it.

	       Any scalar variable may carry PERL_MAGIC_collxfrm magic that contains the scalar
	       data of the variable, but transformed to such a format that a normal memory com-
	       parison can be used to compare the data according to the locale settings.

		       char*   sv_collxfrm(SV* sv, STRLEN* nxp)

       sv_copypv
	       Copies a stringified representation of the source SV into the destination SV.
	       Automatically performs any necessary mg_get and coercion of numeric values into
	       strings.  Guaranteed to preserve UTF-8 flag even from overloaded objects.  Similar
	       in nature to sv_2pv[_flags] but operates directly on an SV instead of just the
	       string.	Mostly uses sv_2pv_flags to do its work, except when that would lose the
	       UTF-8'ness of the PV.

		       void    sv_copypv(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_dec  Auto-decrement of the value in the SV, doing string to numeric conversion if nec-
	       essary. Handles 'get' magic.

		       void    sv_dec(SV* sv)

       sv_derived_from
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is derived from the specified class.
	       This is the function that implements "UNIVERSAL::isa".  It works for class names
	       as well as for objects.

		       bool    sv_derived_from(SV* sv, const char* name)

       sv_eq   Returns a boolean indicating whether the strings in the two SVs are identical. Is
	       UTF-8 and 'use bytes' aware, handles get magic, and will coerce its args to
	       strings if necessary.

		       I32     sv_eq(SV* sv1, SV* sv2)

       sv_force_normal
	       Undo various types of fakery on an SV: if the PV is a shared string, make a pri-
	       vate copy; if we're a ref, stop refing; if we're a glob, downgrade to an xpvmg.
	       See also "sv_force_normal_flags".

		       void    sv_force_normal(SV *sv)

       sv_force_normal_flags
	       Undo various types of fakery on an SV: if the PV is a shared string, make a pri-
	       vate copy; if we're a ref, stop refing; if we're a glob, downgrade to an xpvmg.
	       The "flags" parameter gets passed to  "sv_unref_flags()" when unrefing.
	       "sv_force_normal" calls this function with flags set to 0.

		       void    sv_force_normal_flags(SV *sv, U32 flags)

       sv_free Decrement an SV's reference count, and if it drops to zero, call "sv_clear" to
	       invoke destructors and free up any memory used by the body; finally, deallocate
	       the SV's head itself.  Normally called via a wrapper macro "SvREFCNT_dec".

		       void    sv_free(SV* sv)

       sv_gets Get a line from the filehandle and store it into the SV, optionally appending to
	       the currently-stored string.

		       char*   sv_gets(SV* sv, PerlIO* fp, I32 append)

       sv_grow Expands the character buffer in the SV.	If necessary, uses "sv_unref" and
	       upgrades the SV to "SVt_PV".  Returns a pointer to the character buffer.  Use the
	       "SvGROW" wrapper instead.

		       char*   sv_grow(SV* sv, STRLEN newlen)

       sv_inc  Auto-increment of the value in the SV, doing string to numeric conversion if nec-
	       essary. Handles 'get' magic.

		       void    sv_inc(SV* sv)

       sv_insert
	       Inserts a string at the specified offset/length within the SV. Similar to the Perl
	       substr() function.

		       void    sv_insert(SV* bigsv, STRLEN offset, STRLEN len, char* little, STRLEN littlelen)

       sv_isa  Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is blessed into the specified class.
	       This does not check for subtypes; use "sv_derived_from" to verify an inheritance
	       relationship.

		       int     sv_isa(SV* sv, const char* name)

       sv_isobject
	       Returns a boolean indicating whether the SV is an RV pointing to a blessed object.
	       If the SV is not an RV, or if the object is not blessed, then this will return
	       false.

		       int     sv_isobject(SV* sv)

       sv_iv   A private implementation of the "SvIVx" macro for compilers which can't cope with
	       complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.

		       IV      sv_iv(SV* sv)

       sv_len  Returns the length of the string in the SV. Handles magic and type coercion.  See
	       also "SvCUR", which gives raw access to the xpv_cur slot.

		       STRLEN  sv_len(SV* sv)

       sv_len_utf8
	       Returns the number of characters in the string in an SV, counting wide UTF8 bytes
	       as a single character. Handles magic and type coercion.

		       STRLEN  sv_len_utf8(SV* sv)

       sv_magic
	       Adds magic to an SV. First upgrades "sv" to type "SVt_PVMG" if necessary, then
	       adds a new magic item of type "how" to the head of the magic list.

		       void    sv_magic(SV* sv, SV* obj, int how, const char* name, I32 namlen)

       sv_magicext
	       Adds magic to an SV, upgrading it if necessary. Applies the supplied vtable and
	       returns pointer to the magic added.

	       Note that sv_magicext will allow things that sv_magic will not.	In particular you
	       can add magic to SvREADONLY SVs and and more than one instance of the same 'how'

	       I "namelen" is greater then zero then a savepvn() copy of "name" is stored, if
	       "namelen" is zero then "name" is stored as-is and - as another special case - if
	       "(name && namelen == HEf_SVKEY)" then "name" is assumed to contain an "SV*" and
	       has its REFCNT incremented

	       (This is now used as a subroutine by sv_magic.)

		       MAGIC * sv_magicext(SV* sv, SV* obj, int how, MGVTBL *vtbl, const char* name, I32 namlen        )

       sv_mortalcopy
	       Creates a new SV which is a copy of the original SV (using "sv_setsv").	The new
	       SV is marked as mortal. It will be destroyed "soon", either by an explicit call to
	       FREETMPS, or by an implicit call at places such as statement boundaries.  See also
	       "sv_newmortal" and "sv_2mortal".

		       SV*     sv_mortalcopy(SV* oldsv)

       sv_newmortal
	       Creates a new null SV which is mortal.  The reference count of the SV is set to 1.
	       It will be destroyed "soon", either by an explicit call to FREETMPS, or by an
	       implicit call at places such as statement boundaries.  See also "sv_mortalcopy"
	       and "sv_2mortal".

		       SV*     sv_newmortal()

       sv_newref
	       Increment an SV's reference count. Use the "SvREFCNT_inc()" wrapper instead.

		       SV*     sv_newref(SV* sv)

       sv_nolocking
	       Dummy routine which "locks" an SV when there is no locking module present.  Exists
	       to avoid test for a NULL function pointer and because it could potentially warn
	       under some level of strict-ness.

		       void    sv_nolocking(SV *)

       sv_nosharing
	       Dummy routine which "shares" an SV when there is no sharing module present.
	       Exists to avoid test for a NULL function pointer and because it could potentially
	       warn under some level of strict-ness.

		       void    sv_nosharing(SV *)

       sv_nounlocking
	       Dummy routine which "unlocks" an SV when there is no locking module present.
	       Exists to avoid test for a NULL function pointer and because it could potentially
	       warn under some level of strict-ness.

		       void    sv_nounlocking(SV *)

       sv_nv   A private implementation of the "SvNVx" macro for compilers which can't cope with
	       complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.

		       NV      sv_nv(SV* sv)

       sv_pos_b2u
	       Converts the value pointed to by offsetp from a count of bytes from the start of
	       the string, to a count of the equivalent number of UTF8 chars.  Handles magic and
	       type coercion.

		       void    sv_pos_b2u(SV* sv, I32* offsetp)

       sv_pos_u2b
	       Converts the value pointed to by offsetp from a count of UTF8 chars from the start
	       of the string, to a count of the equivalent number of bytes; if lenp is non-zero,
	       it does the same to lenp, but this time starting from the offset, rather than from
	       the start of the string. Handles magic and type coercion.

		       void    sv_pos_u2b(SV* sv, I32* offsetp, I32* lenp)

       sv_pv   Use the "SvPV_nolen" macro instead

		       char*   sv_pv(SV *sv)

       sv_pvbyte
	       Use "SvPVbyte_nolen" instead.

		       char*   sv_pvbyte(SV *sv)

       sv_pvbyten
	       A private implementation of the "SvPVbyte" macro for compilers which can't cope
	       with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvbyten(SV *sv, STRLEN *len)

       sv_pvbyten_force
	       A private implementation of the "SvPVbytex_force" macro for compilers which can't
	       cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvbyten_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_pvn  A private implementation of the "SvPV" macro for compilers which can't cope with
	       complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvn(SV *sv, STRLEN *len)

       sv_pvn_force
	       Get a sensible string out of the SV somehow.  A private implementation of the
	       "SvPV_force" macro for compilers which can't cope with complex macro expressions.
	       Always use the macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvn_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_pvn_force_flags
	       Get a sensible string out of the SV somehow.  If "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set,
	       will "mg_get" on "sv" if appropriate, else not. "sv_pvn_force" and
	       "sv_pvn_force_nomg" are implemented in terms of this function.  You normally want
	       to use the various wrapper macros instead: see "SvPV_force" and "SvPV_force_nomg"

		       char*   sv_pvn_force_flags(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp, I32 flags)

       sv_pvutf8
	       Use the "SvPVutf8_nolen" macro instead

		       char*   sv_pvutf8(SV *sv)

       sv_pvutf8n
	       A private implementation of the "SvPVutf8" macro for compilers which can't cope
	       with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvutf8n(SV *sv, STRLEN *len)

       sv_pvutf8n_force
	       A private implementation of the "SvPVutf8_force" macro for compilers which can't
	       cope with complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.

		       char*   sv_pvutf8n_force(SV* sv, STRLEN* lp)

       sv_reftype
	       Returns a string describing what the SV is a reference to.

		       char*   sv_reftype(SV* sv, int ob)

       sv_replace
	       Make the first argument a copy of the second, then delete the original.	The tar-
	       get SV physically takes over ownership of the body of the source SV and inherits
	       its flags; however, the target keeps any magic it owns, and any magic in the
	       source is discarded.  Note that this is a rather specialist SV copying operation;
	       most of the time you'll want to use "sv_setsv" or one of its many macro
	       front-ends.

		       void    sv_replace(SV* sv, SV* nsv)

       sv_report_used
	       Dump the contents of all SVs not yet freed. (Debugging aid).

		       void    sv_report_used()

       sv_reset
	       Underlying implementation for the "reset" Perl function.  Note that the perl-level
	       function is vaguely deprecated.

		       void    sv_reset(char* s, HV* stash)

       sv_rvweaken
	       Weaken a reference: set the "SvWEAKREF" flag on this RV; give the referred-to SV
	       "PERL_MAGIC_backref" magic if it hasn't already; and push a back-reference to this
	       RV onto the array of backreferences associated with that magic.

		       SV*     sv_rvweaken(SV *sv)

       sv_setiv
	       Copies an integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.  Does not han-
	       dle 'set' magic.  See also "sv_setiv_mg".

		       void    sv_setiv(SV* sv, IV num)

       sv_setiv_mg
	       Like "sv_setiv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setiv_mg(SV *sv, IV i)

       sv_setnv
	       Copies a double into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.  Does not handle
	       'set' magic.  See also "sv_setnv_mg".

		       void    sv_setnv(SV* sv, NV num)

       sv_setnv_mg
	       Like "sv_setnv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setnv_mg(SV *sv, NV num)

       sv_setpv
	       Copies a string into an SV.  The string must be null-terminated.  Does not handle
	       'set' magic.  See "sv_setpv_mg".

		       void    sv_setpv(SV* sv, const char* ptr)

       sv_setpvf
	       Processes its arguments like "sprintf" and sets an SV to the formatted output.
	       Does not handle 'set' magic.  See "sv_setpvf_mg".

		       void    sv_setpvf(SV* sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_setpvf_mg
	       Like "sv_setpvf", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setpvf_mg(SV *sv, const char* pat, ...)

       sv_setpvn
	       Copies a string into an SV.  The "len" parameter indicates the number of bytes to
	       be copied.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See "sv_setpvn_mg".

		       void    sv_setpvn(SV* sv, const char* ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_setpvn_mg
	       Like "sv_setpvn", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setpvn_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_setpv_mg
	       Like "sv_setpv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setpv_mg(SV *sv, const char *ptr)

       sv_setref_iv
	       Copies an integer into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.  The "rv" argument
	       will be upgraded to an RV.  That RV will be modified to point to the new SV.  The
	       "classname" argument indicates the package for the blessing.  Set "classname" to
	       "Nullch" to avoid the blessing.	The new SV will be returned and will have a ref-
	       erence count of 1.

		       SV*     sv_setref_iv(SV* rv, const char* classname, IV iv)

       sv_setref_nv
	       Copies a double into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.  The "rv" argument will
	       be upgraded to an RV.  That RV will be modified to point to the new SV.	The
	       "classname" argument indicates the package for the blessing.  Set "classname" to
	       "Nullch" to avoid the blessing.	The new SV will be returned and will have a ref-
	       erence count of 1.

		       SV*     sv_setref_nv(SV* rv, const char* classname, NV nv)

       sv_setref_pv
	       Copies a pointer into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.  The "rv" argument
	       will be upgraded to an RV.  That RV will be modified to point to the new SV.  If
	       the "pv" argument is NULL then "PL_sv_undef" will be placed into the SV.  The
	       "classname" argument indicates the package for the blessing.  Set "classname" to
	       "Nullch" to avoid the blessing.	The new SV will be returned and will have a ref-
	       erence count of 1.

	       Do not use with other Perl types such as HV, AV, SV, CV, because those objects
	       will become corrupted by the pointer copy process.

	       Note that "sv_setref_pvn" copies the string while this copies the pointer.

		       SV*     sv_setref_pv(SV* rv, const char* classname, void* pv)

       sv_setref_pvn
	       Copies a string into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.  The length of the
	       string must be specified with "n".  The "rv" argument will be upgraded to an RV.
	       That RV will be modified to point to the new SV.  The "classname" argument indi-
	       cates the package for the blessing.  Set "classname" to "Nullch" to avoid the
	       blessing.  The new SV will be returned and will have a reference count of 1.

	       Note that "sv_setref_pv" copies the pointer while this copies the string.

		       SV*     sv_setref_pvn(SV* rv, const char* classname, char* pv, STRLEN n)

       sv_setref_uv
	       Copies an unsigned integer into a new SV, optionally blessing the SV.  The "rv"
	       argument will be upgraded to an RV.  That RV will be modified to point to the new
	       SV.  The "classname" argument indicates the package for the blessing.  Set "class-
	       name" to "Nullch" to avoid the blessing.  The new SV will be returned and will
	       have a reference count of 1.

		       SV*     sv_setref_uv(SV* rv, const char* classname, UV uv)

       sv_setsv
	       Copies the contents of the source SV "ssv" into the destination SV "dsv".  The
	       source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so don't use this function if the
	       source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle 'set' magic.  Loosely speaking, it
	       performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous content of the destination.

	       You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as "SvSetSV",
	       "SvSetSV_nosteal", "SvSetMagicSV" and "SvSetMagicSV_nosteal".

		       void    sv_setsv(SV* dsv, SV* ssv)

       sv_setsv_flags
	       Copies the contents of the source SV "ssv" into the destination SV "dsv".  The
	       source SV may be destroyed if it is mortal, so don't use this function if the
	       source SV needs to be reused. Does not handle 'set' magic.  Loosely speaking, it
	       performs a copy-by-value, obliterating any previous content of the destination.
	       If the "flags" parameter has the "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will "mg_get" on "ssv" if
	       appropriate, else not. "sv_setsv" and "sv_setsv_nomg" are implemented in terms of
	       this function.

	       You probably want to use one of the assortment of wrappers, such as "SvSetSV",
	       "SvSetSV_nosteal", "SvSetMagicSV" and "SvSetMagicSV_nosteal".

	       This is the primary function for copying scalars, and most other copy-ish func-
	       tions and macros use this underneath.

		       void    sv_setsv_flags(SV* dsv, SV* ssv, I32 flags)

       sv_setsv_mg
	       Like "sv_setsv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setsv_mg(SV *dstr, SV *sstr)

       sv_setuv
	       Copies an unsigned integer into the given SV, upgrading first if necessary.  Does
	       not handle 'set' magic.	See also "sv_setuv_mg".

		       void    sv_setuv(SV* sv, UV num)

       sv_setuv_mg
	       Like "sv_setuv", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_setuv_mg(SV *sv, UV u)

       sv_taint
	       Taint an SV. Use "SvTAINTED_on" instead.       void sv_taint(SV* sv)

       sv_tainted
	       Test an SV for taintedness. Use "SvTAINTED" instead.	  bool sv_tainted(SV* sv)

       sv_true Returns true if the SV has a true value by Perl's rules.  Use the "SvTRUE" macro
	       instead, which may call "sv_true()" or may instead use an in-line version.

		       I32     sv_true(SV *sv)

       sv_unmagic
	       Removes all magic of type "type" from an SV.

		       int     sv_unmagic(SV* sv, int type)

       sv_unref
	       Unsets the RV status of the SV, and decrements the reference count of whatever was
	       being referenced by the RV.  This can almost be thought of as a reversal of
	       "newSVrv".  This is "sv_unref_flags" with the "flag" being zero.  See "SvROK_off".

		       void    sv_unref(SV* sv)

       sv_unref_flags
	       Unsets the RV status of the SV, and decrements the reference count of whatever was
	       being referenced by the RV.  This can almost be thought of as a reversal of
	       "newSVrv".  The "cflags" argument can contain "SV_IMMEDIATE_UNREF" to force the
	       reference count to be decremented (otherwise the decrementing is conditional on
	       the reference count being different from one or the reference being a readonly
	       SV).  See "SvROK_off".

		       void    sv_unref_flags(SV* sv, U32 flags)

       sv_untaint
	       Untaint an SV. Use "SvTAINTED_off" instead.	 void sv_untaint(SV* sv)

       sv_upgrade
	       Upgrade an SV to a more complex form.  Generally adds a new body type to the SV,
	       then copies across as much information as possible from the old body.  You gener-
	       ally want to use the "SvUPGRADE" macro wrapper. See also "svtype".

		       bool    sv_upgrade(SV* sv, U32 mt)

       sv_usepvn
	       Tells an SV to use "ptr" to find its string value.  Normally the string is stored
	       inside the SV but sv_usepvn allows the SV to use an outside string.  The "ptr"
	       should point to memory that was allocated by "malloc".  The string length, "len",
	       must be supplied.  This function will realloc the memory pointed to by "ptr", so
	       that pointer should not be freed or used by the programmer after giving it to
	       sv_usepvn.  Does not handle 'set' magic.  See "sv_usepvn_mg".

		       void    sv_usepvn(SV* sv, char* ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_usepvn_mg
	       Like "sv_usepvn", but also handles 'set' magic.

		       void    sv_usepvn_mg(SV *sv, char *ptr, STRLEN len)

       sv_utf8_decode
	       Convert the octets in the PV from UTF-8 to chars. Scan for validity and then turn
	       off SvUTF8 if needed so that we see characters. Used as a building block for
	       decode_utf8 in Encode.xs

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

		       bool    sv_utf8_decode(SV *sv)

       sv_utf8_downgrade
	       Attempt to convert the PV of an SV from UTF8-encoded to byte encoding.  This may
	       not be possible if the PV contains non-byte encoding characters; if this is the
	       case, either returns false or, if "fail_ok" is not true, croaks.

	       This is not as a general purpose Unicode to byte encoding interface: use the
	       Encode extension for that.

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

		       bool    sv_utf8_downgrade(SV *sv, bool fail_ok)

       sv_utf8_encode
	       Convert the PV of an SV to UTF8-encoded, but then turn off the "SvUTF8" flag so
	       that it looks like octets again. Used as a building block for encode_utf8 in
	       Encode.xs

		       void    sv_utf8_encode(SV *sv)

       sv_utf8_upgrade
	       Convert the PV of an SV to its UTF8-encoded form.  Forces the SV to string form if
	       it is not already.  Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks
	       even if all the bytes have hibit clear.

	       This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface: use the
	       Encode extension for that.

		       STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade(SV *sv)

       sv_utf8_upgrade_flags
	       Convert the PV of an SV to its UTF8-encoded form.  Forces the SV to string form if
	       it is not already.  Always sets the SvUTF8 flag to avoid future validity checks
	       even if all the bytes have hibit clear. If "flags" has "SV_GMAGIC" bit set, will
	       "mg_get" on "sv" if appropriate, else not. "sv_utf8_upgrade" and
	       "sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg" are implemented in terms of this function.

	       This is not as a general purpose byte encoding to Unicode interface: use the
	       Encode extension for that.

		       STRLEN  sv_utf8_upgrade_flags(SV *sv, I32 flags)

       sv_uv   A private implementation of the "SvUVx" macro for compilers which can't cope with
	       complex macro expressions. Always use the macro instead.

		       UV      sv_uv(SV* sv)

       sv_vcatpvfn
	       Processes its arguments like "vsprintf" and appends the formatted output to an SV.
	       Uses an array of SVs if the C style variable argument list is missing (NULL).
	       When running with taint checks enabled, indicates via "maybe_tainted" if results
	       are untrustworthy (often due to the use of locales).

	       Usually used via one of its frontends "sv_catpvf" and "sv_catpvf_mg".

		       void    sv_vcatpvfn(SV* sv, const char* pat, STRLEN patlen, va_list* args, SV** svargs, I32 svmax, bool *maybe_tainted)

       sv_vsetpvfn
	       Works like "vcatpvfn" but copies the text into the SV instead of appending it.

	       Usually used via one of its frontends "sv_setpvf" and "sv_setpvf_mg".

		       void    sv_vsetpvfn(SV* sv, const char* pat, STRLEN patlen, va_list* args, SV** svargs, I32 svmax, bool *maybe_tainted)

Unicode Support
       bytes_from_utf8
	       Converts a string "s" of length "len" from UTF8 into byte encoding.  Unlike
	       <utf8_to_bytes> but like "bytes_to_utf8", returns a pointer to the newly-created
	       string, and updates "len" to contain the new length.  Returns the original string
	       if no conversion occurs, "len" is unchanged. Do nothing if "is_utf8" points to 0.
	       Sets "is_utf8" to 0 if "s" is converted or contains all 7bit characters.

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

		       U8*     bytes_from_utf8(U8 *s, STRLEN *len, bool *is_utf8)

       bytes_to_utf8
	       Converts a string "s" of length "len" from ASCII into UTF8 encoding.  Returns a
	       pointer to the newly-created string, and sets "len" to reflect the new length.

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

		       U8*     bytes_to_utf8(U8 *s, STRLEN *len)

       ibcmp_utf8
	       Return true if the strings s1 and s2 differ case-insensitively, false if not (if
	       they are equal case-insensitively).  If u1 is true, the string s1 is assumed to be
	       in UTF-8-encoded Unicode.  If u2 is true, the string s2 is assumed to be in
	       UTF-8-encoded Unicode.  If u1 or u2 are false, the respective string is assumed to
	       be in native 8-bit encoding.

	       If the pe1 and pe2 are non-NULL, the scanning pointers will be copied in there
	       (they will point at the beginning of the next character).  If the pointers behind
	       pe1 or pe2 are non-NULL, they are the end pointers beyond which scanning will not
	       continue under any circustances.  If the byte lengths l1 and l2 are non-zero,
	       s1+l1 and s2+l2 will be used as goal end pointers that will also stop the scan,
	       and which qualify towards defining a successful match: all the scans that define
	       an explicit length must reach their goal pointers for a match to succeed).

	       For case-insensitiveness, the "casefolding" of Unicode is used instead of
	       upper/lowercasing both the characters, see http://www.unicode.org/uni-
	       code/reports/tr21/ (Case Mappings).

		       I32     ibcmp_utf8(const char* a, char **pe1, UV l1, bool u1, const char* b, char **pe2, UV l2, bool u2)

       is_utf8_char
	       Tests if some arbitrary number of bytes begins in a valid UTF-8 character.  Note
	       that an INVARIANT (i.e. ASCII) character is a valid UTF-8 character.  The actual
	       number of bytes in the UTF-8 character will be returned if it is valid, otherwise
	       0.

		       STRLEN  is_utf8_char(U8 *p)

       is_utf8_string
	       Returns true if first "len" bytes of the given string form a valid UTF8 string,
	       false otherwise.  Note that 'a valid UTF8 string' does not mean 'a string that
	       contains UTF8' because a valid ASCII string is a valid UTF8 string.

		       bool    is_utf8_string(U8 *s, STRLEN len)

       pv_uni_display
	       Build to the scalar dsv a displayable version of the string spv, length len, the
	       displayable version being at most pvlim bytes long (if longer, the rest is trun-
	       cated and "..." will be appended).

	       The flags argument can have UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT set to display isPRINT()able char-
	       acters as themselves, UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH to display the \\[nrfta\\] as the
	       backslashed versions (like '\n') (UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH is preferred over UNI_DIS-
	       PLAY_ISPRINT for \\).  UNI_DISPLAY_QQ (and its alias UNI_DISPLAY_REGEX) have both
	       UNI_DISPLAY_BACKSLASH and UNI_DISPLAY_ISPRINT turned on.

	       The pointer to the PV of the dsv is returned.

		       char*   pv_uni_display(SV *dsv, U8 *spv, STRLEN len, STRLEN pvlim, UV flags)

       sv_recode_to_utf8
	       The encoding is assumed to be an Encode object, on entry the PV of the sv is
	       assumed to be octets in that encoding, and the sv will be converted into Unicode
	       (and UTF-8).

	       If the sv already is UTF-8 (or if it is not POK), or if the encoding is not a ref-
	       erence, nothing is done to the sv.  If the encoding is not an "Encode::XS" Encod-
	       ing object, bad things will happen.  (See lib/encoding.pm and Encode).

	       The PV of the sv is returned.

		       char*   sv_recode_to_utf8(SV* sv, SV *encoding)

       sv_uni_display
	       Build to the scalar dsv a displayable version of the scalar sv, the displayable
	       version being at most pvlim bytes long (if longer, the rest is truncated and "..."
	       will be appended).

	       The flags argument is as in pv_uni_display().

	       The pointer to the PV of the dsv is returned.

		       char*   sv_uni_display(SV *dsv, SV *ssv, STRLEN pvlim, UV flags)

       to_utf8_case
	       The "p" contains the pointer to the UTF-8 string encoding the character that is
	       being converted.

	       The "ustrp" is a pointer to the character buffer to put the conversion result to.
	       The "lenp" is a pointer to the length of the result.

	       The "swashp" is a pointer to the swash to use.

	       Both the special and normal mappings are stored lib/unicore/To/Foo.pl, and loaded
	       by SWASHGET, using lib/utf8_heavy.pl.  The special (usually, but not always, a
	       multicharacter mapping), is tried first.

	       The "special" is a string like "utf8::ToSpecLower", which means the hash
	       %utf8::ToSpecLower.  The access to the hash is through Perl_to_utf8_case().

	       The "normal" is a string like "ToLower" which means the swash %utf8::ToLower.

		       UV      to_utf8_case(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp, SV **swash, char *normal, char *special)

       to_utf8_fold
	       Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its foldcase version and store that in
	       UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in bytes in lenp.	Note that the ustrp needs to be
	       at least UTF8_MAXLEN_FOLD+1 bytes since the foldcase version may be longer than
	       the original character (up to three characters).

	       The first character of the foldcased version is returned (but note, as explained
	       above, that there may be more.)

		       UV      to_utf8_fold(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       to_utf8_lower
	       Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its lowercase version and store that
	       in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in bytes in lenp.  Note that the ustrp needs to
	       be at least UTF8_MAXLEN_UCLC+1 bytes since the lowercase version may be longer
	       than the original character (up to two characters).

	       The first character of the lowercased version is returned (but note, as explained
	       above, that there may be more.)

		       UV      to_utf8_lower(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       to_utf8_title
	       Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its titlecase version and store that
	       in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in bytes in lenp.  Note that the ustrp needs to
	       be at least UTF8_MAXLEN_UCLC+1 bytes since the titlecase version may be longer
	       than the original character (up to two characters).

	       The first character of the titlecased version is returned (but note, as explained
	       above, that there may be more.)

		       UV      to_utf8_title(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       to_utf8_upper
	       Convert the UTF-8 encoded character at p to its uppercase version and store that
	       in UTF-8 in ustrp and its length in bytes in lenp.  Note that the ustrp needs to
	       be at least UTF8_MAXLEN_UCLC+1 bytes since the uppercase version may be longer
	       than the original character (up to two characters).

	       The first character of the uppercased version is returned (but note, as explained
	       above, that there may be more.)

		       UV      to_utf8_upper(U8 *p, U8* ustrp, STRLEN *lenp)

       utf8n_to_uvchr
	       Returns the native character value of the first character in the string "s" which
	       is assumed to be in UTF8 encoding; "retlen" will be set to the length, in bytes,
	       of that character.

	       Allows length and flags to be passed to low level routine.

		       UV      utf8n_to_uvchr(U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN* retlen, U32 flags)

       utf8n_to_uvuni
	       Bottom level UTF-8 decode routine.  Returns the unicode code point value of the
	       first character in the string "s" which is assumed to be in UTF8 encoding and no
	       longer than "curlen"; "retlen" will be set to the length, in bytes, of that char-
	       acter.

	       If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF8 character, the behaviour is dependent
	       on the value of "flags": if it contains UTF8_CHECK_ONLY, it is assumed that the
	       caller will raise a warning, and this function will silently just set "retlen" to
	       "-1" and return zero.  If the "flags" does not contain UTF8_CHECK_ONLY, warnings
	       about malformations will be given, "retlen" will be set to the expected length of
	       the UTF-8 character in bytes, and zero will be returned.

	       The "flags" can also contain various flags to allow deviations from the strict
	       UTF-8 encoding (see utf8.h).

	       Most code should use utf8_to_uvchr() rather than call this directly.

		       UV      utf8n_to_uvuni(U8 *s, STRLEN curlen, STRLEN* retlen, U32 flags)

       utf8_distance
	       Returns the number of UTF8 characters between the UTF-8 pointers "a" and "b".

	       WARNING: use only if you *know* that the pointers point inside the same UTF-8 buf-
	       fer.

		       IV      utf8_distance(U8 *a, U8 *b)

       utf8_hop
	       Return the UTF-8 pointer "s" displaced by "off" characters, either forward or
	       backward.

	       WARNING: do not use the following unless you *know* "off" is within the UTF-8 data
	       pointed to by "s" *and* that on entry "s" is aligned on the first byte of charac-
	       ter or just after the last byte of a character.

		       U8*     utf8_hop(U8 *s, I32 off)

       utf8_length
	       Return the length of the UTF-8 char encoded string "s" in characters.  Stops at
	       "e" (inclusive).  If "e < s" or if the scan would end up past "e", croaks.

		       STRLEN  utf8_length(U8* s, U8 *e)

       utf8_to_bytes
	       Converts a string "s" of length "len" from UTF8 into byte encoding.  Unlike
	       "bytes_to_utf8", this over-writes the original string, and updates len to contain
	       the new length.	Returns zero on failure, setting "len" to -1.

	       NOTE: this function is experimental and may change or be removed without notice.

		       U8*     utf8_to_bytes(U8 *s, STRLEN *len)

       utf8_to_uvchr
	       Returns the native character value of the first character in the string "s" which
	       is assumed to be in UTF8 encoding; "retlen" will be set to the length, in bytes,
	       of that character.

	       If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF8 character, zero is returned and retlen
	       is set, if possible, to -1.

		       UV      utf8_to_uvchr(U8 *s, STRLEN* retlen)

       utf8_to_uvuni
	       Returns the Unicode code point of the first character in the string "s" which is
	       assumed to be in UTF8 encoding; "retlen" will be set to the length, in bytes, of
	       that character.

	       This function should only be used when returned UV is considered an index into the
	       Unicode semantic tables (e.g. swashes).

	       If "s" does not point to a well-formed UTF8 character, zero is returned and retlen
	       is set, if possible, to -1.

		       UV      utf8_to_uvuni(U8 *s, STRLEN* retlen)

       uvchr_to_utf8
	       Adds the UTF8 representation of the Native codepoint "uv" to the end of the string
	       "d"; "d" should be have at least "UTF8_MAXLEN+1" free bytes available. The return
	       value is the pointer to the byte after the end of the new character. In other
	       words,

		   d = uvchr_to_utf8(d, uv);

	       is the recommended wide native character-aware way of saying

		   *(d++) = uv;

		       U8*     uvchr_to_utf8(U8 *d, UV uv)

       uvuni_to_utf8_flags
	       Adds the UTF8 representation of the Unicode codepoint "uv" to the end of the
	       string "d"; "d" should be have at least "UTF8_MAXLEN+1" free bytes available. The
	       return value is the pointer to the byte after the end of the new character. In
	       other words,

		   d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, flags);

	       or, in most cases,

		   d = uvuni_to_utf8(d, uv);

	       (which is equivalent to)

		   d = uvuni_to_utf8_flags(d, uv, 0);

	       is the recommended Unicode-aware way of saying

		   *(d++) = uv;

		       U8*     uvuni_to_utf8_flags(U8 *d, UV uv, UV flags)

Variables created by ";xsubpp" and "xsubpp" internal functions
       ax      Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate the stack base offset, used by the
	       "ST", "XSprePUSH" and "XSRETURN" macros.  The "dMARK" macro must be called prior
	       to setup the "MARK" variable.

		       I32     ax

       CLASS   Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate the class name for a C++ XS con-
	       structor.  This is always a "char*".  See "THIS".

		       char*   CLASS

       dAX     Sets up the "ax" variable.  This is usually handled automatically by "xsubpp" by
	       calling "dXSARGS".

			       dAX;

       dITEMS  Sets up the "items" variable.  This is usually handled automatically by "xsubpp"
	       by calling "dXSARGS".

			       dITEMS;

       dXSARGS Sets up stack and mark pointers for an XSUB, calling dSP and dMARK.  Sets up the
	       "ax" and "items" variables by calling "dAX" and "dITEMS".  This is usually handled
	       automatically by "xsubpp".

			       dXSARGS;

       dXSI32  Sets up the "ix" variable for an XSUB which has aliases.  This is usually handled
	       automatically by "xsubpp".

			       dXSI32;

       items   Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate the number of items on the stack.
	       See "Variable-length Parameter Lists" in perlxs.

		       I32     items

       ix      Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to indicate which of an XSUB's aliases was
	       used to invoke it.  See "The ALIAS: Keyword" in perlxs.

		       I32     ix

       newXSproto
	       Used by "xsubpp" to hook up XSUBs as Perl subs.	Adds Perl prototypes to the subs.

       RETVAL  Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to hold the return value for an XSUB. This is
	       always the proper type for the XSUB. See "The RETVAL Variable" in perlxs.

		       (whatever)      RETVAL

       ST      Used to access elements on the XSUB's stack.

		       SV*     ST(int ix)

       THIS    Variable which is setup by "xsubpp" to designate the object in a C++ XSUB.  This
	       is always the proper type for the C++ object.  See "CLASS" and "Using XS With C++"
	       in perlxs.

		       (whatever)      THIS

       XS      Macro to declare an XSUB and its C parameter list.  This is handled by "xsubpp".

       XSRETURN_EMPTY
	       Return an empty list from an XSUB immediately.

			       XSRETURN_EMPTY;

       XS_VERSION
	       The version identifier for an XS module.  This is usually handled automatically by
	       "ExtUtils::MakeMaker".  See "XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK".

       XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK
	       Macro to verify that a PM module's $VERSION variable matches the XS module's
	       "XS_VERSION" variable.  This is usually handled automatically by "xsubpp".  See
	       "The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword" in perlxs.

			       XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK;

Warning and Dieing
       croak   This is the XSUB-writer's interface to Perl's "die" function.  Normally use this
	       function the same way you use the C "printf" function.  See "warn".

	       If you want to throw an exception object, assign the object to $@ and then pass
	       "Nullch" to croak():

		  errsv = get_sv("@", TRUE);
		  sv_setsv(errsv, exception_object);
		  croak(Nullch);

		       void    croak(const char* pat, ...)

       warn    This is the XSUB-writer's interface to Perl's "warn" function.  Use this function
	       the same way you use the C "printf" function.  See "croak".

		       void    warn(const char* pat, ...)

AUTHORS
       Until May 1997, this document was maintained by Jeff Okamoto <okamoto@corp.hp.com>.  It is
       now maintained as part of Perl itself.

       With lots of help and suggestions from Dean Roehrich, Malcolm Beattie, Andreas Koenig,
       Paul Hudson, Ilya Zakharevich, Paul Marquess, Neil Bowers, Matthew Green, Tim Bunce, Spi-
       der Boardman, Ulrich Pfeifer, Stephen McCamant, and Gurusamy Sarathy.

       API Listing originally by Dean Roehrich <roehrich@cray.com>.

       Updated to be autogenerated from comments in the source by Benjamin Stuhl.

SEE ALSO
       perlguts(1), perlxs(1), perlxstut(1), perlintern(1)

perl v5.8.0				    2003-02-18				       PERLAPI(1)


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