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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for oldps (redhat section 1)

PS(1)				       Linux User's Manual				    PS(1)

NAME
       ps - report process status

SYNOPSIS
       ps [lujsvmaxScewhrnu] [txx] [O[+|-]k1[[+|-]k2...]] [pids]

       there are also three long options:

       --sortX[+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]]

       --help

       --version

       More long options are on the way...

DESCRIPTION
       ps  gives  a  snapshot  of the current processes.  If you want a repetitive update of this
       status, use top.  This man page documents the /proc-based version of ps, or tries to.

COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS
       The command-line options for this version of ps are derived from the BSD  version  of  ps,
       not the System V version.

       The  command-line  arguments  should  not  be preceeded by a `-' character, because in the
       future, a `-' will be used to indicate Unix98-standard command-line  arguments,	while  no
       `-' will indicate the current ``extended BSD'' style of command line arguments.

       For now, ps will give you a warning if you use a `-' for a short option, but it will still
       work.  If you have shell scripts which use BSD-style arguments to ps,  take  heed  of  the
       warning	and  fix them, or else your scripts will fail to function correctly at some point
       in the future.  If you want to turn off the warnings, set the I_WANT_A_BROKEN_PS  environ-
       ment variable.

       There are also some ``long options'' in GNU style; see below for those.

       l    long format
       u    user format: gives user name and start time
       j    jobs format: pgid sid
       s    signal format
       v    vm format
       m    displays memory info (combine with p flag to get number of pages).
       f    "forest" family tree format for command line
       a    show processes of other users too
       x    show processes without controlling terminal
       S    add child cpu time and page faults
       c    command name from task_struct
       e    show environment after command line and ` + '
       w    wide  output:  don't truncate command lines to fit on one line.  To be exact, every w
	    that is specified will add another possible line to the output. If	the  space  isn't
	    needed it isn't used. You may up to 100 w's.
       h    no header
       r    running procs only
       n    numeric output for USER and WCHAN.

       txx  only  procs  with  controlling tty xx; for xx you may use either the name of a device
	    file under "/dev" or that name with either tty or cu sliced off.  This is the reverse
	    heuristic  that  ps  uses to print out the abbreviated tty name in the TT field, e.g.
	    ps t1.

       O[+|-]k1[,[+|-]k2[,...]]
	    Order the process listing according to the multi-level sort specified by the sequence
	    of	short  keys  from  SORT KEYS, k1, k2, ...  Default order specifications exist for
	    each of the various formats of ps.	These are over-ridden by a user specified  order-
	    ing.   The `+' is quite optional, merely re-iterating the default direction on a key.
	    `-' reverses direction only on the key it precedes.  As with t and pids, the O option
	    must  be  the last option in a single command argument, but specifications in succes-
	    sive arguments are catenated.

       pids List only the specified processes; they are comma-delimited.  The list must be  given
	    immediately  after	the last option in a single command-line argument, with no inter-
	    vening space, e.g.	ps j1,4,5.  Lists specified in	subsequent  arguments  are  cate-
	    nated,  e.g.  ps l 1,2 3,4 5 6 will list all of the processes 1-6 in long format.  If
	    pids are given, they are listed no matter what.  If a tty is given matching processes
	    are listed no matter what.	These two features override the 'a' and 'x' flags.

LONG COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS
       These options are preceeded by a double-hyphen.

       --sortX[+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]]
	    Choose a multi-letter key from the SORT KEYS section. X may be any convenient separa-
	    tor character.  To be GNU-ish use `='.  The `+'  is  really  optional  since  default
	    direction	is   increasing   numerical   or   lexicographic  order.   E.g.:  ps  jax
	    --sort=uid,-ppid,+pid

       --help
	    Get a help message that summarizes the usage and gives a list of supported sort keys.
	    This list may be more up to date than this man page.

       --version
	    Display version and source of this program.

SORT KEYS
       Note  that the values used in sorting are the internal values ps uses and not the `cooked'
       values used in some of the output format fields.  If someone wants to volunteer	to  write
       special comparison functions for the cooked values, ... ;-)

       SHORT   LONG	       DESCRIPTION
       c       cmd	       simple name of executable
       C       cmdline	       full command line
       f       flags	       flags as in long format F field
       g       pgrp	       process group ID
       G       tpgid	       controlling tty process group ID
       j       cutime	       cumulative user time
       J       cstime	       cumulative system time
       k       utime	       user time
       K       stime	       system time
       m       min_flt	       number of minor page faults
       M       maj_flt	       number of major page faults
       n       cmin_flt        cumulative minor page faults
       N       cmaj_flt        cumulative major page faults
       o       session	       session ID
       p       pid	       process ID
       P       ppid	       parent process ID
       r       rss	       resident set size
       R       resident        resident pages
       s       size	       memory size in kilobytes
       S       share	       amount of shared pages
       t       tty	       the minor device number of tty
       T       start_time      time process was started
       U       uid	       user ID number
       u       user	       user name
       v       vsize	       total VM size in bytes
       y       priority        kernel scheduling priority

FIELD DESCRIPTIONS
       PRI  This  is the counter field in the task struct.  It is the time in HZ of the process's
	    possible timeslice.

       NI   Standard unix nice value; a positive value means less cpu time.

       SIZE Virtual image size; size of text+data+stack.

       RSS  Resident set size; kilobytes of program in memory.

       WCHAN
	    Name of the kernel function where the process is sleeping, with the  `sys_'  stripped
	    from  the  function name.  If /etc/psdatabase does not exist, it is just a hex number
	    instead.

       STAT Information about the status of the process.  The first field is R	for  runnable,	S
	    for sleeping, D for uninterruptible sleep, T for stopped or traced, or Z for a zombie
	    process.  The second field contains W if the process  has  no  resident  pages.   The
	    third field is N if the process has a positive nice value (NI field).

       TT   Controlling tty.

       PAGEIN
	    Number  of	major  page  faults  (page  faults that cause pages to be read from disk,
	    including pages read from the buffer cache).

       TRS  Text resident size.

       SWAP Kilobytes (or pages if p is used) on swap device.

       SHARE
	    Shared memory.

UPDATING
       This proc-based ps works by reading the files in the proc filesystem,  mounted  on  /proc.
       This  ps does not need to be suid kmem or have any privileges to run.  Do not give this ps
       any special permissions.

       You will need to put in place the appropriate System.map file when you install a new  ker-
       nel  in	order  to  get	meaningful information from the WCHAN field.  This should be done
       every time you compile a new kernel.  You should also run 'ps' as root once and	then  any
       time the tty devices in the "/dev" directory change.

       As  of  procps-1.00,  ps/top read System.map directly if it is available.  The search path
       for kernel address-to-symbol resolution is:
		   $PS_SYSTEM_MAP
		   /boot/System.map-`uname -r`
		   /boot/System.map
		   /lib/modules/`uname -r`/System.map
		   /etc/psdatabase
		   /boot/psdatabase-`uname -r`
		   /boot/psdatabase,
		   /lib/modules/`uname -r`/psdatabase

NOTES
       The member used_math of task_struct is not shown, since crt0.s checks to see  if  math  is
       present.  This causes the math flag to be set for all processes, and so it is worthless.

       Programs  swapped out to disk will be shown without command line arguments, and unless the
       c option is given, in parentheses.

       %CPU shows the cputime/realtime percentage.  It will not add up to  100%  unless  you  are
       lucky.  It is time used divided by the time the process has been running.

       The SIZE and RSS fields don't count the page tables and the task_struct of a proc; this is
       at least 12k of memory that is always resident.	SIZE is the  virtual  size  of	the  proc
       (code+data+stack).

AUTHOR
       ps  was	originally written by Branko Lankester <lankeste@fwi.uva.nl>. Michael K.  Johnson
       <johnsonm@redhat.com> re-wrote it significantly to use the proc filesystem, changing a few
       things  in  the process.  Michael Shields <mjshield@nyx.cs.du.edu> added the pid-list fea-
       ture.  Charles Blake <cblake@bbn.com> added multi-level sorting, the dirent-style library,
       the  device name-to-number mmaped database, the approximate binary search directly on Sys-
       tem.map, and many code  and  documentation  cleanups.   David  Mossberger-Tang  wrote  the
       generic BFD support for psupdate.  Michael K. Johnson <johnsonm@redhat.com> is the current
       maintainer.

       Please send bug reports to <procps-list@redhat.com>

Cohesive Systems			    3 Sep 1997					    PS(1)


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