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       makedepend - create dependencies in makefiles

       makedepend [ -Dname=def ] [ -Dname ] [ -Iincludedir ] [ -Yincludedir ] [ -a ] [ -fmakefile
       ] [ -include file ] [ -oobjsuffix ] [ -pobjprefix ] [ -sstring ] [ -wwidth ] [ -v ] [ -m ]
       [ -- otheroptions -- ] sourcefile ...

       The makedepend program reads each sourcefile in sequence and parses it like a C-preproces-
       sor, processing all #include, #define, #undef, #ifdef, #ifndef,	#endif,  #if,  #elif  and
       #else directives so that it can correctly tell which #include, directives would be used in
       a compilation.  Any #include, directives can reference files having other #include  direc-
       tives, and parsing will occur in these files as well.

       Every  file that a sourcefile includes, directly or indirectly, is what makedepend calls a
       dependency.  These dependencies are then written to a makefile in such a way that  make(1)
       will know which object files must be recompiled when a dependency has changed.

       By  default,  makedepend places its output in the file named makefile if it exists, other-
       wise Makefile.  An alternate makefile may be specified  with  the  -f  option.	It  first
       searches the makefile for the line

	   # DO NOT DELETE THIS LINE -- make depend depends on it.

       or one provided with the -s option, as a delimiter for the dependency output.  If it finds
       it, it will delete everything following this to the end of the makefile and put the output
       after  this line.  If it doesn't find it, the program will append the string to the end of
       the makefile and place the output following that.  For each sourcefile  appearing  on  the
       command line, makedepend puts lines in the makefile of the form

	    sourcefile.o: dfile ...

       Where sourcefile.o is the name from the command line with its suffix replaced with ``.o'',
       and dfile is a dependency discovered in a #include directive while parsing  sourcefile  or
       one of the files it included.

       Normally, makedepend will be used in a makefile target so that typing ``make depend'' will
       bring the dependencies up to date for the makefile.  For example,
	   SRCS = file1.c file2.c ...
	   CFLAGS = -O -DHACK -I../foobar -xyz
		   makedepend -- $(CFLAGS) -- $(SRCS)

       The program will ignore any option that it does not understand so that  you  may  use  the
       same arguments that you would for cc(1).

       -Dname=def or -Dname
	    Define.   This  places  a  definition for name in makedepend's symbol table.  Without
	    =def the symbol becomes defined as ``1''.

	    Include directory.	This option tells makedepend to prepend includedir to its list of
	    directories  to  search when it encounters a #include directive.  By default, makede-
	    pend only searches the standard include directories (usually /usr/include and  possi-
	    bly a compiler-dependent directory).

	    Replace  all  of  the  standard include directories with the single specified include
	    directory; you can omit the includedir  to	simply	prevent  searching  the  standard
	    include directories.

       -a   Append the dependencies to the end of the file instead of replacing them.

	    Filename.	This  allows you to specify an alternate makefile in which makedepend can
	    place its output.  Specifying ``-'' as the file name (i.e., -f-) sends the output  to
	    standard output instead of modifying an existing file.

       -include file
	    Process  file  as  input,  and include all the resulting output before processing the
	    regular input file. This has the same affect as if the specified file is  an  include
	    statement that appears before the very first line of the regular input file.

	    Object  file  suffix.   Some  systems may have object files whose suffix is something
	    other than ``.o''.	This option allows you to specify another suffix, such as  ``.b''
	    with -o.b or ``:obj'' with -o:obj and so forth.

	    Object  file prefix.  The prefix is prepended to the name of the object file. This is
	    usually used to designate a different directory for the object file.  The default  is
	    the empty string.

	    Starting string delimiter.	This option permits you to specify a different string for
	    makedepend to look for in the makefile.

	    Line width.  Normally, makedepend will ensure that every output line that  it  writes
	    will be no wider than 78 characters for the sake of readability.  This option enables
	    you to change this width.

       -v   Verbose operation.	This option causes makedepend to emit the list of files  included
	    by each input file.

       -m   Warn about multiple inclusion.  This option causes makedepend to produce a warning if
	    any input file includes another file more than once.  In previous versions of makede-
	    pend  this was the default behavior; the default has been changed to better match the
	    behavior of the C compiler, which does not	consider  multiple  inclusion  to  be  an
	    error.   This  option is provided for backward compatibility, and to aid in debugging
	    problems related to multiple inclusion.

       -- options --
	    If makedepend encounters a double hyphen (--) in the argument list, then any unrecog-
	    nized  argument  following it will be silently ignored; a second double hyphen termi-
	    nates this special treatment.  In this way, makedepend can be made to  safely  ignore
	    esoteric  compiler arguments that might normally be found in a CFLAGS make macro (see
	    the EXAMPLE section above).   All  options	that  makedepend  recognizes  and  appear
	    between the pair of double hyphens are processed normally.

       The  approach used in this program enables it to run an order of magnitude faster than any
       other ``dependency generator'' I have ever seen.  Central  to  this  performance  are  two
       assumptions:  that  all	files compiled by a single makefile will be compiled with roughly
       the same -I and -D options; and that most files in a single directory will include largely
       the same files.

       Given  these assumptions, makedepend expects to be called once for each makefile, with all
       source files that are maintained by the makefile appearing on the command line.	It parses
       each  source and include file exactly once, maintaining an internal symbol table for each.
       Thus, the first file on the command line will take an amount of time proportional  to  the
       amount of time that a normal C preprocessor takes.  But on subsequent files, if it encoun-
       ters an include file that it has already parsed, it does not parse it again.

       For example, imagine you are compiling two files, file1.c and file2.c, they  each  include
       the  header  file  header.h,  and  the file header.h in turn includes the files def1.h and
       def2.h.	When you run the command

	   makedepend file1.c file2.c

       makedepend will parse file1.c and consequently, header.h and then def1.h and  def2.h.   It
       then decides that the dependencies for this file are

	   file1.o: header.h def1.h def2.h

       But when the program parses file2.c and discovers that it, too, includes header.h, it does
       not parse the file, but simply adds header.h, def1.h and def2.h to the list  of	dependen-
       cies for file2.o.

       cc(1), make(1)

       makedepend  parses,  but does not currently evaluate, the SVR4 #predicate(token-list) pre-
       processor expression; such expressions are simply assumed to be true.  This may cause  the
       wrong #include directives to be evaluated.

       Imagine	you are parsing two files, say file1.c and file2.c, each includes the file def.h.
       The list of files that def.h includes might truly be different when def.h is  included  by
       file1.c	than  when  it	is included by file2.c.  But once makedepend arrives at a list of
       dependencies for a file, it is cast in concrete.

       Todd Brunhoff, Tektronix, Inc. and MIT Project Athena

4th Berkeley Distribution		   Release 6.6				    MAKEDEPEND(1)
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