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JOE(1)											   JOE(1)

       joe - Joe's Own Editor

       joe [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

       jstar [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

       jmacs [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

       rjoe [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

       jpico [global-options] [ [local-options] filename ]...

       JOE  is a powerful ASCII-text screen editor.  It has a "mode-less" user interface which is
       similer to many user-friendly PC editors.  Users  of  Micro-Pro's  WordStar  or	Borland's
       "Turbo"	languages  will  feel at home.	JOE is a full featured UNIX screen-editor though,
       and has many features for editing programs and text.

       JOE also emulates several other editors.  JSTAR is a close  immitation  of  WordStar  with
       many "JOE" extensions.  JPICO is a close immitation of the Pine mailing system's PICO edi-
       tor, but with many extensions and improvements.	JMACS is a GNU-EMACS immitation.  RJOE is
       a  restricted  version  of  JOE, which allowes you to edit only the files specified on the
       command line.

       Although JOE is actually five different editors, it still requires  only  one  executable,
       but one with five different names.  The name of the editor with an "rc" appended gives the
       name of JOE's initialization file, which determines the personality of the editor.

       JOE is free software;  you can distribute it and/or modify it under the terms of  the  GNU
       General	Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation.  I have no plans for
       turning JOE into a commercial or share-ware product.  JOE is available over  the  Internet
       from www.sourceforge.net/projects/joe-editor.

       To  start  the  editor, type joe followed by zero or more names of files you want to edit.
       Each file name may be preceeded by a local option setting (see  the  local  options  table
       which  follows).   Other global options, which apply to the editor as a whole, may also be
       placed on the command line (see the global options table which follows).  If you are edit-
       ing  a  new file, you can either give the name of the new file when you invoke the editor,
       or in the editor when you save the new file.  A modified syntax for file names is provided
       to  allow  you  to  edit  program  output,  standard input/output, or sections of files or
       devices.  See the section Filenames below for details.

       Once you are in the editor, you	can  type  in  text  and  use  special	control-character
       sequences  to  perform  other  editing  tasks.	To  find  out  what the control-character
       sequences are, read the rest of this man page or type ^K H for help in the editor.

       Now for some obscure computer-lore:

       The ^ means that you hold down the Control key while pressing the following key (the  same
       way  the  Shift	key  works for uppercase letters).  A number of control-key sequences are
       duplicated on other keys, so that you don't need to press the control key: ESC  will  work
       in place of ^[, Del will work in place of ^?, Backspace will work in place of ^H, Tab will
       work in place of ^I, Return or Enter will work in place of ^M and Linefeed  will  work  in
       place  of  ^J.  Some keyboards may give you trouble with some control keys.  ^_, ^^ and ^@
       can usually be entered without pressing shift (I.E., try ^-, ^6 and ^2).  Other	keyboards
       may  reassign  these  to  other	keys.  Try: ^., ^, and ^/.  ^SPACE can usually be used in
       place of ^@.  ^\ and ^] are interpreted by many communication programs,	including  telnet
       and  kermit.   Usually you just hit the key twice to get it to pass through the communica-
       tion program.

       Once you have typed ^K H, the first help window appears at the top of the screen.  You can
       continue  to  enter and edit text while the help window is on.  To page through other top-
       ics, hit ^[, and ^[. (that is, ESC , and ESC .).  Use ^K H to dismiss the help window.

       You can customize the keyboard layout, the help screens and a number of behavior  defaults
       by  copying  JOE's  initialization  file  (usually  /etc/joe/joerc) to .joerc in your home
       directory and then by modifying it.  See the section joerc below.

       To have JOE used as your default editor for e-mail and News, you need to  set  the  EDITOR
       and VISUAL environment variables in your shell initialization file (.cshrc or .profile) to
       refer to JOE (joe usually resides as ${exec_prefix}/bin/joe).

       There are a number of other obscure invocation parameters which may have to be  set,  par-
       ticularly if your terminal screen is not updating as you think it should.  See the section
       Environment variables below.

Command Line Options
       The following global options may be specified on the command line:

       -asis  Characters with codes above 127 will be sent to the terminal as-is, instead  of  as
	      inverse  of  the	corresponding  character below 128.  If this does not work, check
	      your terminal server.

       -backpath path
	      If this option is given, backup files will be stored  in	the  specified	directory
	      instead of in each file's original directory.

       -baud nnn
	      Set  the	baud  rate for the purposes of terminal screen optimization.  Joe inserts
	      delays for baud rates below 19200, which bypasses tty buffering so  that	typeahead
	      will  interrupt  the  screen output.  Scrolling commands will not be used for 38400
	      baud.  This is useful for X-terms and other console ttys which really aren't  going
	      over a serial line.

       -beep  Joe will beep on command errors and when the cursor goes past extremes.

       -columns nnn
	      Sets the number of screen columns.

	      Continued  search mode: a search immediatly following a search will repeat the pre-
	      vious search instead of prompting for new string.  This is useful for the  the  ^[S
	      and ^[R commands and for when joe is trying to be emacs.

	      Joe usually assumes that there is some kind of flow control between it and the tty.
	      If there isn't, this option will make joe output extra ^@s to the tty as	specified
	      by the termcap entry.  The extra ^@s allow the terminal to catch up after long ter-
	      minal commands.

       -exask This option makes ^KX verify the file name that it's about to write.

       -force This option makes sure that the last line of the file has a  line-feed  which  it's

       -help  The editor will start with the help screen on if this option is given.

	      Normally the column number and control-key prefix fields of the status lines are on
	      a one second delay to reduce CPU consumption, but with this option they are updated
	      after each key-stroke.

	      The  block  highlighting	will  go  away	after any block command if this option is

       -lines nnn
	      Sets the number of screen lines.

	      Text between ^KB and the cursor is highlighted (use with -lightoff and  a  modified
	      joerc file to have drop-anchor style block selection).

       -mid   If  this	option	is  set  and  the cursor moves off the window, the window will be
	      scrolled so that the cursor is in the center.  This option is forced on slow termi-
	      nals which don't have scrolling commands.

	      This option prevents backup files.

	      This  option  prevent  the  copyright  notice  from being displayed when the editor

       -nosta This option eliminates the top-most status line.	It's nice for when you only  want
	      to see your text on the screen or if you're using a vt52.

       -noxon Attempt  to turn off ^S/^Q processing.  This is useful for when joe is trying to be
	      WordStar or EMACS.

	      When this option is active, extra files on the  command  line  will  be  placed  in
	      orphaned	buffers instead of in extra windows.  This is useful for when joe is try-
	      ing to be emacs.

       -pg nnn
	      This specifies the number of lines to keep  after  PgUp/PgDn  (^U/^V).   If  -1  is
	      given, half the window is kept.

       -skiptop nnn
	      Don't  use  the  top nnn lines of the screen.  Useful for when joe is used as a BBS

       Each of these options may be specified in the joerc file as well.  In addition, the NOXON,
       BAUD, LINES, COLUMNS and DOPADDING options may be specified with environment variables.

       The JOETERM environment variable may be set to override the regular TERM environment vari-
       able for specifying your terminal type.

       The following options may be specified before each filename on the command line:

       +nnn   The cursor starts on the specified line.

       -crlf  Joe uses CR-LF as the end of line sequence instead of just LF.  This is for editing
	      MS-DOS or VMS files.

	      Joe wraps the previous word when you type past the right margin.

	      When you hit Return on an indented line, the indentation is duplicated onto the new

	      Typing overwrites existing characters instead of inserting before them.

       -lmargin nnn
	      Sets the left margin.

       -rmargin nnn
	      Sets the right margin.

       -tab nnn
	      Sets the tab width.

       -indentc nnn
	      Sets the indentation character for ^K, and ^K. (32 for SPACE, 9 for TAB).

       -istep nnn
	      Sets the indentation step for ^K, and ^K..

	      Line numbers are displayed before each line.

	      The file is read only.

       -keymap name
	      Use an alternate section of the joerc file for the key sequence bindings.

       These options can also be specified in the joerc file.  They can be set depending  on  the
       file-name  extension.   Programs (.c, .h or .p extension) usually have autoindent enabled.
       Wordwrap is enabled on other files, but rc files have it disabled.

Editing Tasks
   Basic Editing
       When you type characters into the editor, they are normally inserted into the  file  being
       edited  (or  appended  to  the file if the cursor is at the end of the file).  This is the
       normal operating mode of the editor.  If you want to replace some existing text, you  have
       to  delete  the	old text before or after you type in the replacement text.  The Backspace
       key can be used for deleting text: move the cursor to right after the  text  you  want  to
       delete and hit Backspace a number of times.

       Hit the Enter or Return key to insert a line-break.  For example, if the cursor was in the
       middle of a line and you hit Return, the line would be split into two lines with the  cur-
       sor  appearing  at  the beginning of the second line.  Hit Backspace at the beginning of a
       line to eliminate a line-break.

       Use the arrow keys to move around the file.  If your keyboard doesn't have arrow keys  (or
       if they don't work for some reason), use ^F to move forwards (right), ^B to move backwards
       (left), ^P to move to the previous line (up), and ^N to move to the next line (down).  The
       right  and  left  arrow	keys  simply  move  forwards or backwards one character at a time
       through the text: if you're at the beginning of a line and you press left-arrow, you  will
       end  up	at  the  end  of the previous line.  The up and down arrow keys move forwards and
       backwards by enough characters so that the cursor appears in the same column that  it  was
       in on the original line.

       If you want to indent the text you enter, you can use the TAB key.  This inserts a special
       control character which makes the characters which follow it begin at the next  TAB  STOP.
       TAB  STOPS  normally occur every 8 columns, but this can be changed with the ^T D command.
       PASCAL and C programmers often set TAB STOPS on every 4 columns.

       If for some reason your terminal screen gets messed up (for example, if you receive a mail
       notice from biff), you can have the editor refresh the screen by hitting ^R.

       There  are many other keys for deleting text and moving around the file.  For example, hit
       ^D to delete the character the cursor is on instead of deleting backwards like  Backspace.
       ^D will also delete a line-break if the cursor is at the end of a line.	Type ^Y to delete
       the entire line the cursor is on or ^J to delete just from the cursor to the  end  of  the

       Hit ^A to move the cursor to the beginning of the line it's on.	Hit ^E to move the cursor
       to the end of the line.	Hit ^U or ^V for scrolling the cursor up or down 1/2  a  screen's
       worth.	"Scrolling"  means that the text on the screen moves, but the cursor stays at the
       same place relative to the screen.  Hit ^K U or ^K V to move the cursor to  the	beginning
       or  the	end of the file.  Look at the help screens in the editor to find even more delete
       and movement commands.

       If you make a mistake, you can hit ^_ to "undo" it.  On most keyboards you hit just ^-  to
       get  ^_,  but  on  some you might have to hold both the Shift and Control keys down at the
       same time to get it.  If you "undo" too much, you can "redo" the changes back  into  exis-
       tence by hitting ^^ (type this with just ^6 on most keyboards).

       If  you were editing in one place within the file, and you then temporarily had to look or
       edit some other place within the file, you can get back to the original place  by  hitting
       ^K  -.  This command actually returns you to the last place you made a change in the file.
       You can step through a history of places with ^K - and ^K =, in the same way you can  step
       through the history of changes with the "undo" and "redo" commands.

       When you are done editing the file, hit ^K X to exit the editor.  You will be prompted for
       a file name if you hadn't already named the file you were editing.

       When you edit a file, you actually edit only a copy of the file.  So if	you  decide  that
       you  don't  want  the changes you made to a file during a particular edit session, you can
       hit ^C to exit the editor without saving them.

       If you edit a file and save the changes, a "backup" copy of that file is  created  in  the
       current	directory,  with a ~ appended to the name, which contains the original version of
       the file.

   Word wrap and formatting
       If you type past the right edge of the screen in a C language or PASCAL file,  the  screen
       will  scroll  to  the  right to follow the cursor.  If you type past the right edge of the
       screen in a normal file (one whose name doesn't end in .c, .h or .p), JOE  will	automati-
       cally wrap the last word onto the next line so that you don't have to hit Return.  This is
       called word-wrap mode.  Word-wrap can be turned on or off with the ^T  W  command.   JOE's
       initialization file is usually set up so that this mode is automatically turned on for all
       non-program files.  See the section below on the joerc  file  to  change  this  and  other

       Aside  for  Word-wrap mode, JOE does not automatically keep paragraphs formatted like some
       word-processors.  Instead, if you need a paragraph to be reformatted, hit ^K J.	This com-
       mand "fills in" the paragraph that the cursor is in, fitting as many words in a line as is
       possible.  A paragraph, in this case, is a block of text separated above and  below  by	a
       blank line.

       The margins which JOE uses for paragraph formatting and word-wrap can be set with the ^T L
       and ^T R commands.  If the left margin is set to a value other than 1, then when you start
       typing at the beginning of a line, the cursor will immediately jump to the left margin.

       If you want to center a line within the margins, use the ^K A command.

   Over-type mode
       Sometimes  it's	tiresome  to have to delete old text before or after you insert new text.
       This happens, for example, when you are changing a table and you want to maintain the col-
       umn  position of the right side of the table.  When this occurs, you can put the editor in
       over-type mode with ^T T.  When the editor is in this mode, the	characters  you  type  in
       replace	existing  characters,  in the way an idealized typewriter would.  Also, Backspace
       simply moves left instead of deleting the character to the left, when it's not at the  end
       or  beginning of a line.  Over-type mode is not the natural way of dealing with text elec-
       tronically, so you should go back to insert-mode as soon as possible by typing ^T T again.

       If you need to insert while you're in over-type mode, hit ^@.  This inserts a single SPACE
       into the text.

   Control and Meta characters
       Each  character is represented by a number.  For example, the number for 'A' is 65 and the
       number for '1' is 49.  All of the characters which you normally see have  numbers  in  the
       range  of 32 - 126 (this particular arbitrary assignment between characters and numbers is
       called the ASCII character set).  The numbers outside of this range, from 0 to 255, aren't
       usually displayed, but sometimes have other special meanings.  The number 10, for example,
       is used for the line-breaks.  You can enter these special, non-displayed  control  charac-
       ters  by first hitting ` and then hitting a character in the range @ A B C ... X Y Z [ ^ ]
       \ _ to get the number 0 - 31, and ? to get 127.	For example,  if  you  hit  `  J,  you'll
       insert  a  line-break  character,  or if you hit ` I, you'll insert a TAB character (which
       does the same thing the TAB key does).  A useful control character to enter is 12  (`  L),
       which causes most printers to advance to the top of the page.  You'll notice that JOE dis-
       plays this character as an underlined L.  You can enter the characters above 127, the meta
       characters,  by	first hitting ^\.  This adds 128 to the next (possibly control) character
       entered.  JOE displays characters above 128 in  inverse-video.	Some  foreign  languages,
       which have more letters than English, use the meta characters for the rest of their alpha-
       bet.  You have to put the editor in ASIS mode  (described  later)  to  have  these  passed
       untranslated to the terminal.

       If  you hit TAB at any file name prompt, joe will attempt to complete the name you entered
       as much as possible.  If it couldn't complete the entire name, because there are more than
       one possible completions, joe beeps.  If you hit TAB again, joe list the completions.  You
       can use the arrow keys to move around this directory menu and press  RETURN  or	SPACE  to
       select an item.	If you press the first letter of one of the directory entries, it will be
       selected, or if more than one entry has the  same  first  letter,  the  cursor  will  jump
       between those entries.  If you select a subdirectory or .., the directory name is appended
       to the prompt and the new directory is loaded into the menu.  You can hit Backspace to  go
       back to the previous directory.

       Most  prompts  record  a  history of the responses you give them.  You can hit up and down
       arrow to step through these histories.

       Prompts are actually single line windows with no status line, so you can use  any  editing
       command	that you normally use on text within the prompts.  The prompt history is actually
       just other lines of the same "prompt file".  Thus you can can search backwards though  the
       prompt history with the normal ^K F command if you want.

       Since prompts are windows, you can also switch out of them with ^K P and ^K N.

   Where am I?
       Hit  ^K	SPACE  to  have JOE report the line number, column number, and byte number on the
       last line of the screen.  The number associated with the character the cursor is  on  (its
       ASCII  code) is also shown.  You can have the line number and/or column number always dis-
       played on the status line by setting placing the appropriate escape sequences in the  sta-
       tus line setup strings.	Edit the joerc file for details.

   File operations
       You  can  hit ^K D to save the current file (possibly under a different name from what the
       file was called originally).  After the file is saved, you can hit ^K E to edit a  differ-
       ent file.

       If you want to save only a selected section of the file, see the section on Blocks below.

       If you want to include another file in the file you're editing, use ^K R to insert it.

   Temporarily suspending the editor
       If  you need to temporarily stop the editor and go back to the shell, hit ^K Z.	You might
       want to do this to stop whatever you're editing and answer an e-mail message or read  this
       man  page, for example.	You have to type fg or exit (you'll be told which when you hit ^K
       Z) to return to the editor.

   Searching for text
       Hit ^K F to have the editor search forwards or backwards for a text fragment (string)  for
       you.   You  will  be  prompted  for the text to search for.  After you hit Return, you are
       prompted to enter options.  You can just hit Return again to have the  editor  immediately
       search forwards for the text, or you can enter one or more of these options:

       b      Search backwards instead of forwards.

       i      Treat uppercase and lower case letters as the same when searching.  Normally upper-
	      case and lowercase letters are considered to be different.

       nnn    (where nnn is a number) If you enter a number, JOE searches for the Nth  occurrence
	      of  the  text.   This is useful for going to specific places in files structured in
	      some regular manner.

       r      Replace text.  If you enter the r option, then you will  be  further  prompted  for
	      replacement text.  Each time the editor finds the search text, you will be prompted
	      as to whether you want to replace the found search text with the replacement  text.
	      You  hit: y to replace the text and then find the next occurrence, n to not replace
	      this text, but to then find the next occurrence, r to replace all of the	remaining
	      occurrences of the search text in the remainder of the file without asking for con-
	      firmation (subject to the nnn option above), or ^C to stop searching and replacing.

       You can hit ^L to repeat the previous search.

   Regular Expressions
       A number of special character sequences may be entered as search text:

       \*     This finds zero or more characters.  For example, if you give A\*B  as  the  search
	      text, JOE will try to find an A followed by any number of characters and then a B.

       \?     This  finds  exactly  one  character.   For example, if you give A\?B as the search
	      text, JOE will find AXB, but not AB or AXXB.

       \^ \$  These match the beginning and end of a line.  For example, if  you  give	\^test\$,
	      then JOE with find test on a line by itself.

       \< \>  These  match the beginning and end of a word.  For example, if you give \<\*is\*\>,
	      then joe will find whole words which have the sub-string is within them.

       \[...] This matches any single character which appears within the brackets.  For  example,
	      if  \[Tt]his  is	entered  as the search string, then JOE finds both This and this.
	      Ranges of characters can be entered within the brackets.	For example, \[A-Z] finds
	      any  uppercase letter.  If the first character given in the brackets is ^, then JOE
	      tries to find any character not given in the the brackets.

       \c     This works like \*, but matches a balanced C-language expression.  For example,  if
	      you search for malloc(\c), then JOE will find all function calls to malloc, even if
	      there was a ) within the parenthesis.

       \+     This finds zero or more of the character which immediately  follows  the	\+.   For
	      example,	if you give \[ ]\+\[ ], where the characters within the brackets are both
	      SPACE and TAB, then JOE will find whitespace.

       \\     Matches a single \.

       \n     This finds the special end-of-line or line-break character.

       A number of special character sequences may also be given in the replacement string:

       \&     This gets replaced by the text which matched the search string.	For  example,  if
	      the search string was \<\*\>, which matches words, and you give "\&", then joe will
	      put quote marks around words.

       \0 - \9
	      These get replaced with the text which matched the Nth  \*,  \?,	\+,  \c,  \+,  or
	      \[...] in the search string.

       \\     Use this if you need to put a \ in the replacement string.

       \n     Use this if you need to put a line-break in the replacement string.

       Some examples:

       Suppose	you  have  a  list  of	addresses,  each  on  a  separate line, which starts with
       "Address:" and has each element separated by commas.  Like so:

       Address: S. Holmes, 221b Baker St., London, England

       If you wanted to rearrange the list, to get the country first, then  the  city,	then  the
       person's name, and then the address, you could do this:

       Type ^K F to start the search, and type:


       to  match  "Address:",  the  four  comma-separated elements, and then the end of the line.
       When asked for options, you would type r to replace the string, and then type:


       To shuffle the information the way you want it. After hitting  return,  the  search  would
       begin, and the sample line would be changed to:

       Address: England, London, S. Holmes, 221b Baker St.

       If  you	want to move, copy, save or delete a specific section of text, you can do it with
       highlighted blocks.  First, move the cursor to the start of the section of text	you  want
       to  work  on, and press ^K B.  Then move the cursor to the character just after the end of
       the text you want to affect and press ^K K.  The text between the ^K B  and  ^K	K  should
       become  highlighted.   Now you can move your cursor to someplace else in your document and
       press ^K M to move the highlighted text there.  You can press ^K C to make a copy  of  the
       highlighted  text  and  insert  it to where the cursor is positioned.  ^K Y to deletes the
       highlighted text.  ^K W, writes the highlighted text to a file.

       A very useful command is ^K /, which filters a block of text through a unix command.   For
       example,  if  you  select a list of words with ^K B and ^K K, and then type ^K / sort, the
       list of words will be sorted.  Another useful unix command for ^K /, is tr.  If	you  type
       ^K  /  tr  a-z  A-Z, then all of the letters in the highlighted block will be converted to

       After you are finished with some block operations, you can just leave the highlighting  on
       if  you	don't mind it (of course, if you accidently hit ^K Y without noticing...).  If it
       really bothers you, however, just hit ^K B ^K K, to turn the highlighting off.

   Indenting program blocks
       Auto-indent mode toggled with the ^T I command.	The joerc is  normally	set  up  so  that
       files with names ending with .p, .c or .h have auto-indent mode enabled.  When auto-indent
       mode is enabled and you hit Return, the cursor will be placed in the same column that  the
       first non-SPACE/TAB character was in on the original line.

       You  can use the ^K , and ^K . commands to shift a block of text to the left or right.  If
       no highlighting is set when you give these commands,  the  program  block  the  cursor  is
       located	in will be selected, and will be moved by subsequent ^K , and ^K . commands.  The
       number of columns these commands shift by can be set through a ^T option.

       You can edit more than one file at the same time or edit two or more different  places  of
       the  same  file.  To do this, hit ^K O, to split the screen into two windows.  Use ^K P or
       ^K N to move the cursor into the top window or the lower window.  Use ^K E to edit  a  new
       file  in  one  of  the windows.	A window will go away when you save the file with ^K X or
       abort the file with ^C.	If you abort a file which exists in two windows, one of the  win-
       dow goes away, not the file.

       You  can  hit ^K O within a window to create even more windows.	If you have too many win-
       dows on the screen, but you don't want to eliminate them, you can hit  ^K  I.   This  will
       show  only  the	window the cursor is in, or if there was only one window on the screen to
       begin with, try to fit all hidden windows on the screen.  If there are more  windows  than
       can  fit on the screen, you can hit ^K N on the bottom-most window or ^K P on the top-most
       window to get to them.

       If you gave more than one file name to JOE on the command line, each file will  be  placed
       in a different window.

       You can change the height of the windows with the ^K G and ^K T commands.

   Keyboard macros
       Macros  allow  you  to record a series of keystrokes and replay them with the press of two
       keys.  This is useful to automate repetitive tasks.  To start a macro recording, hit ^K	[
       followed  by  a	number from 0 to 9.  The status line will display (Macro n recording...).
       Now, type in the series of keystrokes that you want to be able to  repeat.   The  commands
       you  type will have their usual effect. Hit ^K ] to stop recording the macro.  Hit ^K fol-
       lowed by the number you recorded the macro in to execute one iteration of the key-strokes.

       For example, if you want to put "**" in front of a number of lines, you can type:

       ^K [ ^A ** <down arrow> ^K ]

       Which starts the macro recording, moves the cursor to the beginning of the  line,  inserts
       "**",  moves  the cursor down one line, and then ends the recording. Since we included the
       key-strokes needed to position the cursor on the next line, we  can  repeatedly	use  this
       macro  without  having  to  move the cursor ourselves, something you should always keep in
       mind when recording a macro.

       If you find that the macro you are recording itself has a repeated set of  key-strokes  in
       it,  you can record a macro within the macro, as long as you use a different macro number.
       Also you can execute previously recorded macros from within new macros.

       You can use the repeat command, ^K \, to repeat a macro, or any other edit command or even
       a  normal  character,  a specified number of times.  Hit ^K \, type in the number of times
       you want the command repeated and press Return.	The next edit command you now  give  will
       be repeated that many times.

       For example, to delete the next 20 lines of text, type:

       ^K  20<return>^Y

   Rectangle mode
       Type  ^T  X  to	have  ^K  B  and ^K K select rectangular blocks instead of stream-of-text
       blocks.	This mode is useful for moving, copying, deleting or saving columns of text.  You
       can  also  filter columns of text with the ^K / command- if you want to sort a column, for
       example.  The insert file command, ^K R is also effected.

       When rectangle mode is selected, over-type mode is also useful  (^T  T).   When	over-type
       mode is selected, rectangles will replace existing text instead of getting inserted before
       it.  Also the delete block command (^K Y) will clear the selected  rectangle  with  SPACEs
       and TABs instead of deleting it.  Over-type mode is especially useful for the filter block
       command (^K /), since it will maintain the original width of the selected column.

   Tag search
       If you are editing a large C program with many source files, you can use the ctags program
       to  generate  a tags file.  This file contains a list of program symbols and the files and
       positions where the symbols are defined.  The ^K ; command can be used to lookup a  symbol
       (functions,  defined  constants, etc.), load the file where the symbol is defined into the
       current window and position the cursor to where the symbol is defined.  ^K ;  prompts  you
       for  the  symbol you want, but uses the symbol the cursor was on as a default.  Since ^K ;
       loads the definition file into the current window, you probably want to split  the  window
       first with ^K O, to have both the original file and the definition file loaded.

   Shell windows
       Hit ^K ' to run a command shell in one of JOE's windows.  When the cursor is at the end of
       a shell window (use ^K V if it's not), whatever you type is passed to the shell instead of
       the  window.  Any output from the shell or from commands executed in the shell is appended
       to the shell window (the cursor will follow this output if it's at the end  of  the  shell
       window).   This command is useful for recording the results of shell commands- for example
       the output of make, the result of grepping a set of files for a string, or directory list-
       ings  from FTP sessions.  Besides typeable characters, the keys ^C, Backspace, DEL, Return
       and ^D are passed to the shell.	Type the shell exit command to stop recording shell  out-
       put.   If you press ^C in a shell window, when the cursor is not at the end of the window,
       the shell is killed.

Environment variables
       For JOE to operate correctly, a number of other environment settings must be correct.  The
       throughput  (baud  rate)  of the connection between the computer and your terminal must be
       set correctly for JOE to update the screen smoothly  and  allow	typeahead  to  defer  the
       screen update.  Use the stty nnn command to set this.  You want to set it as close as pos-
       sible to actual throughput of the connection.  For example, if you  are	connected  via	a
       1200  baud  modem,  you	want  to use this value for stty.  If you are connected via 14.4k
       modem, but the terminal server you are connected to connects to the computer a 9600  baud,
       you  want  to set your speed as 9600 baud.  The special baud rate of 38400 or extb is used
       to indicate that you have a very-high speed connection, such as a memory mapped console or
       an  X-window  terminal emulator.  If you can't use stty to set the actual throughput (per-
       haps because of a modem communicating with the computer at a different rate than it's com-
       municating over the phone line), you can put a numeric value in the BAUD environment vari-
       able instead (use setenv BAUD 9600 for csh or BAUD=9600; export BAUD for sh).

       The TERM environment variable must be set to the type of terminal you're  using.   If  the
       size  (number of lines/columns) of your terminal is different from what is reported in the
       TERMCAP or TERMINFO entry, you can set this with the stty rows nn cols nn command,  or  by
       setting the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables.

       JOE normally expects that flow control between the computer and your terminal to use ^S/^Q
       handshaking (I.E., if the computer is sending characters too fast for your terminal,  your
       terminal sends ^S to stop the output and ^Q to restart it).  If the flow control uses out-
       of-band or hardware handshaking or if your terminal is fast enough to always keep up  with
       the  computer  output and you wish to map ^S/^Q to edit commands, you can set the environ-
       ment variable NOXON to have JOE attempt to turn off ^S/^Q handshaking.  If the  connection
       between	the  computer and your terminal uses no handshaking and your terminal is not fast
       enough to keep up with the output of the computer, you can set  the  environment  variable
       DOPADDING  to  have  JOE  slow down the output by interspersing PAD characters between the
       terminal screen update sequences.

       Wherever JOE expects you to enter a file name, whether on the command line or  in  prompts
       within the editor, you may also type:

	      Read or write data to or from a shell command.  For example, use joe '!ls' to get a
	      copy of your directory listing to edit or from within the editor	use  ^K  D  !mail
	      jhallen@world.std.com to send the file being edited to me.

	      Use this to have JOE append the edited text to the end of the file "filename."

	      Use  this  to  access  a	fixed section of a file or device.  START and SIZE may be
	      entered in decimal (ex.: 123) octal (ex.: 0777) or hexadecimal  (ex.:  0xFF).   For
	      example, use joe /dev/fd0,508,2 to edit bytes 508 and 509 of the first floppy drive
	      in Linux.

       -      Use this to get input from the standard input or to write output	to  the  standard
	      output.	For  example,  you  can put joe in a pipe of commands: quota -v | joe - |
	      mail root, if you want to complain about your low quota.

The joerc file
       ^T options, the help screens and the key-sequence  to  editor  command  bindings  are  all
       defined	in  JOE's  initialization  file.  If you make a copy of this file (which normally
       resides in /etc/joe/joerc) to $HOME/.joerc, you can customize these setting to  your  lik-
       ing.  The syntax of the initialization file should be fairly obvious and there are further
       instruction in it.

       JOE was writen by Joseph H. Allen.  If you have bug reports or questions, e-mail  them  to
       jhallen@world.std.com.	  Larry    Foard    (entropy@world.std.com)    and    Gary   Gray
       (ggray@world.std.com) also helped with the creation of JOE.

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