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MF(1)											    MF(1)

       mf, inimf, virmf - Metafont, a language for font and logo design

       mf [options] [commands]

       This  manual page is not meant to be exhaustive.  The complete documentation for this ver-
       sion of TeX can be found in the info file or manual Web2C: A TeX implementation.

       Metafont reads the program in the specified files and outputs font rasters (in gf  format)
       and font metrics (in tfm format).  The Metafont language is described in The Metafontbook.

       Like TeX, Metafont is normally used with a large body of precompiled macros, and font gen-
       eration in particular requires the support of several macro files.  This version of  Meta-
       font looks at its command line to see what name it was called under.  Both inimf and virmf
       are symlinks to the mf executable.  When called as inimf (or  when  the	--ini  option  is
       given)  it  can	be  used to precompile macros into a .base file.  When called as virmf it
       will use the plain base.  When called under any other name, Metafont will use that name as
       the  name  of the base to use.	For example, when called as mf the mf base is used, which
       is identical to the plain base.	Other bases than plain are rarely used.

       The commands given on the command line to the Metafont program are passed  to  it  as  the
       first  input  line.  (But it is often easier to type extended arguments as the first input
       line, since UNIX shells tend to gobble up or  misinterpret  Metafont's  favorite  symbols,
       like  semicolons,  unless  you  quote them.)  As described in The Metafontbook, that first
       line should begin with a filename, a \controlsequence, or a &basename.

       The normal usage is to say

	      mf  '\mode=<printengine>; [mag=magstep(n);]' input  font

       to start processing font.mf.  The single quotes are the best way of keeping the Unix shell
       from  misinterpreting  the  semicolons  and from removing the \ character, which is needed
       here to keep Metafont from thinking that you want to produce a font called mode.  (Or  you
       can  just say mf and give the other stuff on the next line, without quotes.) Other control
       sequences, such as batchmode (for silent operation) can also appear.  The name  font  will
       be  the	``jobname'', and is used in forming output file names.	If Metafont doesn't get a
       file name in the first line, the jobname is mfput.  The default	extension,  .mf,  can  be
       overridden by specifying an extension explicitly.

       A  log of error messages goes into the file jobname.log.  The output files are jobname.tfm
       and jobname.<number>gf, where <number> depends on the resolution and magnification of  the
       font.  The mode in this example is shown generically as <printengine>, a symbolic term for
       which the name of an actual device or, most commonly, the name localfont (see below)  must
       be  substituted. If the mode is not specified or is not valid for your site, Metafont will
       default to proof mode which produces large character images for use  in	font  design  and
       refinement.   Proof mode can be recognized by the suffix .2602gf after the jobname.  Exam-
       ples of proof mode output can be found in Computer Modern Typefaces (Volume E of Computers
       and  Typesetting).   The  system  of magsteps is identical to the system used by TeX, with
       values generally in the range 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0.  A listing  of  gf  numbers
       for 118-dpi, 240-dpi and 300-dpi fonts is shown below.
				 MAGSTEP	118 dpi   240 dpi   300 dpi
			     mag=magstep(0)	  118	    240       300
			     mag=magstep(0.5)	  129	    263       329
			     mag=magstep(1)	  142	    288       360
			     mag=magstep(2)	  170	    346       432
			     mag=magstep(3)	  204	    415       518
			     mag=magstep(4)	  245	    498       622
			     mag=magstep(5)	  294	    597       746

       Magnification  can  also  be specified not as a magstep but as an arbitrary value, such as
       1.315, to create special character sizes.

       Before font production can begin, it is necessary to set up the	appropriate  base  files.
       The minimum set of components for font production for a given print-engine is the plain.mf
       macro file and the local mode_def file.	The macros in plain.mf can be studied in  an  ap-
       pendix  to  the Metafontbook; they were developed by Donald E. Knuth, and this file should
       never be altered except when it is officially upgraded.	Each mode_def specification helps
       adapt  fonts  to a particular print-engine.  There is a regular discussion of mode_defs in
       TUGboat, the journal of the TeX Users Group.  The local	ones  in  use  on  this  computer
       should be in modes.mf.

       The  e response to Metafont's error-recovery mode invokes the system default editor at the
       erroneous line of the source file.  There is an environment variable, MFEDIT,  that  over-
       rides the default editor.  It should contain a string with "%s" indicating where the file-
       name goes and "%d" indicating where the decimal linenumber (if any) goes.  For example, an
       MFEDIT string for the vi editor can be set with the csh command
	      setenv MFEDIT "/usr/ucb/vi +%d %s"

       A  convenient  file in the library is null.mf, containing nothing.  When mf can't find the
       file it thinks you want to input, it keeps asking you for another  file	name;  responding
       `null' gets you out of the loop if you don't want to input anything.

       Metafont  can use most modern displays, so you can see its output without printing.  Chap-
       ter 23 of The Metafontbook describes what you can do.   This  implementation  of  Metafont
       uses  environment  variables  to determine which display device you want to use.  First it
       looks for a variable MFTERM, and then for TERM.	If it  can't  find  either,  you  get  no
       online output.  Otherwise, the value of the variable determines the device to use: hp2627,
       sun (for old SunView), tek, uniterm (for an Atari ST Tek 4014 emulator), xterm (for either
       X10  or X11).  Some of these devices may not be supported in all Metafont executables; the
       choice is made at compilation time.

       This version of Metafont understands the following command line options.

       --base base
	      Use base as the name of the base to be used, instead of the name by which  Metafont
	      was called or a %& line.

       --help Print help message and exit.

       --ini  Be  inimf,  for  dumping bases; this is implicitly true if the program is called as

       --interaction mode
	      Sets the interaction  mode.   The  mode  can  be	one  of  batchmode,  nonstopmode,
	      scrollmode,  and	errorstopmode.	The meaning of these modes is the same as that of
	      the corresponding commands.

       --kpathsea-debug bitmask
	      Sets path searching debugging flags according to the  bitmask.   See  the  Kpathsea
	      manual for details.

       --maketex fmt
	      Enable mktexfmt, where fmt must be mf.

       --no-maketex fmt
	      Disable mktexfmt, where fmt must be mf.

       --progname name
	      Pretend  to  be  program	name.	This  affects both the format used and the search

       --translate-file tcxname
	      Use the tcxname translation table.

	      Print version information and exit.

       See the Kpathsearch library documentation (the `Path specifications' node) for the details
       of  how	the  environment  variables are use when searching.  The kpsewhich utility can be
       used to query the values of the variables.

       If the environment variable TEXMFOUTPUT is set, Metafont attempts to put its output  files
       in it, if they cannot be put in the current directory.  Again, see tex(1).

	      Search path for input and openin files.

       MFEDIT Command template for switching to editor.

       MFTERM Determines  the  online graphics display. If MFTERM is not set, and DISPLAY is set,
	      the Metafont window support for X is used.  (DISPLAY must  be  set  to  a  valid	X
	      server  specification,  as  usual.)   If neither MFTERM nor DISPLAY is set, TERM is
	      used to guess the window support to use.

       A number of utility programs are available.  The following is a partial list of	available
       utilities and their purpose.  Consult your local Metafont guru for details.

       gftopk	Takes a gf file and produces a more tightly packed pk font file.

       gftodvi	Produces proof sheets for fonts.

       gftype	Displays the contents of a gf file in mnemonics and/or images.

       pktype	Mnemonically displays the contents of a pk file.

       mft	Formats a source file as shown in Computer Modern Typefaces.

	      Encoded text of Metafont's messages.

       *.base Predigested Metafont base files.

	      The standard base.

	      The file of mode_defs for your site's various printers

       Donald E. Knuth, The Metafontbook (Volume C of Computers and Typesetting), Addison-Wesley,
       1986, ISBN 0-201-13445-4.
       Donald E. Knuth, Metafont: The Program (Volume D of Computers and  Typesetting),  Addison-
       Wesley, 1986, ISBN 0-201-13438-1.
       Donald  E. Knuth, Computer Modern Typefaces (Volume E of Computers and Typesetting), Addi-
       son-Wesley, 1986, ISBN 0-201-13446-2.
       TUGboat (the journal of the TeX Users Group).

       Warning: ``Type design can be hazardous to your other interests.  Once you get hooked, you
       will  develop  intense feelings about letterforms; the medium will intrude on the messages
       that you read.  And you will perpetually be thinking of improvements to the fonts that you
       see everywhere, especially those of your own design.''

       gftopk(1), gftodvi(1), gftype(1), mft(1), pltotf(1), tftopl(1).

       On  January  4, 1986 the ``final'' bug in Metafont was discovered and removed. If an error
       still lurks in the code, Donald E. Knuth promises to pay  a  finder's  fee  which  doubles
       every year to the first person who finds it.  Happy hunting.

       Metafont was designed by Donald E. Knuth, who implemented it using his Web system for Pas-
       cal programs.  It was originally ported to Unix by Paul	Richards  at  the  University  of
       Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.  This page was mostly written by Pierre MacKay.

Web2C 7.3.1				  29 March 1999 				    MF(1)
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