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HEXDUMP(1)			   BSD General Commands Manual			       HEXDUMP(1)

     hexdump -- ascii, decimal, hexadecimal, octal dump

      [-bcCdovx] [-e format_string] [-f format_file] [-n length] [-s skip] file ...

     The hexdump utility is a filter which displays the specified files, or the standard input,
     if no files are specified, in a user specified format.

     The options are as follows:

     -b 	 One-byte octal display.  Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by
		 sixteen space-separated, three column, zero-filled, bytes of input data, in
		 octal, per line.

     -c 	 One-byte character display.  Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed
		 by sixteen space-separated, three column, space-filled, characters of input data
		 per line.

     -C 	 Canonical hex+ASCII display.  Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed
		 by sixteen space-separated, two column, hexadecimal bytes, followed by the same
		 sixteen bytes in %_p format enclosed in ``|'' characters.

     -d 	 Two-byte decimal display.  Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by
		 eight space-separated, five column, zero-filled, two-byte units of input data,
		 in unsigned decimal, per line.

     -e format_string
		 Specify a format string to be used for displaying data.

     -f format_file
		 Specify a file that contains one or more newline separated format strings.
		 Empty lines and lines whose first non-blank character is a hash mark (#) are

     -n length	 Interpret only length bytes of input.

     -o 	 Two-byte octal display.  Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by
		 eight space-separated, six column, zero-filled, two byte quantities of input
		 data, in octal, per line.

     -s offset	 Skip offset bytes from the beginning of the input.  By default, offset is inter-
		 preted as a decimal number.  With a leading 0x or 0X, offset is interpreted as a
		 hexadecimal number, otherwise, with a leading 0, offset is interpreted as an
		 octal number.	Appending the character b, k, or m to offset causes it to be
		 interpreted as a multiple of 512, 1024, or 1048576, respectively.

     -v 	 The -v option causes hexdump to display all input data.  Without the -v option,
		 any number of groups of output lines, which would be identical to the immedi-
		 ately preceding group of output lines (except for the input offsets), are
		 replaced with a line comprised of a single asterisk.

     -x 	 Two-byte hexadecimal display.	Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed
		 by eight, space separated, four column, zero-filled, two-byte quantities of
		 input data, in hexadecimal, per line.

     For each input file, hexdump sequentially copies the input to standard output, transforming
     the data according to the format strings specified by the -e and -f options, in the order
     that they were specified.

     A format string contains any number of format units, separated by whitespace.  A format unit
     contains up to three items: an iteration count, a byte count, and a format.

     The iteration count is an optional positive integer, which defaults to one.  Each format is
     applied iteration count times.

     The byte count is an optional positive integer.  If specified it defines the number of bytes
     to be interpreted by each iteration of the format.

     If an iteration count and/or a byte count is specified, a single slash must be placed after
     the iteration count and/or before the byte count to disambiguate them.  Any whitespace
     before or after the slash is ignored.

     The format is required and must be surrounded by double quote (" ") marks.  It is inter-
     preted as a fprintf-style format string (see fprintf(3)), with the following exceptions:

	   o   An asterisk (*) may not be used as a field width or precision.

	   o   A byte count or field precision is required for each ``s'' conversion character
	       (unlike the fprintf(3) default which prints the entire string if the precision is

	   o   The conversion characters ``h'', ``l'', ``n'', ``p'' and ``q'' are not supported.

	   o   The single character escape sequences described in the C standard are supported:

		     NUL		  \0
		     <alert character>	  \a
		     <backspace>	  \b
		     <form-feed>	  \f
		     <newline>		  \n
		     <carriage return>	  \r
		     <tab>		  \t
		     <vertical tab>	  \v

     Hexdump also supports the following additional conversion strings:

     _a[dox]	 Display the input offset, cumulative across input files, of the next byte to be
		 displayed.  The appended characters d, o, and x specify the display base as dec-
		 imal, octal or hexadecimal respectively.

     _A[dox]	 Identical to the _a conversion string except that it is only performed once,
		 when all of the input data has been processed.

     _c 	 Output characters in the default character set.  Nonprinting characters are dis-
		 played in three character, zero-padded octal, except for those representable by
		 standard escape notation (see above), which are displayed as two character

     _p 	 Output characters in the default character set.  Nonprinting characters are dis-
		 played as a single ``.''.

     _u 	 Output US ASCII characters, with the exception that control characters are dis-
		 played using the following, lower-case, names.  Characters greater than 0xff,
		 hexadecimal, are displayed as hexadecimal strings.

		 000 nul  001 soh  002 stx  003 etx  004 eot  005 enq
		 006 ack  007 bel  008 bs   009 ht   00A lf   00B vt
		 00C ff   00D cr   00E so   00F si   010 dle  011 dc1
		 012 dc2  013 dc3  014 dc4  015 nak  016 syn  017 etb
		 018 can  019 em   01A sub  01B esc  01C fs   01D gs
		 01E rs   01F us   0FF del

     The default and supported byte counts for the conversion characters are as follows:

	   %_c, %_p, %_u, %c	   One byte counts only.

	   %d, %i, %o, %u, %X, %x  Four byte default, one, two and four byte counts supported.

	   %E, %e, %f, %G, %g	   Eight byte default, four byte counts supported.

     The amount of data interpreted by each format string is the sum of the data required by each
     format unit, which is the iteration count times the byte count, or the iteration count times
     the number of bytes required by the format if the byte count is not specified.

     The input is manipulated in ``blocks'', where a block is defined as the largest amount of
     data specified by any format string.  Format strings interpreting less than an input block's
     worth of data, whose last format unit both interprets some number of bytes and does not have
     a specified iteration count, have the iteration count incremented until the entire input
     block has been processed or there is not enough data remaining in the block to satisfy the
     format string.

     If, either as a result of user specification or hexdump modifying the iteration count as
     described above, an iteration count is greater than one, no trailing whitespace characters
     are output during the last iteration.

     It is an error to specify a byte count as well as multiple conversion characters or strings
     unless all but one of the conversion characters or strings is _a or _A.

     If, as a result of the specification of the -n option or end-of-file being reached, input
     data only partially satisfies a format string, the input block is zero-padded sufficiently
     to display all available data (i.e. any format units overlapping the end of data will dis-
     play some number of the zero bytes).

     Further output by such format strings is replaced by an equivalent number of spaces.  An
     equivalent number of spaces is defined as the number of spaces output by an s conversion
     character with the same field width and precision as the original conversion character or
     conversion string but with any ``+'', `` '', ``#'' conversion flag characters removed, and
     referencing a NULL string.

     If no format strings are specified, the default display is equivalent to specifying the -x

     hexdump exits 0 on success and >0 if an error occurred.

     Display the input in perusal format:

	   "%06.6_ao "	12/1 "%3_u "
	   "\t\t" "%_p "

     Implement the -x option:

	   "%07.7_ax  " 8/2 "%04x " "\n"

     The hexdump utility is expected to be IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'') compatible.

BSD					  April 18, 1994				      BSD
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