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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for flex (redhat section 1)

FLEX(1) 			     General Commands Manual				  FLEX(1)

       flex - fast lexical analyzer generator

       flex [-bcdfhilnpstvwBFILTV78+? -C[aefFmr] -ooutput -Pprefix -Sskeleton] [--help --version]
       [filename ...]

       This manual describes flex, a tool for generating programs that	perform  pattern-matching
       on text.  The manual includes both tutorial and reference sections:

	       a brief overview of the tool

	   Some Simple Examples

	   Format Of The Input File

	       the extended regular expressions used by flex

	   How The Input Is Matched
	       the rules for determining what has been matched

	       how to specify what to do when a pattern is matched

	   The Generated Scanner
	       details regarding the scanner that flex produces;
	       how to control the input source

	   Start Conditions
	       introducing context into your scanners, and
	       managing "mini-scanners"

	   Multiple Input Buffers
	       how to manipulate multiple input sources; how to
	       scan from strings instead of files

	   End-of-file Rules
	       special rules for matching the end of the input

	   Miscellaneous Macros
	       a summary of macros available to the actions

	   Values Available To The User
	       a summary of values available to the actions

	   Interfacing With Yacc
	       connecting flex scanners together with yacc parsers

	       flex command-line options, and the "%option"

	   Performance Considerations
	       how to make your scanner go as fast as possible

	   Generating C++ Scanners
	       the (experimental) facility for generating C++
	       scanner classes

	   Incompatibilities With Lex And POSIX
	       how flex differs from AT&T lex and the POSIX lex

	       those error messages produced by flex (or scanners
	       it generates) whose meanings might not be apparent

	       files used by flex

	   Deficiencies / Bugs
	       known problems with flex

	   See Also
	       other documentation, related tools

	       includes contact information

       flex  is  a  tool  for  generating scanners: programs which recognized lexical patterns in
       text.  flex reads the given input files, or its standard input if no file names are given,
       for  a  description  of a scanner to generate.  The description is in the form of pairs of
       regular expressions and C code, called rules. flex generates as output a  C  source  file,
       lex.yy.c, which defines a routine yylex().  This file is compiled and linked with the -lfl
       library to produce an executable.  When the executable is run, it analyzes its  input  for
       occurrences  of	the  regular  expressions.  Whenever it finds one, it executes the corre-
       sponding C code.

       First some simple examples to get the flavor of how one uses  flex.   The  following  flex
       input  specifies a scanner which whenever it encounters the string "username" will replace
       it with the user's login name:

	   username    printf( "%s", getlogin() );

       By default, any text not matched by a flex scanner is copied to the  output,  so  the  net
       effect  of  this  scanner  is to copy its input file to its output with each occurrence of
       "username" expanded.  In this input, there is just one rule.  "username"  is  the  pattern
       and the "printf" is the action.	The "%%" marks the beginning of the rules.

       Here's another simple example:

		   int num_lines = 0, num_chars = 0;

	   \n	   ++num_lines; ++num_chars;
	   .	   ++num_chars;

		   printf( "# of lines = %d, # of chars = %d\n",
			   num_lines, num_chars );

       This scanner counts the number of characters and the number of lines in its input (it pro-
       duces no output other than the final report on the counts).  The first line  declares  two
       globals,  "num_lines" and "num_chars", which are accessible both inside yylex() and in the
       main() routine declared after the second "%%".  There are two rules, one which  matches	a
       newline	("\n")	and increments both the line count and the character count, and one which
       matches any character other than a newline (indicated by the "." regular expression).

       A somewhat more complicated example:

	   /* scanner for a toy Pascal-like language */

	   /* need this for the call to atof() below */
	   #include <math.h>

	   DIGIT    [0-9]
	   ID	    [a-z][a-z0-9]*


	   {DIGIT}+    {
		       printf( "An integer: %s (%d)\n", yytext,
			       atoi( yytext ) );

	   {DIGIT}+"."{DIGIT}*	      {
		       printf( "A float: %s (%g)\n", yytext,
			       atof( yytext ) );

	   if|then|begin|end|procedure|function        {
		       printf( "A keyword: %s\n", yytext );

	   {ID}        printf( "An identifier: %s\n", yytext );

	   "+"|"-"|"*"|"/"   printf( "An operator: %s\n", yytext );

	   "{"[^}\n]*"}"     /* eat up one-line comments */

	   [ \t\n]+	     /* eat up whitespace */

	   .	       printf( "Unrecognized character: %s\n", yytext );


	   main( argc, argv )
	   int argc;
	   char **argv;
	       ++argv, --argc;	/* skip over program name */
	       if ( argc > 0 )
		       yyin = fopen( argv[0], "r" );
		       yyin = stdin;


       This is the beginnings of a simple scanner for a language like Pascal.  It identifies dif-
       ferent types of tokens and reports on what it has seen.

       The details of this example will be explained in the following sections.

       The flex input file consists of three sections, separated by a line with just %% in it:

	   user code

       The  definitions  section contains declarations of simple name definitions to simplify the
       scanner specification, and declarations of start conditions,  which  are  explained  in	a
       later section.

       Name definitions have the form:

	   name definition

       The  "name"  is	a word beginning with a letter or an underscore ('_') followed by zero or
       more letters, digits, '_', or '-' (dash).  The definition is taken to begin at  the  first
       non-white-space	character  following the name and continuing to the end of the line.  The
       definition can subsequently be referred to using "{name}", which will expand to	"(defini-
       tion)".	For example,

	   DIGIT    [0-9]
	   ID	    [a-z][a-z0-9]*

       defines	"DIGIT" to be a regular expression which matches a single digit, and "ID" to be a
       regular expression which matches a letter followed by zero-or-more  letters-or-digits.	A
       subsequent reference to


       is identical to


       and matches one-or-more digits followed by a '.' followed by zero-or-more digits.

       The rules section of the flex input contains a series of rules of the form:

	   pattern   action

       where the pattern must be unindented and the action must begin on the same line.

       See below for a further description of patterns and actions.

       Finally, the user code section is simply copied to lex.yy.c verbatim.  It is used for com-
       panion routines which call or are called by the scanner.  The presence of this section  is
       optional; if it is missing, the second %% in the input file may be skipped, too.

       In  the definitions and rules sections, any indented text or text enclosed in %{ and %} is
       copied verbatim to the output (with the %{}'s removed).	The %{}'s must appear  unindented
       on lines by themselves.

       In the rules section, any indented or %{} text appearing before the first rule may be used
       to declare variables which are local to the scanning routine and (after the  declarations)
       code  which is to be executed whenever the scanning routine is entered.	Other indented or
       %{} text in the rule section is still copied to the output, but its meaning is  not  well-
       defined	and it may well cause compile-time errors (this feature is present for POSIX com-
       pliance; see below for other such features).

       In the definitions section (but not in the rules section), an unindented comment (i.e.,	a
       line beginning with "/*") is also copied verbatim to the output up to the next "*/".

       The patterns in the input are written using an extended set of regular expressions.  These

	   x	      match the character 'x'
	   .	      any character (byte) except newline
	   [xyz]      a "character class"; in this case, the pattern
			matches either an 'x', a 'y', or a 'z'
	   [abj-oZ]   a "character class" with a range in it; matches
			an 'a', a 'b', any letter from 'j' through 'o',
			or a 'Z'
	   [^A-Z]     a "negated character class", i.e., any character
			but those in the class.  In this case, any
			character EXCEPT an uppercase letter.
	   [^A-Z\n]   any character EXCEPT an uppercase letter or
			a newline
	   r*	      zero or more r's, where r is any regular expression
	   r+	      one or more r's
	   r?	      zero or one r's (that is, "an optional r")
	   r{2,5}     anywhere from two to five r's
	   r{2,}      two or more r's
	   r{4}       exactly 4 r's
	   {name}     the expansion of the "name" definition
		      (see above)
		      the literal string: [xyz]"foo
	   \X	      if X is an 'a', 'b', 'f', 'n', 'r', 't', or 'v',
			then the ANSI-C interpretation of \x.
			Otherwise, a literal 'X' (used to escape
			operators such as '*')
	   \0	      a NUL character (ASCII code 0)
	   \123       the character with octal value 123
	   \x2a       the character with hexadecimal value 2a
	   (r)	      match an r; parentheses are used to override
			precedence (see below)

	   rs	      the regular expression r followed by the
			regular expression s; called "concatenation"

	   r|s	      either an r or an s

	   r/s	      an r but only if it is followed by an s.	The
			text matched by s is included when determining
			whether this rule is the "longest match",
			but is then returned to the input before
			the action is executed.  So the action only
			sees the text matched by r.  This type
			of pattern is called trailing context".
			(There are some combinations of r/s that flex
			cannot match correctly; see notes in the
			Deficiencies / Bugs section below regarding
			"dangerous trailing context".)
	   ^r	      an r, but only at the beginning of a line (i.e.,
			which just starting to scan, or right after a
			newline has been scanned).
	   r$	      an r, but only at the end of a line (i.e., just
			before a newline).  Equivalent to "r/\n".

		      Note that flex's notion of "newline" is exactly
		      whatever the C compiler used to compile flex
		      interprets '\n' as; in particular, on some DOS
		      systems you must either filter out \r's in the
		      input yourself, or explicitly use r/\r\n for "r$".

	   <s>r       an r, but only in start condition s (see
			below for discussion of start conditions)
		      same, but in any of start conditions s1,
			s2, or s3
	   <*>r       an r in any start condition, even an exclusive one.

	   <<EOF>>    an end-of-file
		      an end-of-file when in start condition s1 or s2

       Note that inside of a character class, all regular expression operators lose their special
       meaning	except	escape	('\')  and  the  character class operators, '-', ']', and, at the
       beginning of the class, '^'.

       The regular expressions listed above are grouped according  to  precedence,  from  highest
       precedence  at  the top to lowest at the bottom.  Those grouped together have equal prece-
       dence.  For example,


       is the same as


       since the '*' operator has higher precedence than concatenation, and concatenation  higher
       than  alternation  ('|').   This  pattern therefore matches either the string "foo" or the
       string "ba" followed by zero-or-more r's.  To match "foo" or zero-or-more "bar"'s, use:


       and to match zero-or-more "foo"'s-or-"bar"'s:


       In addition to characters and ranges of characters, character  classes  can  also  contain
       character  class  expressions.  These are expressions enclosed inside [: and :] delimiters
       (which themselves must appear between the '[' and ']' of the character class;  other  ele-
       ments may occur inside the character class, too).  The valid expressions are:

	   [:alnum:] [:alpha:] [:blank:]
	   [:cntrl:] [:digit:] [:graph:]
	   [:lower:] [:print:] [:punct:]
	   [:space:] [:upper:] [:xdigit:]

       These  expressions all designate a set of characters equivalent to the corresponding stan-
       dard C isXXX function.  For example, [:alnum:] designates those characters for which isal-
       num()  returns  true  -	i.e.,  any  alphabetic	or  numeric.   Some systems don't provide
       isblank(), so flex defines [:blank:] as a blank or a tab.

       For example, the following character classes are all equivalent:


       If your scanner is case-insensitive (the -i flag), then [:upper:] and [:lower:] are equiv-
       alent to [:alpha:].

       Some notes on patterns:

       -      A  negated  character class such as the example "[^A-Z]" above will match a newline
	      unless "\n" (or an equivalent escape sequence) is one of the characters  explicitly
	      present in the negated character class (e.g., "[^A-Z\n]").  This is unlike how many
	      other regular expression tools treat negated character classes,  but  unfortunately
	      the  inconsistency is historically entrenched.  Matching newlines means that a pat-
	      tern like [^"]* can match the entire input unless  there's  another  quote  in  the

       -      A  rule  can have at most one instance of trailing context (the '/' operator or the
	      '$' operator).  The start condition, '^', and "<<EOF>>" patterns can only occur  at
	      the  beginning  of  a  pattern, and, as well as with '/' and '$', cannot be grouped
	      inside parentheses.  A '^' which does not occur at the beginning of a rule or a '$'
	      which  does  not	occur  at  the	end of a rule loses its special properties and is
	      treated as a normal character.

	      The following are illegal:


	      Note that the first of these, can be written "foo/bar\n".

	      The following will result in '$' or '^' being treated as a normal character:


	      If what's wanted is a "foo" or a bar-followed-by-a-newline, the following could  be
	      used (the special '|' action is explained below):

		  foo	   |
		  bar$	   /* action goes here */

	      A similar trick will work for matching a foo or a bar-at-the-beginning-of-a-line.

       When  the  generated scanner is run, it analyzes its input looking for strings which match
       any of its patterns.  If it finds more than one match, it takes the one matching the  most
       text  (for  trailing  context  rules,  this includes the length of the trailing part, even
       though it will then be returned to the input).  If it finds two or  more  matches  of  the
       same length, the rule listed first in the flex input file is chosen.

       Once  the  match  is determined, the text corresponding to the match (called the token) is
       made available in the global character pointer yytext, and its length in the global  inte-
       ger  yyleng.   The  action  corresponding  to the matched pattern is then executed (a more
       detailed description of actions follows), and then the  remaining  input  is  scanned  for
       another match.

       If  no  match is found, then the default rule is executed: the next character in the input
       is considered matched and copied to the standard output.  Thus, the  simplest  legal  flex
       input is:


       which  generates  a  scanner that simply copies its input (one character at a time) to its

       Note that yytext can be defined in two different ways: either as a character pointer or as
       a  character  array.   You  can control which definition flex uses by including one of the
       special directives %pointer or %array in the first  (definitions)  section  of  your  flex
       input.	The default is %pointer, unless you use the -l lex compatibility option, in which
       case yytext will be an array.  The advantage of using  %pointer	is  substantially  faster
       scanning  and  no  buffer  overflow when matching very large tokens (unless you run out of
       dynamic memory).  The disadvantage is that you are restricted in how your actions can mod-
       ify  yytext (see the next section), and calls to the unput() function destroys the present
       contents of yytext, which can be a considerable porting headache when moving between  dif-
       ferent lex versions.

       The  advantage  of  %array is that you can then modify yytext to your heart's content, and
       calls to unput() do not destroy yytext (see below).  Furthermore,  existing  lex  programs
       sometimes access yytext externally using declarations of the form:
	   extern char yytext[];
       This definition is erroneous when used with %pointer, but correct for %array.

       %array  defines	yytext	to  be	an array of YYLMAX characters, which defaults to a fairly
       large value.  You can change the size by simply #define'ing YYLMAX to a different value in
       the  first  section  of	your  flex input.  As mentioned above, with %pointer yytext grows
       dynamically to accommodate large tokens.  While	this  means  your  %pointer  scanner  can
       accommodate  very  large tokens (such as matching entire blocks of comments), bear in mind
       that each time the scanner must resize yytext it also must rescan the  entire  token  from
       the  beginning, so matching such tokens can prove slow.	yytext presently does not dynami-
       cally grow if a call to unput() results in too much text being  pushed  back;  instead,	a
       run-time error results.

       Also note that you cannot use %array with C++ scanner classes (the c++ option; see below).

       Each pattern in a rule has a corresponding action, which can be any arbitrary C statement.
       The pattern ends at the first non-escaped whitespace character; the remainder of the  line
       is  its	action.  If the action is empty, then when the pattern is matched the input token
       is simply discarded.  For example, here is the specification for a program  which  deletes
       all occurrences of "zap me" from its input:

	   "zap me"

       (It  will  copy all other characters in the input to the output since they will be matched
       by the default rule.)

       Here is a program which compresses multiple blanks and tabs down to a  single  blank,  and
       throws away whitespace found at the end of a line:

	   [ \t]+	 putchar( ' ' );
	   [ \t]+$	 /* ignore this token */

       If  the	action contains a '{', then the action spans till the balancing '}' is found, and
       the action may cross multiple lines.  flex knows about C strings and comments and won't be
       fooled by braces found within them, but also allows actions to begin with %{ and will con-
       sider the action to be all the text up to the  next  %}	(regardless  of  ordinary  braces
       inside the action).

       An action consisting solely of a vertical bar ('|') means "same as the action for the next
       rule."  See below for an illustration.

       Actions can include arbitrary C code, including return statements to  return  a	value  to
       whatever  routine  called  yylex().   Each  time yylex() is called it continues processing
       tokens from where it last left off until it either reaches the end of the file or executes
       a return.

       Actions	are  free  to  modify  yytext except for lengthening it (adding characters to its
       end--these will overwrite later characters in the input stream).  This  however	does  not
       apply  when  using  %array (see above); in that case, yytext may be freely modified in any

       Actions are free to modify yyleng except they should not do so if the action also includes
       use of yymore() (see below).

       There are a number of special directives which can be included within an action:

       -      ECHO copies yytext to the scanner's output.

       -      BEGIN  followed  by  the name of a start condition places the scanner in the corre-
	      sponding start condition (see below).

       -      REJECT directs the scanner to proceed on to the "second best"  rule  which  matched
	      the  input  (or  a  prefix of the input).  The rule is chosen as described above in
	      "How the Input is Matched", and yytext and yyleng set  up  appropriately.   It  may
	      either  be  one  which  matched as much text as the originally chosen rule but came
	      later in the flex input file, or one which matched less  text.   For  example,  the
	      following  will  both  count  the words in the input and call the routine special()
	      whenever "frob" is seen:

			  int word_count = 0;

		  frob	      special(); REJECT;
		  [^ \t\n]+   ++word_count;

	      Without the REJECT, any "frob"'s in the input would not be counted as words,  since
	      the  scanner  normally  executes	only one action per token.  Multiple REJECT's are
	      allowed, each one finding the next best choice to the currently active  rule.   For
	      example,	when the following scanner scans the token "abcd", it will write "abcdab-
	      caba" to the output:

		  a	   |
		  ab	   |
		  abc	   |
		  abcd	   ECHO; REJECT;
		  .|\n	   /* eat up any unmatched character */

	      (The first three rules share the fourth's action since they  use	the  special  '|'
	      action.)	 REJECT  is  a particularly expensive feature in terms of scanner perfor-
	      mance; if it is used in any of the scanner's actions it will slow down all  of  the
	      scanner's matching.  Furthermore, REJECT cannot be used with the -Cf or -CF options
	      (see below).

	      Note also that unlike the other special actions, REJECT is a branch;  code  immedi-
	      ately following it in the action will not be executed.

       -      yymore()	tells the scanner that the next time it matches a rule, the corresponding
	      token should be appended onto the current value of yytext rather than replacing it.
	      For  example,  given  the  input "mega-kludge" the following will write "mega-mega-
	      kludge" to the output:

		  mega-    ECHO; yymore();
		  kludge   ECHO;

	      First "mega-" is matched and echoed to the output.  Then "kludge" is  matched,  but
	      the previous "mega-" is still hanging around at the beginning of yytext so the ECHO
	      for the "kludge" rule will actually write "mega-kludge".

       Two notes regarding use of yymore().  First, yymore() depends on the value of yyleng  cor-
       rectly  reflecting the size of the current token, so you must not modify yyleng if you are
       using yymore().	Second, the presence of yymore() in the scanner's action entails a  minor
       performance penalty in the scanner's matching speed.

       -      yyless(n)  returns  all but the first n characters of the current token back to the
	      input stream, where they will be rescanned when the  scanner  looks  for	the  next
	      match.   yytext  and  yyleng  are  adjusted appropriately (e.g., yyleng will now be
	      equal to n ).  For example, on the input "foobar"  the  following  will  write  out

		  foobar    ECHO; yyless(3);
		  [a-z]+    ECHO;

	      An argument of 0 to yyless will cause the entire current input string to be scanned
	      again.  Unless you've changed how the scanner will subsequently process  its  input
	      (using BEGIN, for example), this will result in an endless loop.

       Note  that  yyless  is a macro and can only be used in the flex input file, not from other
       source files.

       -      unput(c) puts the character c back onto the input stream.   It  will  be	the  next
	      character  scanned.   The following action will take the current token and cause it
	      to be rescanned enclosed in parentheses.

		  int i;
		  /* Copy yytext because unput() trashes yytext */
		  char *yycopy = strdup( yytext );
		  unput( ')' );
		  for ( i = yyleng - 1; i >= 0; --i )
		      unput( yycopy[i] );
		  unput( '(' );
		  free( yycopy );

	      Note that since each unput() puts the given character back at the beginning of  the
	      input stream, pushing back strings must be done back-to-front.

       An  important  potential problem when using unput() is that if you are using %pointer (the
       default), a call to unput() destroys the contents of yytext, starting with  its	rightmost
       character  and  devouring one character to the left with each call.  If you need the value
       of yytext preserved after a call to unput() (as in the above  example),	you  must  either
       first  copy it elsewhere, or build your scanner using %array instead (see How The Input Is

       Finally, note that you cannot put back EOF to attempt to mark the  input  stream  with  an

       -      input() reads the next character from the input stream.  For example, the following
	      is one way to eat up C comments:

		  "/*"	      {
			      register int c;

			      for ( ; ; )
				  while ( (c = input()) != '*' &&
					  c != EOF )
				      ;    /* eat up text of comment */

				  if ( c == '*' )
				      while ( (c = input()) == '*' )
				      if ( c == '/' )
					  break;    /* found the end */

				  if ( c == EOF )
				      error( "EOF in comment" );

	      (Note that if the scanner is compiled using C++, then input() is	instead  referred
	      to  as yyinput(), in order to avoid a name clash with the C++ stream by the name of

       -      YY_FLUSH_BUFFER flushes the scanner's internal buffer so that  the  next	time  the
	      scanner  attempts  to match a token, it will first refill the buffer using YY_INPUT
	      (see The Generated Scanner, below).  This action is a special case of the more gen-
	      eral yy_flush_buffer() function, described below in the section Multiple Input Buf-

       -      yyterminate() can be used in lieu of a return statement in an  action.   It  termi-
	      nates  the  scanner and returns a 0 to the scanner's caller, indicating "all done".
	      By default, yyterminate() is also called when an end-of-file is encountered.  It is
	      a macro and may be redefined.

       The  output  of	flex is the file lex.yy.c, which contains the scanning routine yylex(), a
       number of tables used by it for matching tokens, and a number of  auxiliary  routines  and
       macros.	By default, yylex() is declared as follows:

	   int yylex()
	       ... various definitions and the actions in here ...

       (If  your  environment supports function prototypes, then it will be "int yylex( void )".)
       This definition may be changed by defining the "YY_DECL" macro.	For  example,  you  could

	   #define YY_DECL float lexscan( a, b ) float a, b;

       to give the scanning routine the name lexscan, returning a float, and taking two floats as
       arguments.  Note that if you give arguments to the scanning routine using a K&R-style/non-
       prototyped function declaration, you must terminate the definition with a semi-colon (;).

       Whenever  yylex()  is  called,  it  scans  tokens  from	the global input file yyin (which
       defaults to stdin).  It continues until it either reaches an end-of-file (at  which  point
       it returns the value 0) or one of its actions executes a return statement.

       If  the	scanner reaches an end-of-file, subsequent calls are undefined unless either yyin
       is pointed at a new input file (in which case  scanning	continues  from  that  file),  or
       yyrestart()  is	called.   yyrestart()  takes one argument, a FILE * pointer (which can be
       nil, if you've set up YY_INPUT to scan from a source other  than  yyin),  and  initializes
       yyin for scanning from that file.  Essentially there is no difference between just assign-
       ing yyin to a new input file or using yyrestart() to do so; the latter  is  available  for
       compatibility  with  previous versions of flex, and because it can be used to switch input
       files in the middle of scanning.  It can also be used to throw away the current input buf-
       fer,  by  calling  it  with an argument of yyin; but better is to use YY_FLUSH_BUFFER (see
       above).	Note that yyrestart() does not reset the start condition to  INITIAL  (see  Start
       Conditions, below).

       If  yylex()  stops scanning due to executing a return statement in one of the actions, the
       scanner may then be called again and it will resume scanning where it left off.

       By default (and for purposes of efficiency), the scanner uses block-reads rather than sim-
       ple getc() calls to read characters from yyin.  The nature of how it gets its input can be
       controlled  by  defining   the	YY_INPUT   macro.    YY_INPUT's   calling   sequence   is
       "YY_INPUT(buf,result,max_size)".   Its action is to place up to max_size characters in the
       character array buf and return in the integer variable result either the number of charac-
       ters  read  or  the  constant  YY_NULL  (0  on Unix systems) to indicate EOF.  The default
       YY_INPUT reads from the global file-pointer "yyin".

       A sample definition of YY_INPUT (in the definitions section of the input file):

	   #define YY_INPUT(buf,result,max_size) \
	       { \
	       int c = getchar(); \
	       result = (c == EOF) ? YY_NULL : (buf[0] = c, 1); \

       This definition will change the input processing to occur one character at a time.

       When the scanner receives an end-of-file indication from  YY_INPUT,  it	then  checks  the
       yywrap() function.  If yywrap() returns false (zero), then it is assumed that the function
       has gone ahead and set up yyin to point to another input file, and scanning continues.  If
       it  returns true (non-zero), then the scanner terminates, returning 0 to its caller.  Note
       that in either case, the start condition remains unchanged; it does not revert to INITIAL.

       If you do not supply your own version of yywrap(), then you must either use %option  noyy-
       wrap  (in  which case the scanner behaves as though yywrap() returned 1), or you must link
       with -lfl to obtain the default version of the routine, which always returns 1.

       Three routines are available for  scanning  from  in-memory  buffers  rather  than  files:
       yy_scan_string(), yy_scan_bytes(), and yy_scan_buffer().  See the discussion of them below
       in the section Multiple Input Buffers.

       The scanner writes its ECHO output to the yyout global (default,  stdout),  which  may  be
       redefined by the user simply by assigning it to some other FILE pointer.

       flex  provides  a mechanism for conditionally activating rules.	Any rule whose pattern is
       prefixed with "<sc>" will only be active when the scanner is in the start condition  named
       "sc".  For example,

	   <STRING>[^"]*	{ /* eat up the string body ... */

       will be active only when the scanner is in the "STRING" start condition, and

	   <INITIAL,STRING,QUOTE>\.	   { /* handle an escape ... */

       will  be  active  only  when the current start condition is either "INITIAL", "STRING", or

       Start conditions are declared in the definitions (first) section of the input using  unin-
       dented  lines  beginning  with  either  %s  or %x followed by a list of names.  The former
       declares inclusive start conditions, the latter exclusive start conditions.  A start  con-
       dition  is  activated  using  the  BEGIN action.  Until the next BEGIN action is executed,
       rules with the given start condition will be active and rules with other start  conditions
       will  be  inactive.   If the start condition is inclusive, then rules with no start condi-
       tions at all will also be active.  If it is exclusive, then only rules qualified with  the
       start  condition  will  be  active.  A set of rules contingent on the same exclusive start
       condition describe a scanner which is independent of any of the other rules  in	the  flex
       input.	Because  of  this, exclusive start conditions make it easy to specify "mini-scan-
       ners" which scan portions of the input that are	syntactically  different  from	the  rest
       (e.g., comments).

       If  the	distinction  between  inclusive  and exclusive start conditions is still a little
       vague, here's a simple example illustrating the connection between the two.   The  set  of

	   %s example

	   <example>foo   do_something();

	   bar		  something_else();

       is equivalent to

	   %x example

	   <example>foo   do_something();

	   <INITIAL,example>bar    something_else();

       Without the <INITIAL,example> qualifier, the bar pattern in the second example wouldn't be
       active (i.e., couldn't match) when in start condition example.  If we just used	<example>
       to  qualify bar, though, then it would only be active in example and not in INITIAL, while
       in the first example it's active in both, because in the first example the  example  star-
       tion condition is an inclusive (%s) start condition.

       Also  note  that  the special start-condition specifier <*> matches every start condition.
       Thus, the above example could also have been written;

	   %x example

	   <example>foo   do_something();

	   <*>bar    something_else();

       The default rule (to ECHO any unmatched character) remains active in start conditions.  It
       is equivalent to:

	   <*>.|\n     ECHO;

       BEGIN(0)  returns  to the original state where only the rules with no start conditions are
       active.	This state  can  also  be  referred  to  as  the  start-condition  "INITIAL",  so
       BEGIN(INITIAL)  is  equivalent  to  BEGIN(0).  (The parentheses around the start condition
       name are not required but are considered good style.)

       BEGIN actions can also be given as indented code at the beginning of  the  rules  section.
       For  example,  the following will cause the scanner to enter the "SPECIAL" start condition
       whenever yylex() is called and the global variable enter_special is true:

		   int enter_special;

	   %x SPECIAL
		   if ( enter_special )

	   ...more rules follow...

       To illustrate the uses of start conditions, here is a scanner which provides two different
       interpretations	of a string like "123.456".  By default it will treat it as three tokens,
       the integer "123", a dot ('.'), and the integer "456".  But if the string is preceded ear-
       lier  in  the  line  by the string "expect-floats" it will treat it as a single token, the
       floating-point number 123.456:

	   #include <math.h>
	   %s expect

	   expect-floats	BEGIN(expect);

	   <expect>[0-9]+"."[0-9]+	{
		       printf( "found a float, = %f\n",
			       atof( yytext ) );
	   <expect>\n		{
		       /* that's the end of the line, so
			* we need another "expect-number"
			* before we'll recognize any more
			* numbers

	   [0-9]+      {
		       printf( "found an integer, = %d\n",
			       atoi( yytext ) );

	   "."	       printf( "found a dot\n" );

       Here is a scanner which recognizes (and discards) C comments while maintaining a count  of
       the current input line.

	   %x comment
		   int line_num = 1;

	   "/*" 	BEGIN(comment);

	   <comment>[^*\n]*	   /* eat anything that's not a '*' */
	   <comment>"*"+[^*/\n]*   /* eat up '*'s not followed by '/'s */
	   <comment>\n		   ++line_num;
	   <comment>"*"+"/"	   BEGIN(INITIAL);

       This  scanner  goes  to a bit of trouble to match as much text as possible with each rule.
       In general, when attempting to write a high-speed scanner try to match as much possible in
       each rule, as it's a big win.

       Note  that  start-conditions  names  are  really integer values and can be stored as such.
       Thus, the above could be extended in the following fashion:

	   %x comment foo
		   int line_num = 1;
		   int comment_caller;

	   "/*" 	{
			comment_caller = INITIAL;


	   <foo>"/*"	{
			comment_caller = foo;

	   <comment>[^*\n]*	   /* eat anything that's not a '*' */
	   <comment>"*"+[^*/\n]*   /* eat up '*'s not followed by '/'s */
	   <comment>\n		   ++line_num;
	   <comment>"*"+"/"	   BEGIN(comment_caller);

       Furthermore, you can access the current start condition using the integer-valued  YY_START
       macro.  For example, the above assignments to comment_caller could instead be written

	   comment_caller = YY_START;

       Flex provides YYSTATE as an alias for YY_START (since that is what's used by AT&T lex).

       Note  that  start conditions do not have their own name-space; %s's and %x's declare names
       in the same fashion as #define's.

       Finally, here's an example of how to match C-style quoted strings  using  exclusive  start
       conditions,  including  expanded escape sequences (but not including checking for a string
       that's too long):

	   %x str

		   char string_buf[MAX_STR_CONST];
		   char *string_buf_ptr;

	   \"	   string_buf_ptr = string_buf; BEGIN(str);

	   <str>\"	  { /* saw closing quote - all done */
		   *string_buf_ptr = '\0';
		   /* return string constant token type and
		    * value to parser

	   <str>\n	  {
		   /* error - unterminated string constant */
		   /* generate error message */

	   <str>\\[0-7]{1,3} {
		   /* octal escape sequence */
		   int result;

		   (void) sscanf( yytext + 1, "%o", &result );

		   if ( result > 0xff )
			   /* error, constant is out-of-bounds */

		   *string_buf_ptr++ = result;

	   <str>\\[0-9]+ {
		   /* generate error - bad escape sequence; something
		    * like '\48' or '\0777777'

	   <str>\\n  *string_buf_ptr++ = '\n';
	   <str>\\t  *string_buf_ptr++ = '\t';
	   <str>\\r  *string_buf_ptr++ = '\r';
	   <str>\\b  *string_buf_ptr++ = '\b';
	   <str>\\f  *string_buf_ptr++ = '\f';

	   <str>\\(.|\n)  *string_buf_ptr++ = yytext[1];

	   <str>[^\\\n\"]+	  {
		   char *yptr = yytext;

		   while ( *yptr )
			   *string_buf_ptr++ = *yptr++;

       Often, such as in some of the examples above, you wind up writing a whole bunch	of  rules
       all  preceded by the same start condition(s).  Flex makes this a little easier and cleaner
       by introducing a notion of start condition scope.  A start condition scope is begun with:


       where SCs is a list of one or more start conditions.  Inside the  start	condition  scope,
       every rule automatically has the prefix <SCs> applied to it, until a '}' which matches the
       initial '{'.  So, for example,

	       "\\n"   return '\n';
	       "\\r"   return '\r';
	       "\\f"   return '\f';
	       "\\0"   return '\0';

       is equivalent to:

	   <ESC>"\\n"  return '\n';
	   <ESC>"\\r"  return '\r';
	   <ESC>"\\f"  return '\f';
	   <ESC>"\\0"  return '\0';

       Start condition scopes may be nested.

       Three routines are available for manipulating stacks of start conditions:

       void yy_push_state(int new_state)
	      pushes the current start condition onto the top of the start  condition  stack  and
	      switches	to  new_state  as  though you had used BEGIN new_state (recall that start
	      condition names are also integers).

       void yy_pop_state()
	      pops the top of the stack and switches to it via BEGIN.

       int yy_top_state()
	      returns the top of the stack without altering the stack's contents.

       The start condition stack grows dynamically and so has no built-in  size  limitation.   If
       memory is exhausted, program execution aborts.

       To  use	start  condition stacks, your scanner must include a %option stack directive (see
       Options below).

       Some scanners (such as those which support "include" files) require reading  from  several
       input  streams.	As flex scanners do a large amount of buffering, one cannot control where
       the next input will be read from by simply writing a YY_INPUT which is  sensitive  to  the
       scanning context.  YY_INPUT is only called when the scanner reaches the end of its buffer,
       which may be a long time after scanning a statement such as an  "include"  which  requires
       switching the input source.

       To negotiate these sorts of problems, flex provides a mechanism for creating and switching
       between multiple input buffers.	An input buffer is created by using:

	   YY_BUFFER_STATE yy_create_buffer( FILE *file, int size )

       which takes a FILE pointer and a size and creates a buffer associated with the given  file
       and  large  enough  to hold size characters (when in doubt, use YY_BUF_SIZE for the size).
       It returns a YY_BUFFER_STATE handle, which may then  be	passed	to  other  routines  (see
       below).	 The YY_BUFFER_STATE type is a pointer to an opaque struct yy_buffer_state struc-
       ture, so you may safely initialize YY_BUFFER_STATE variables to ((YY_BUFFER_STATE)  0)  if
       you  wish, and also refer to the opaque structure in order to correctly declare input buf-
       fers in source files other than that of your scanner.  Note that the FILE pointer  in  the
       call  to yy_create_buffer is only used as the value of yyin seen by YY_INPUT; if you rede-
       fine YY_INPUT so it no longer uses yyin, then you can safely pass a nil	FILE  pointer  to
       yy_create_buffer.  You select a particular buffer to scan from using:

	   void yy_switch_to_buffer( YY_BUFFER_STATE new_buffer )

       switches  the scanner's input buffer so subsequent tokens will come from new_buffer.  Note
       that yy_switch_to_buffer() may be used by yywrap() to set things up  for  continued  scan-
       ning,  instead  of  opening  a new file and pointing yyin at it.  Note also that switching
       input sources via either yy_switch_to_buffer() or yywrap() does not change the start  con-

	   void yy_delete_buffer( YY_BUFFER_STATE buffer )

       is  used  to  reclaim the storage associated with a buffer.  ( buffer can be nil, in which
       case the routine does nothing.)	You can also clear  the  current  contents  of	a  buffer

	   void yy_flush_buffer( YY_BUFFER_STATE buffer )

       This  function  discards  the  buffer's contents, so the next time the scanner attempts to
       match a token from the buffer, it will first fill the buffer anew using YY_INPUT.

       yy_new_buffer() is an alias for yy_create_buffer(), provided for  compatibility	with  the
       C++ use of new and delete for creating and destroying dynamic objects.

       Finally,  the YY_CURRENT_BUFFER macro returns a YY_BUFFER_STATE handle to the current buf-

       Here is an example of using these features for writing a  scanner  which  expands  include
       files (the <<EOF>> feature is discussed below):

	   /* the "incl" state is used for picking up the name
	    * of an include file
	   %x incl

	   #define MAX_INCLUDE_DEPTH 10
	   int include_stack_ptr = 0;

	   include	       BEGIN(incl);

	   [a-z]+	       ECHO;
	   [^a-z\n]*\n?        ECHO;

	   <incl>[ \t]*      /* eat the whitespace */
	   <incl>[^ \t\n]+   { /* got the include file name */
		   if ( include_stack_ptr >= MAX_INCLUDE_DEPTH )
		       fprintf( stderr, "Includes nested too deeply" );
		       exit( 1 );

		   include_stack[include_stack_ptr++] =

		   yyin = fopen( yytext, "r" );

		   if ( ! yyin )
		       error( ... );

		       yy_create_buffer( yyin, YY_BUF_SIZE ) );


	   <<EOF>> {
		   if ( --include_stack_ptr < 0 )

		       yy_delete_buffer( YY_CURRENT_BUFFER );
			    include_stack[include_stack_ptr] );

       Three  routines	are available for setting up input buffers for scanning in-memory strings
       instead of files.  All of them create a new input buffer  for  scanning	the  string,  and
       return a corresponding YY_BUFFER_STATE handle (which you should delete with yy_delete_buf-
       fer() when done with it).  They also switch to the new buffer using yy_switch_to_buffer(),
       so the next call to yylex() will start scanning the string.

       yy_scan_string(const char *str)
	      scans a NUL-terminated string.

       yy_scan_bytes(const char *bytes, int len)
	      scans len bytes (including possibly NUL's) starting at location bytes.

       Note  that  both  of these functions create and scan a copy of the string or bytes.  (This
       may be desirable, since yylex() modifies the contents of the buffer it is scanning.)   You
       can avoid the copy by using:

       yy_scan_buffer(char *base, yy_size_t size)
	      which  scans  in	place  the buffer starting at base, consisting of size bytes, the
	      last two bytes of which must be YY_END_OF_BUFFER_CHAR (ASCII NUL).  These last  two
	      bytes  are  not  scanned;  thus, scanning consists of base[0] through base[size-2],

	      If  you  fail  to  set  up  base	in  this  manner  (i.e.,  forget  the  final  two
	      YY_END_OF_BUFFER_CHAR  bytes),  then yy_scan_buffer() returns a nil pointer instead
	      of creating a new input buffer.

	      The type yy_size_t is an integral type to which you can cast an integer  expression
	      reflecting the size of the buffer.

       The  special rule "<<EOF>>" indicates actions which are to be taken when an end-of-file is
       encountered and yywrap() returns non-zero (i.e., indicates no further files  to	process).
       The action must finish by doing one of four things:

       -      assigning  yyin  to a new input file (in previous versions of flex, after doing the
	      assignment you had to call the special action YY_NEW_FILE; this is no longer neces-

       -      executing a return statement;

       -      executing the special yyterminate() action;

       -      or,  switching  to a new buffer using yy_switch_to_buffer() as shown in the example

       <<EOF>> rules may not be used with other patterns; they may only be qualified with a  list
       of  start  conditions.	If  an unqualified <<EOF>> rule is given, it applies to all start
       conditions which do not already have <<EOF>> actions.  To specify an <<EOF>> rule for only
       the initial start condition, use


       These rules are useful for catching things like unclosed comments.  An example:

	   %x quote

	   ...other rules for dealing with quotes...

	   <quote><<EOF>>   {
		    error( "unterminated quote" );
	   <<EOF>>  {
		    if ( *++filelist )
			yyin = fopen( *filelist, "r" );

       The  macro  YY_USER_ACTION  can	be  defined to provide an action which is always executed
       prior to the matched rule's action.  For example, it could be #define'd to call a  routine
       to  convert  yytext  to	lower-case.   When YY_USER_ACTION is invoked, the variable yy_act
       gives the number of the matched rule (rules are numbered starting with  1).   Suppose  you
       want  to  profile  how  often  each  of your rules is matched.  The following would do the

	   #define YY_USER_ACTION ++ctr[yy_act]

       where ctr is an array to hold the counts for the different rules.   Note  that  the  macro
       YY_NUM_RULES  gives the total number of rules (including the default rule, even if you use
       -s), so a correct declaration for ctr is:

	   int ctr[YY_NUM_RULES];

       The macro YY_USER_INIT may be defined to provide an action which is always executed before
       the first scan (and before the scanner's internal initializations are done).  For example,
       it could be used to call a routine to read in a data table or open a logging file.

       The macro yy_set_interactive(is_interactive) can be used to control  whether  the  current
       buffer  is  considered  interactive.   An interactive buffer is processed more slowly, but
       must be used when the scanner's input source is indeed interactive to avoid  problems  due
       to waiting to fill buffers (see the discussion of the -I flag below).  A non-zero value in
       the macro invocation marks the buffer as interactive, a	zero  value  as  non-interactive.
       Note that use of this macro overrides %option always-interactive or %option never-interac-
       tive (see Options below).  yy_set_interactive() must be invoked prior to beginning to scan
       the buffer that is (or is not) to be considered interactive.

       The  macro yy_set_bol(at_bol) can be used to control whether the current buffer's scanning
       context for the next token match is done as though at the beginning of a line.  A non-zero
       macro argument makes rules anchored with

       The  macro YY_AT_BOL() returns true if the next token scanned from the current buffer will
       have '^' rules active, false otherwise.

       In the generated scanner, the actions are all gathered in one large switch  statement  and
       separated  using YY_BREAK, which may be redefined.  By default, it is simply a "break", to
       separate each rule's action from the following rule's.  Redefining  YY_BREAK  allows,  for
       example,  C++ users to #define YY_BREAK to do nothing (while being very careful that every
       rule ends with a "break" or a "return"!) to avoid  suffering  from  unreachable	statement
       warnings where because a rule's action ends with "return", the YY_BREAK is inaccessible.

       This section summarizes the various values available to the user in the rule actions.

       -      char  *yytext  holds  the  text  of  the current token.  It may be modified but not
	      lengthened (you cannot append characters to the end).

	      If the special directive %array  appears	in  the  first	section  of  the  scanner
	      description, then yytext is instead declared char yytext[YYLMAX], where YYLMAX is a
	      macro definition that you can redefine in the first section if you don't	like  the
	      default  value  (generally 8KB).	Using %array results in somewhat slower scanners,
	      but the value of yytext becomes immune to  calls	to  input()  and  unput(),  which
	      potentially  destroy its value when yytext is a character pointer.  The opposite of
	      %array is %pointer, which is the default.

	      You cannot use %array when generating C++ scanner classes (the -+ flag).

       -      int yyleng holds the length of the current token.

       -      FILE *yyin is the file which by default flex reads from.	It may be  redefined  but
	      doing  so  only makes sense before scanning begins or after an EOF has been encoun-
	      tered.  Changing it in the midst of scanning will  have  unexpected  results  since
	      flex  buffers its input; use yyrestart() instead.  Once scanning terminates because
	      an end-of-file has been seen, you can assign yyin at the new input  file	and  then
	      call the scanner again to continue scanning.

       -      void yyrestart( FILE *new_file ) may be called to point yyin at the new input file.
	      The switch-over to the new file is immediate (any previously buffered-up	input  is
	      lost).  Note that calling yyrestart() with yyin as an argument thus throws away the
	      current input buffer and continues scanning the same input file.

       -      FILE *yyout is the file to which ECHO actions are done.  It can  be  reassigned  by
	      the user.

       -      YY_CURRENT_BUFFER returns a YY_BUFFER_STATE handle to the current buffer.

       -      YY_START	returns  an  integer  value corresponding to the current start condition.
	      You can subsequently use this value with BEGIN to return to that start condition.

       One of the main uses of flex is as a companion to the yacc parser-generator.  yacc parsers
       expect  to call a routine named yylex() to find the next input token.  The routine is sup-
       posed to return the type of the next token as well as putting any associated value in  the
       global  yylval.	To use flex with yacc, one specifies the -d option to yacc to instruct it
       to generate the file y.tab.h containing definitions of all the %tokens  appearing  in  the
       yacc  input.   This file is then included in the flex scanner.  For example, if one of the
       tokens is "TOK_NUMBER", part of the scanner might look like:

	   #include "y.tab.h"


	   [0-9]+	 yylval = atoi( yytext ); return TOK_NUMBER;

       flex has the following options:

       -b     Generate backing-up information to lex.backup.  This is a list  of  scanner  states
	      which  require  backing up and the input characters on which they do so.	By adding
	      rules one can remove backing-up states.  If all backing-up  states  are  eliminated
	      and  -Cf	or  -CF is used, the generated scanner will run faster (see the -p flag).
	      Only users who wish to squeeze every last cycle out of their  scanners  need  worry
	      about this option.  (See the section on Performance Considerations below.)

       -c     is a do-nothing, deprecated option included for POSIX compliance.

       -d     makes  the  generated  scanner run in debug mode.  Whenever a pattern is recognized
	      and the global yy_flex_debug is non-zero (which is the default), the  scanner  will
	      write to stderr a line of the form:

		  --accepting rule at line 53 ("the matched text")

	      The line number refers to the location of the rule in the file defining the scanner
	      (i.e., the file that was fed to flex).  Messages are also generated when the  scan-
	      ner  backs  up,  accepts	the default rule, reaches the end of its input buffer (or
	      encounters a NUL; at this point, the two look the same as far as the scanner's con-
	      cerned), or reaches an end-of-file.

       -f     specifies  fast  scanner.  No table compression is done and stdio is bypassed.  The
	      result is large but fast.  This option is equivalent to -Cfr (see below).

       -h     generates a "help" summary of flex's options to stdout and  then	exits.	 -?   and
	      --help are synonyms for -h.

       -i     instructs  flex  to generate a case-insensitive scanner.	The case of letters given
	      in the flex input patterns will be ignored, and tokens in the input will be matched
	      regardless  of case.  The matched text given in yytext will have the preserved case
	      (i.e., it will not be folded).

       -l     turns on maximum compatibility with the original	AT&T  lex  implementation.   Note
	      that  this  does not mean full compatibility.  Use of this option costs a consider-
	      able amount of performance, and it cannot be used with the -+, -f, -F, -Cf, or  -CF
	      options.	 For  details on the compatibilities it provides, see the section "Incom-
	      patibilities With Lex And POSIX" below.  This  option  also  results  in	the  name
	      YY_FLEX_LEX_COMPAT being #define'd in the generated scanner.

       -n     is another do-nothing, deprecated option included only for POSIX compliance.

       -p     generates  a performance report to stderr.  The report consists of comments regard-
	      ing features of the flex input file which will cause a serious loss of  performance
	      in  the  resulting scanner.  If you give the flag twice, you will also get comments
	      regarding features that lead to minor performance losses.

	      Note that the use of REJECT, %option yylineno, and variable trailing  context  (see
	      the  Deficiencies  / Bugs section below) entails a substantial performance penalty;
	      use of yymore(), the ^ operator, and the -I flag entail  minor  performance  penal-

       -s     causes  the  default  rule (that unmatched scanner input is echoed to stdout) to be
	      suppressed.  If the scanner encounters input that does not match any of its  rules,
	      it  aborts  with	an error.  This option is useful for finding holes in a scanner's
	      rule set.

       -t     instructs flex to write the scanner it generates	to  standard  output  instead  of

       -v     specifies  that  flex  should write to stderr a summary of statistics regarding the
	      scanner it generates.  Most of the statistics are meaningless to	the  casual  flex
	      user,  but  the first line identifies the version of flex (same as reported by -V),
	      and the next line the flags used when generating the scanner, including those  that
	      are on by default.

       -w     suppresses warning messages.

       -B     instructs  flex  to  generate a batch scanner, the opposite of interactive scanners
	      generated by -I (see below).  In general, you use -B when you are certain that your
	      scanner  will  never  be	used interactively, and you want to squeeze a little more
	      performance out of it.  If your goal is instead to squeeze out a lot  more  perfor-
	      mance, you should  be using the -Cf or -CF options (discussed below), which turn on
	      -B automatically anyway.

       -F     specifies that the fast scanner table representation  should  be	used  (and  stdio
	      bypassed).   This  representation is about as fast as the full table representation
	      (-f), and for some sets of patterns will be considerably smaller (and  for  others,
	      larger).	 In general, if the pattern set contains both "keywords" and a catch-all,
	      "identifier" rule, such as in the set:

		  "case"    return TOK_CASE;
		  "switch"  return TOK_SWITCH;
		  "default" return TOK_DEFAULT;
		  [a-z]+    return TOK_ID;

	      then you're better off using the full table representation.  If only  the  "identi-
	      fier" rule is present and you then use a hash table or some such to detect the key-
	      words, you're better off using -F.

	      This option is equivalent to -CFr (see below).  It cannot be used with -+.

       -I     instructs flex to generate an interactive scanner.  An interactive scanner  is  one
	      that  only looks ahead to decide what token has been matched if it absolutely must.
	      It turns out that always looking one extra character ahead, even if the scanner has
	      already  seen  enough  text to disambiguate the current token, is a bit faster than
	      only looking ahead when necessary.  But scanners that always look ahead give dread-
	      ful  interactive	performance;  for example, when a user types a newline, it is not
	      recognized as a newline token until they enter another  token,  which  often  means
	      typing in another whole line.

	      Flex  scanners  default to interactive unless you use the -Cf or -CF table-compres-
	      sion options (see below).  That's because if you're  looking  for  high-performance
	      you  should  be  using  one  of these options, so if you didn't, flex assumes you'd
	      rather trade off a bit of run-time performance for intuitive interactive	behavior.
	      Note also that you cannot use -I in conjunction with -Cf or -CF.	Thus, this option
	      is not really needed; it is on by default for  all  those  cases	in  which  it  is

	      You can force a scanner to not be interactive by using -B (see above).

       -L     instructs flex not to generate #line directives.	Without this option, flex peppers
	      the generated scanner with #line directives so error messages in the  actions  will
	      be  correctly  located  with respect to either the original flex input file (if the
	      errors are due to code in the input file), or lex.yy.c (if the  errors  are  flex's
	      fault -- you should report these sorts of errors to the email address given below).

       -T     makes  flex  run	in trace mode.	It will generate a lot of messages to stderr con-
	      cerning the form of the input and the resultant non-deterministic and deterministic
	      finite automata.	This option is mostly for use in maintaining flex.

       -V     prints the version number to stdout and exits.  --version is a synonym for -V.

       -7     instructs  flex  to  generate  a 7-bit scanner, i.e., one which can only recognized
	      7-bit characters in its input.  The advantage of using -7  is  that  the	scanner's
	      tables  can  be  up  to  half  the size of those generated using the -8 option (see
	      below).  The disadvantage is that such scanners often hang or crash if their  input
	      contains an 8-bit character.

	      Note,  however,  that  unless  you generate your scanner using the -Cf or -CF table
	      compression options, use of -7 will save only a small amount of  table  space,  and
	      make your scanner considerably less portable.  Flex's default behavior is to gener-
	      ate an 8-bit scanner unless you use the -Cf or -CF, in which case flex defaults  to
	      generating  7-bit scanners unless your site was always configured to generate 8-bit
	      scanners (as will often be the case with non-USA sites).	You can tell whether flex
	      generated a 7-bit or an 8-bit scanner by inspecting the flag summary in the -v out-
	      put as described above.

	      Note that if you use -Cfe or -CFe (those table compression options, but also  using
	      equivalence  classes  as discussed see below), flex still defaults to generating an
	      8-bit scanner, since usually with these compression options full 8-bit  tables  are
	      not much more expensive than 7-bit tables.

       -8     instructs  flex  to  generate an 8-bit scanner, i.e., one which can recognize 8-bit
	      characters.  This flag is only needed for scanners generated using -Cf or  -CF,  as
	      otherwise flex defaults to generating an 8-bit scanner anyway.

	      See  the	discussion  of	-7  above  for	flex's default behavior and the tradeoffs
	      between 7-bit and 8-bit scanners.

       -+     specifies that you want flex to generate a C++ scanner class.  See the  section  on
	      Generating C++ Scanners below for details.

	      controls	the  degree  of table compression and, more generally, trade-offs between
	      small scanners and fast scanners.

	      -Ca ("align") instructs flex to trade off larger tables in  the  generated  scanner
	      for  faster  performance	because the elements of the tables are better aligned for
	      memory access and computation.  On some RISC architectures, fetching and manipulat-
	      ing  longwords  is more efficient than with smaller-sized units such as shortwords.
	      This option can double the size of the tables used by your scanner.

	      -Ce directs flex to construct equivalence classes, i.e., sets of	characters  which
	      have identical lexical properties (for example, if the only appearance of digits in
	      the flex input is in the character class "[0-9]" then the digits '0', '1', ..., '9'
	      will  all  be put in the same equivalence class).  Equivalence classes usually give
	      dramatic reductions in the final table/object file sizes	(typically  a  factor  of
	      2-5)  and  are  pretty  cheap  performance-wise  (one  array  look-up per character

	      -Cf specifies that the full scanner tables should be generated -	flex  should  not
	      compress	the  tables by taking advantages of similar transition functions for dif-
	      ferent states.

	      -CF specifies that the alternate fast scanner representation (described above under
	      the -F flag) should be used.  This option cannot be used with -+.

	      -Cm  directs  flex to construct meta-equivalence classes, which are sets of equiva-
	      lence classes (or characters, if equivalence classes are not being used)	that  are
	      commonly	used  together.   Meta-equivalence classes are often a big win when using
	      compressed tables, but they have a moderate performance impact  (one  or	two  "if"
	      tests and one array look-up per character scanned).

	      -Cr  causes the generated scanner to bypass use of the standard I/O library (stdio)
	      for input.  Instead of calling fread() or getc(), the scanner will use  the  read()
	      system  call,  resulting	in a performance gain which varies from system to system,
	      but in general is probably negligible unless you are also using -Cf or -CF.   Using
	      -Cr  can	cause  strange	behavior  if, for example, you read from yyin using stdio
	      prior to calling the scanner (because the scanner will miss whatever text your pre-
	      vious reads left in the stdio input buffer).

	      -Cr has no effect if you define YY_INPUT (see The Generated Scanner above).

	      A lone -C specifies that the scanner tables should be compressed but neither equiv-
	      alence classes nor meta-equivalence classes should be used.

	      The options -Cf or -CF and -Cm do not make sense together - there is no opportunity
	      for  meta-equivalence  classes if the table is not being compressed.  Otherwise the
	      options may be freely mixed, and are cumulative.

	      The default setting is -Cem, which specifies that flex should generate  equivalence
	      classes  and meta-equivalence classes.  This setting provides the highest degree of
	      table compression.  You can trade off faster-executing  scanners	at  the  cost  of
	      larger tables with the following generally being true:

		  slowest & smallest
		  fastest & largest

	      Note  that scanners with the smallest tables are usually generated and compiled the
	      quickest, so during development you will usually want to use the	default,  maximal

	      -Cfe is often a good compromise between speed and size for production scanners.

	      directs  flex  to write the scanner to the file output instead of lex.yy.c.  If you
	      combine -o with the -t option, then the scanner is written to stdout but its  #line
	      directives (see the -L option above) refer to the file output.

	      changes  the  default  yy prefix used by flex for all globally-visible variable and
	      function names to instead be prefix.  For example, -Pfoo changes the name of yytext
	      to  footext.   It also changes the name of the default output file from lex.yy.c to
	      lex.foo.c.  Here are all of the names affected:


	      (If you are using a C++ scanner, then only yywrap and  yyFlexLexer  are  affected.)
	      Within  your  scanner itself, you can still refer to the global variables and func-
	      tions using either version of their name; but externally, they  have  the  modified

	      This option lets you easily link together multiple flex programs into the same exe-
	      cutable.	Note, though, that using this option also renames yywrap(),  so  you  now
	      must  either provide your own (appropriately-named) version of the routine for your
	      scanner, or use %option noyywrap, as linking with -lfl no longer provides  one  for
	      you by default.

	      overrides  the  default  skeleton  file  from  which  flex constructs its scanners.
	      You'll never need this option unless you are doing flex maintenance or development.

       flex also provides a mechanism for controlling options within  the  scanner  specification
       itself,	rather than from the flex command-line.  This is done by including %option direc-
       tives in the first section of the scanner specification.  You can specify multiple options
       with a single %option directive, and multiple directives in the first section of your flex
       input file.

       Most options are given simply as names, optionally preceded by  the  word  "no"	(with  no
       intervening whitespace) to negate their meaning.  A number are equivalent to flex flags or
       their negation:

	   7bit 	   -7 option
	   8bit 	   -8 option
	   align	   -Ca option
	   backup	   -b option
	   batch	   -B option
	   c++		   -+ option

	   caseful or
	   case-sensitive  opposite of -i (default)

	   case-insensitive or
	   caseless	   -i option

	   debug	   -d option
	   default	   opposite of -s option
	   ecs		   -Ce option
	   fast 	   -F option
	   full 	   -f option
	   interactive	   -I option
	   lex-compat	   -l option
	   meta-ecs	   -Cm option
	   perf-report	   -p option
	   read 	   -Cr option
	   stdout	   -t option
	   verbose	   -v option
	   warn 	   opposite of -w option
			   (use "%option nowarn" for -w)

	   array	   equivalent to "%array"
	   pointer	   equivalent to "%pointer" (default)

       Some %option's provide features otherwise not available:

	      instructs flex to generate a scanner which always  considers  its  input	"interac-
	      tive".   Normally,  on each new input file the scanner calls isatty() in an attempt
	      to determine whether the scanner's input source is interactive and thus  should  be
	      read  a  character at a time.  When this option is used, however, then no such call
	      is made.

       main   directs flex to provide a default main() program	for  the  scanner,  which  simply
	      calls yylex().  This option implies noyywrap (see below).

	      instructs  flex to generate a scanner which never considers its input "interactive"
	      (again, no call made to isatty()).  This is the opposite of always-interactive.

       stack  enables the use of start condition stacks (see Start Conditions above).

	      if set (i.e., %option stdinit) initializes yyin and  yyout  to  stdin  and  stdout,
	      instead of the default of nil.  Some existing lex programs depend on this behavior,
	      even though it is not compliant with ANSI C, which does not require stdin and  std-
	      out to be compile-time constant.

	      directs  flex  to  generate a scanner that maintains the number of the current line
	      read from its input in the global variable yylineno.  This  option  is  implied  by
	      %option lex-compat.

       yywrap if unset (i.e., %option noyywrap), makes the scanner not call yywrap() upon an end-
	      of-file, but simply assume that there are no more files to  scan	(until	the  user
	      points yyin at a new file and calls yylex() again).

       flex scans your rule actions to determine whether you use the REJECT or yymore() features.
       The reject and yymore options are available to override its decision as to whether you use
       the  options,  either  by  setting  them (e.g., %option reject) to indicate the feature is
       indeed used, or unsetting them to indicate it actually is not used  (e.g.,  %option  noyy-

       Three options take string-delimited values, offset with '=':

	   %option outfile="ABC"

       is equivalent to -oABC, and

	   %option prefix="XYZ"

       is equivalent to -PXYZ.	Finally,

	   %option yyclass="foo"

       only  applies  when  generating a C++ scanner ( -+ option).  It informs flex that you have
       derived foo as a subclass of yyFlexLexer, so flex will place your actions  in  the  member
       function   foo::yylex()	 instead   of	yyFlexLexer::yylex().	 It   also   generates	a
       yyFlexLexer::yylex()  member  function  that  emits  a	run-time   error   (by	 invoking
       yyFlexLexer::LexerError())  if called.  See Generating C++ Scanners, below, for additional

       A number of options are available for lint purists who want to suppress the appearance  of
       unneeded  routines  in  the  generated  scanner.   Each	of the following, if unset (e.g.,
       %option nounput ), results in the corresponding routine not  appearing  in  the	generated

	   input, unput
	   yy_push_state, yy_pop_state, yy_top_state
	   yy_scan_buffer, yy_scan_bytes, yy_scan_string

       (though yy_push_state() and friends won't appear anyway unless you use %option stack).

       The  main  design goal of flex is that it generate high-performance scanners.  It has been
       optimized for dealing well with large sets of rules.  Aside from the  effects  on  scanner
       speed  of  the  table  compression  -C  options	outlined  above,  there  are  a number of
       options/actions which degrade performance.  These are, from most expensive to least:

	   %option yylineno
	   arbitrary trailing context

	   pattern sets that require backing up
	   %option interactive
	   %option always-interactive

	   '^' beginning-of-line operator

       with the first three all being quite expensive and the last two being quite  cheap.   Note
       also  that  unput()  is implemented as a routine call that potentially does quite a bit of
       work, while yyless() is a quite-cheap macro; so if just putting back some excess text  you
       scanned, use yyless().

       REJECT should be avoided at all costs when performance is important.  It is a particularly
       expensive option.

       Getting rid of backing up is messy and often may be an enormous amount of work for a  com-
       plicated  scanner.  In principal, one begins by using the -b flag to generate a lex.backup
       file.  For example, on the input

	   foo	      return TOK_KEYWORD;
	   foobar     return TOK_KEYWORD;

       the file looks like:

	   State #6 is non-accepting -
	    associated rule line numbers:
		  2	  3
	    out-transitions: [ o ]
	    jam-transitions: EOF [ \001-n  p-\177 ]

	   State #8 is non-accepting -
	    associated rule line numbers:
	    out-transitions: [ a ]
	    jam-transitions: EOF [ \001-`  b-\177 ]

	   State #9 is non-accepting -
	    associated rule line numbers:
	    out-transitions: [ r ]
	    jam-transitions: EOF [ \001-q  s-\177 ]

	   Compressed tables always back up.

       The first few lines tell us that there's a scanner state in which it can make a transition
       on  an  'o'  but  not on any other character, and that in that state the currently scanned
       text does not match any rule.  The state occurs when trying to match the  rules	found  at
       lines 2 and 3 in the input file.  If the scanner is in that state and then reads something
       other than an 'o', it will have to back up to find a rule which is matched.  With a bit of
       headscratching  one  can  see  that  this must be the state it's in when it has seen "fo".
       When this has happened, if anything other than another 'o' is seen, the scanner will  have
       to back up to simply match the 'f' (by the default rule).

       The  comment  regarding State #8 indicates there's a problem when "foob" has been scanned.
       Indeed, on any character other than an 'a', the scanner will have to  back  up  to  accept
       "foo".	Similarly, the comment for State #9 concerns when "fooba" has been scanned and an
       'r' does not follow.

       The final comment reminds us that there's no point going to all the  trouble  of  removing
       backing up from the rules unless we're using -Cf or -CF, since there's no performance gain
       doing so with compressed scanners.

       The way to remove the backing up is to add "error" rules:

	   foo	       return TOK_KEYWORD;
	   foobar      return TOK_KEYWORD;

	   fooba       |
	   foob        |
	   fo	       {
		       /* false alarm, not really a keyword */
		       return TOK_ID;

       Eliminating backing up among a list of keywords can also be done using a "catch-all" rule:

	   foo	       return TOK_KEYWORD;
	   foobar      return TOK_KEYWORD;

	   [a-z]+      return TOK_ID;

       This is usually the best solution when appropriate.

       Backing up messages tend to cascade.  With a complicated set of rules it's not uncommon to
       get  hundreds  of messages.  If one can decipher them, though, it often only takes a dozen
       or so rules to eliminate the backing up (though it's easy to make a mistake  and  have  an
       error  rule  accidentally  match a valid token.	A possible future flex feature will be to
       automatically add rules to eliminate backing up).

       It's important to keep in mind that you gain the benefits of eliminating backing  up  only
       if you eliminate every instance of backing up.  Leaving just one means you gain nothing.

       Variable  trailing  context (where both the leading and trailing parts do not have a fixed
       length) entails almost the same performance loss as REJECT (i.e., substantial).	 So  when
       possible a rule like:

	   mouse|rat/(cat|dog)	 run();

       is better written:

	   mouse/cat|dog	 run();
	   rat/cat|dog		 run();

       or as

	   mouse|rat/cat	 run();
	   mouse|rat/dog	 run();

       Note  that  here  the  special  '|' action does not provide any savings, and can even make
       things worse (see Deficiencies / Bugs below).

       Another area where the user can increase a scanner's performance (and one that's easier to
       implement) arises from the fact that the longer the tokens matched, the faster the scanner
       will run.  This is because with long tokens the processing of most input characters  takes
       place  in the (short) inner scanning loop, and does not often have to go through the addi-
       tional work of setting up the scanning environment (e.g., yytext) for the action.   Recall
       the scanner for C comments:

	   %x comment
		   int line_num = 1;

	   "/*" 	BEGIN(comment);

	   <comment>\n		   ++line_num;
	   <comment>"*"+"/"	   BEGIN(INITIAL);

       This could be sped up by writing it as:

	   %x comment
		   int line_num = 1;

	   "/*" 	BEGIN(comment);

	   <comment>[^*\n]*\n	   ++line_num;
	   <comment>"*"+[^*/\n]*\n ++line_num;
	   <comment>"*"+"/"	   BEGIN(INITIAL);

       Now  instead  of  each newline requiring the processing of another action, recognizing the
       newlines is "distributed" over the other rules to keep the matched text as long as  possi-
       ble.   Note that adding rules does not slow down the scanner!  The speed of the scanner is
       independent of the number of rules or (modulo the considerations given at the beginning of
       this section) how complicated the rules are with regard to operators such as '*' and '|'.

       A final example in speeding up a scanner: suppose you want to scan through a file contain-
       ing identifiers and keywords, one per line and with no other  extraneous  characters,  and
       recognize all the keywords.  A natural first approach is:

	   asm	    |
	   auto     |
	   break    |
	   ... etc ...
	   volatile |
	   while    /* it's a keyword */

	   .|\n     /* it's not a keyword */

       To eliminate the back-tracking, introduce a catch-all rule:

	   asm	    |
	   auto     |
	   break    |
	   ... etc ...
	   volatile |
	   while    /* it's a keyword */

	   [a-z]+   |
	   .|\n     /* it's not a keyword */

       Now,  if  it's  guaranteed  that there's exactly one word per line, then we can reduce the
       total number of matches by a half by merging in the recognition of newlines with  that  of
       the other tokens:

	   asm\n    |
	   auto\n   |
	   break\n  |
	   ... etc ...
	   volatile\n |
	   while\n  /* it's a keyword */

	   [a-z]+\n |
	   .|\n     /* it's not a keyword */

       One  has  to be careful here, as we have now reintroduced backing up into the scanner.  In
       particular, while we know that there will never be any  characters  in  the  input  stream
       other  than letters or newlines, flex can't figure this out, and it will plan for possibly
       needing to back up when it has scanned a token like "auto" and then the next character  is
       something  other  than  a  newline  or  a letter.  Previously it would then just match the
       "auto" rule and be done, but now it has no "auto" rule, only a "auto\n" rule.   To  elimi-
       nate  the possibility of backing up, we could either duplicate all rules but without final
       newlines, or, since we never expect to encounter such an input  and  therefore  don't  how
       it's  classified, we can introduce one more catch-all rule, this one which doesn't include
       a newline:

	   asm\n    |
	   auto\n   |
	   break\n  |
	   ... etc ...
	   volatile\n |
	   while\n  /* it's a keyword */

	   [a-z]+\n |
	   [a-z]+   |
	   .|\n     /* it's not a keyword */

       Compiled with -Cf, this is about as fast as one can get a flex scanner to go for this par-
       ticular problem.

       A  final note: flex is slow when matching NUL's, particularly when a token contains multi-
       ple NUL's.  It's best to write rules which match short amounts of text if it's anticipated
       that the text will often include NUL's.

       Another	final note regarding performance: as mentioned above in the section How the Input
       is Matched, dynamically resizing yytext to accommodate  huge  tokens  is  a  slow  process
       because it presently requires that the (huge) token be rescanned from the beginning.  Thus
       if performance is vital, you should attempt to match "large" quantities of  text  but  not
       "huge" quantities, where the cutoff between the two is at about 8K characters/token.

       flex  provides two different ways to generate scanners for use with C++.  The first way is
       to simply compile a scanner generated by flex using a C++ compiler instead  of  a  C  com-
       piler.	You  should  not encounter any compilations errors (please report any you find to
       the email address given in the Author section below).  You can then use C++ code  in  your
       rule  actions  instead  of  C  code.   Note that the default input source for your scanner
       remains yyin, and default echoing is still done to yyout.  Both of  these  remain  FILE	*
       variables and not C++ streams.

       You  can  also  use flex to generate a C++ scanner class, using the -+ option (or, equiva-
       lently, %option c++), which is automatically specified if the name of the flex  executable
       ends  in  a  '+', such as flex++.  When using this option, flex defaults to generating the
       scanner to the file lex.yy.cc instead of lex.yy.c.  The	generated  scanner  includes  the
       header file FlexLexer.h, which defines the interface to two C++ classes.

       The  first  class, FlexLexer, provides an abstract base class defining the general scanner
       class interface.  It provides the following member functions:

       const char* YYText()
	      returns the text of the most recently matched token, the equivalent of yytext.

       int YYLeng()
	      returns the length of the most recently matched token, the equivalent of yyleng.

       int lineno() const
	      returns the current input line number (see %option yylineno), or 1 if %option yyli-
	      neno was not used.

       void set_debug( int flag )
	      sets  the  debugging flag for the scanner, equivalent to assigning to yy_flex_debug
	      (see the Options section above).	Note  that  you  must  build  the  scanner  using
	      %option debug to include debugging information in it.

       int debug() const
	      returns the current setting of the debugging flag.

       Also provided are member functions equivalent to yy_switch_to_buffer(), yy_create_buffer()
       (though the first argument is an istream* object pointer and not a  FILE*),  yy_flush_buf-
       fer(), yy_delete_buffer(), and yyrestart() (again, the first argument is a istream* object

       The second class defined in FlexLexer.h is yyFlexLexer, which is derived  from  FlexLexer.
       It defines the following additional member functions:

       yyFlexLexer( istream* arg_yyin = 0, ostream* arg_yyout = 0 )
	      constructs  a  yyFlexLexer object using the given streams for input and output.  If
	      not specified, the streams default to cin and cout, respectively.

       virtual int yylex()
	      performs the same role is yylex() does for ordinary flex	scanners:  it  scans  the
	      input  stream,  consuming  tokens,  until  a rule's action returns a value.  If you
	      derive a subclass S from yyFlexLexer and want to access the  member  functions  and
	      variables  of  S inside yylex(), then you need to use %option yyclass="S" to inform
	      flex that you will be using that subclass instead of yyFlexLexer.   In  this  case,
	      rather  than  generating	yyFlexLexer::yylex(), flex generates S::yylex() (and also
	      generates a dummy  yyFlexLexer::yylex()  that  calls  yyFlexLexer::LexerError()  if

       virtual void switch_streams(istream* new_in = 0,
	      ostream*	new_out  =  0) reassigns yyin to new_in (if non-nil) and yyout to new_out
	      (ditto), deleting the previous input buffer if yyin is reassigned.

       int yylex( istream* new_in, ostream* new_out = 0 )
	      first switches the input streams via switch_streams( new_in,  new_out  )	and  then
	      returns the value of yylex().

       In  addition,  yyFlexLexer defines the following protected virtual functions which you can
       redefine in derived classes to tailor the scanner:

       virtual int LexerInput( char* buf, int max_size )
	      reads up to max_size characters into buf and returns the number of characters read.
	      To  indicate  end-of-input,  return 0 characters.  Note that "interactive" scanners
	      (see the -B and -I flags) define the macro YY_INTERACTIVE.  If  you  redefine  Lex-
	      erInput()  and need to take different actions depending on whether or not the scan-
	      ner might be scanning an interactive input source, you can test for the presence of
	      this name via #ifdef.

       virtual void LexerOutput( const char* buf, int size )
	      writes  out  size  characters from the buffer buf, which, while NUL-terminated, may
	      also contain "internal" NUL's if the scanner's rules can match text with	NUL's  in

       virtual void LexerError( const char* msg )
	      reports  a  fatal  error	message.  The default version of this function writes the
	      message to the stream cerr and exits.

       Note that a yyFlexLexer object contains its entire scanning state.  Thus you can use  such
       objects	to create reentrant scanners.  You can instantiate multiple instances of the same
       yyFlexLexer class, and you can also combine multiple C++ scanner classes together  in  the
       same program using the -P option discussed above.

       Finally,  note  that  the %array feature is not available to C++ scanner classes; you must
       use %pointer (the default).

       Here is an example of a simple C++ scanner:

	       // An example of using the flex C++ scanner class.

	   int mylineno = 0;

	   string  \"[^\n"]+\"

	   ws	   [ \t]+

	   alpha   [A-Za-z]
	   dig	   [0-9]
	   name    ({alpha}|{dig}|\$)({alpha}|{dig}|[_.\-/$])*
	   num1    [-+]?{dig}+\.?([eE][-+]?{dig}+)?
	   num2    [-+]?{dig}*\.{dig}+([eE][-+]?{dig}+)?
	   number  {num1}|{num2}


	   {ws}    /* skip blanks and tabs */

	   "/*"    {
		   int c;

		   while((c = yyinput()) != 0)
		       if(c == '\n')

		       else if(c == '*')
			   if((c = yyinput()) == '/')

	   {number}  cout << "number " << YYText() << '\n';

	   \n	     mylineno++;

	   {name}    cout << "name " << YYText() << '\n';

	   {string}  cout << "string " << YYText() << '\n';


	   int main( int /* argc */, char** /* argv */ )
	       FlexLexer* lexer = new yyFlexLexer;
	       while(lexer->yylex() != 0)
	       return 0;
       If you want to create multiple (different) lexer classes, you use the -P flag (or the pre-
       fix=  option)  to rename each yyFlexLexer to some other xxFlexLexer.  You then can include
       <FlexLexer.h> in your other sources once per lexer class, first	renaming  yyFlexLexer  as

	   #undef yyFlexLexer
	   #define yyFlexLexer xxFlexLexer
	   #include <FlexLexer.h>

	   #undef yyFlexLexer
	   #define yyFlexLexer zzFlexLexer
	   #include <FlexLexer.h>

       if,  for  example,  you used %option prefix="xx" for one of your scanners and %option pre-
       fix="zz" for the other.

       IMPORTANT: the present form of the scanning class is experimental and may change consider-
       ably between major releases.

       flex  is  a  rewrite  of  the AT&T Unix lex tool (the two implementations do not share any
       code, though), with some extensions and incompatibilities, both of which are of concern to
       those  who wish to write scanners acceptable to either implementation.  Flex is fully com-
       pliant with the POSIX lex specification, except that when using %pointer (the default),	a
       call  to unput() destroys the contents of yytext, which is counter to the POSIX specifica-

       In this section we discuss all of the known areas of incompatibility  between  flex,  AT&T
       lex, and the POSIX specification.

       flex's -l option turns on maximum compatibility with the original AT&T lex implementation,
       at the cost of a major loss in the generated scanner's performance.  We note  below  which
       incompatibilities can be overcome using the -l option.

       flex is fully compatible with lex with the following exceptions:

       -      The  undocumented lex scanner internal variable yylineno is not supported unless -l
	      or %option yylineno is used.

	      yylineno should be maintained on a per-buffer  basis,  rather  than  a  per-scanner
	      (single global variable) basis.

	      yylineno is not part of the POSIX specification.

       -      The  input() routine is not redefinable, though it may be called to read characters
	      following whatever has been matched by a rule.  If input()  encounters  an  end-of-
	      file the normal yywrap() processing is done.  A ``real'' end-of-file is returned by
	      input() as EOF.

	      Input is instead controlled by defining the YY_INPUT macro.

	      The flex restriction that input() cannot be redefined is	in  accordance	with  the
	      POSIX specification, which simply does not specify any way of controlling the scan-
	      ner's input other than by making an initial assignment to yyin.

       -      The unput() routine is not redefinable.  This restriction  is  in  accordance  with

       -      flex  scanners are not as reentrant as lex scanners.  In particular, if you have an
	      interactive scanner and an interrupt handler which long-jumps out of  the  scanner,
	      and the scanner is subsequently called again, you may get the following message:

		  fatal flex scanner internal error--end of buffer missed

	      To reenter the scanner, first use

		  yyrestart( yyin );

	      Note  that this call will throw away any buffered input; usually this isn't a prob-
	      lem with an interactive scanner.

	      Also note that flex C++ scanner classes are reentrant, so if using C++ is an option
	      for  you,  you  should  use  them instead.  See "Generating C++ Scanners" above for

       -      output() is not supported.  Output from the ECHO macro is done to the  file-pointer
	      yyout (default stdout).

	      output() is not part of the POSIX specification.

       -      lex  does not support exclusive start conditions (%x), though they are in the POSIX

       -      When definitions are expanded, flex encloses them in parentheses.   With	lex,  the

		  NAME	  [A-Z][A-Z0-9]*
		  foo{NAME}?	  printf( "Found it\n" );

	      will  not  match	the  string  "foo" because when the macro is expanded the rule is
	      equivalent to "foo[A-Z][A-Z0-9]*?"  and the precedence is  such  that  the  '?'  is
	      associated with "[A-Z0-9]*".  With flex, the rule will be expanded to "foo([A-Z][A-
	      Z0-9]*)?" and so the string "foo" will match.

	      Note that if the definition begins with ^ or ends with $ then it	is  not  expanded
	      with  parentheses, to allow these operators to appear in definitions without losing
	      their special meanings.  But the <s>, /, and <<EOF>> operators cannot be used in	a
	      flex definition.

	      Using -l results in the lex behavior of no parentheses around the definition.

	      The POSIX specification is that the definition be enclosed in parentheses.

       -      Some  implementations  of lex allow a rule's action to begin on a separate line, if
	      the rule's pattern has trailing whitespace:

		  foo|bar<space here>
		    { foobar_action(); }

	      flex does not support this feature.

       -      The lex %r (generate a Ratfor scanner) option is not supported.  It is not part  of
	      the POSIX specification.

       -      After  a	call  to  unput(),  yytext  is undefined until the next token is matched,
	      unless the scanner was built using %array.  This is not the case with  lex  or  the
	      POSIX specification.  The -l option does away with this incompatibility.

       -      The  precedence  of  the	{} (numeric range) operator is different.  lex interprets
	      "abc{1,3}" as "match one, two, or three occurrences of 'abc'", whereas flex  inter-
	      prets  it  as  "match 'ab' followed by one, two, or three occurrences of 'c'".  The
	      latter is in agreement with the POSIX specification.

       -      The precedence of the ^ operator is different.  lex interprets "^foo|bar" as "match
	      either  'foo'  at  the beginning of a line, or 'bar' anywhere", whereas flex inter-
	      prets it as "match either 'foo' or 'bar' if they come at the beginning of a  line".
	      The latter is in agreement with the POSIX specification.

       -      The special table-size declarations such as %a supported by lex are not required by
	      flex scanners; flex ignores them.

       -      The name FLEX_SCANNER is #define'd so scanners may be written for use  with  either
	      flex or lex.  Scanners also include YY_FLEX_MAJOR_VERSION and YY_FLEX_MINOR_VERSION
	      indicating which version of flex generated the scanner (for example,  for  the  2.5
	      release, these defines would be 2 and 5 respectively).

       The following flex features are not included in lex or the POSIX specification:

	   C++ scanners
	   start condition scopes
	   start condition stacks
	   interactive/non-interactive scanners
	   yy_scan_string() and friends
	   #line directives
	   %{}'s around actions
	   multiple actions on a line

       plus  almost  all of the flex flags.  The last feature in the list refers to the fact that
       with flex you can put multiple actions on the same line, separated with semi-colons, while
       with lex, the following

	   foo	  handle_foo(); ++num_foos_seen;

       is (rather surprisingly) truncated to

	   foo	  handle_foo();

       flex  does  not	truncate  the action.  Actions that are not enclosed in braces are simply
       terminated at the end of the line.

       warning, rule cannot be matched indicates that the given rule cannot be matched because it
       follows	other rules that will always match the same text as it.  For example, in the fol-
       lowing "foo" cannot be matched because it comes after an identifier "catch-all" rule:

	   [a-z]+    got_identifier();
	   foo	     got_foo();

       Using REJECT in a scanner suppresses this warning.

       warning, -s option given but default rule can be matched means that it is  possible  (per-
       haps only in a particular start condition) that the default rule (match any single charac-
       ter) is the only one that will match a particular input.  Since -s was  given,  presumably
       this is not intended.

       reject_used_but_not_detected  undefined	or yymore_used_but_not_detected undefined - These
       errors can occur at compile time.  They indicate that the scanner uses REJECT or  yymore()
       but  that flex failed to notice the fact, meaning that flex scanned the first two sections
       looking for occurrences of these actions and failed to find any,  but  somehow  you  snuck
       some in (via a #include file, for example).  Use %option reject or %option yymore to indi-
       cate to flex that you really do use these features.

       flex scanner jammed - a scanner compiled with -s has encountered  an  input  string  which
       wasn't matched by any of its rules.  This error can also occur due to internal problems.

       token  too large, exceeds YYLMAX - your scanner uses %array and one of its rules matched a
       string longer than the YYLMAX constant (8K bytes by default).  You can increase the  value
       by #define'ing YYLMAX in the definitions section of your flex input.

       scanner	requires  -8  flag to use the character 'x' - Your scanner specification includes
       recognizing the 8-bit character 'x' and you did not specify the -8 flag, and your  scanner
       defaulted  to  7-bit  because  you used the -Cf or -CF table compression options.  See the
       discussion of the -7 flag for details.

       flex scanner push-back overflow - you used unput() to push back	so  much  text	that  the
       scanner's buffer could not hold both the pushed-back text and the current token in yytext.
       Ideally the scanner should dynamically resize the buffer in this case, but at  present  it
       does not.

       input  buffer overflow, can't enlarge buffer because scanner uses REJECT - the scanner was
       working on matching an extremely large token and needed to expand the input buffer.   This
       doesn't work with scanners that use REJECT.

       fatal  flex  scanner  internal  error--end of buffer missed - This can occur in an scanner
       which is reentered after a long-jump has jumped out (or	over)  the  scanner's  activation
       frame.  Before reentering the scanner, use:

	   yyrestart( yyin );

       or, as noted above, switch to using the C++ scanner class.

       too many start conditions in <> construct! - you listed more start conditions in a <> con-
       struct than exist (so you must have listed at least one of them twice).

       -lfl   library with which scanners must be linked.

	      generated scanner (called lexyy.c on some systems).

	      generated C++ scanner class, when using -+.

	      header file defining the C++ scanner base class, FlexLexer, and its derived  class,

	      skeleton	scanner.   This  file is only used when building flex, not when flex exe-

	      backing-up information for -b flag (called lex.bck on some systems).

       Some trailing context patterns cannot be properly matched and  generate	warning  messages
       ("dangerous  trailing context").  These are patterns where the ending of the first part of
       the rule matches the beginning of the second part,  such  as  "zx*/xy*",  where	the  'x*'
       matches	the  'x'  at  the  beginning of the trailing context.  (Note that the POSIX draft
       states that the text matched by such patterns is undefined.)

       For some trailing context rules, parts which are actually fixed-length are not  recognized
       as  such,  leading to the abovementioned performance loss.  In particular, parts using '|'
       or {n} (such as "foo{3}") are always considered variable-length.

       Combining trailing context with the special '|' action can result in fixed  trailing  con-
       text  being turned into the more expensive variable trailing context.  For example, in the

	   abc	    |

       Use of unput() invalidates yytext and yyleng, unless the %array directive or the -l option
       has been used.

       Pattern-matching of NUL's is substantially slower than matching other characters.

       Dynamic	resizing  of  the  input  buffer  is  slow, as it entails rescanning all the text
       matched so far by the current (generally huge) token.

       Due to both buffering of input and read-ahead, you cannot intermix calls to <stdio.h> rou-
       tines,  such  as,  for  example,  getchar(),  with flex rules and expect it to work.  Call
       input() instead.

       The total table entries listed by the -v flag excludes the number of table entries  needed
       to  determine what rule has been matched.  The number of entries is equal to the number of
       DFA states if the scanner does not use REJECT, and somewhat greater  than  the  number  of
       states if it does.

       REJECT cannot be used with the -f or -F options.

       The flex internal algorithms need documentation.

       lex(1), yacc(1), sed(1), awk(1).

       John  Levine, Tony Mason, and Doug Brown, Lex & Yacc, O'Reilly and Associates.  Be sure to
       get the 2nd edition.

       M. E. Lesk and E. Schmidt, LEX - Lexical Analyzer Generator

       Alfred Aho, Ravi Sethi and Jeffrey Ullman, Compilers: Principles,  Techniques  and  Tools,
       Addison-Wesley  (1986).	Describes the pattern-matching techniques used by flex (determin-
       istic finite automata).

       Vern Paxson, with the help of many ideas and much inspiration from Van Jacobson.  Original
       version	by Jef Poskanzer.  The fast table representation is a partial implementation of a
       design done by Van Jacobson.  The implementation was done by Kevin Gong and Vern Paxson.

       Thanks to the many flex beta-testers, feedbackers, and contributors,  especially  Francois
       Pinard, Casey Leedom, Robert Abramovitz, Stan Adermann, Terry Allen, David Barker-Plummer,
       John Basrai, Neal Becker, Nelson H.F. Beebe, benson@odi.com, Karl Berry, Peter  A.  Bigot,
       Simon  Blanchard,  Keith Bostic, Frederic Brehm, Ian Brockbank, Kin Cho, Nick Christopher,
       Brian Clapper, J.T. Conklin, Jason Coughlin, Bill Cox, Nick Cropper,  Dave  Curtis,  Scott
       David  Daniels,	Chris  G.  Demetriou,  Theo  Deraadt,  Mike  Donahue, Chuck Doucette, Tom
       Epperly, Leo Eskin, Chris Faylor, Chris Flatters, Jon Forrest, Jeffrey Friedl, Joe  Gayda,
       Kaveh  R.  Ghazi,  Wolfgang Glunz, Eric Goldman, Christopher M. Gould, Ulrich Grepel, Peer
       Griebel, Jan Hajic, Charles Hemphill, NORO Hideo, Jarkko Hietaniemi, Scott  Hofmann,  Jeff
       Honig,  Dana Hudes, Eric Hughes, John Interrante, Ceriel Jacobs, Michal Jaegermann, Sakari
       Jalovaara, Jeffrey R. Jones, Henry Juengst, Klaus Kaempf, Jonathan I. Kamens,  Terrence	O
       Kane,  Amir  Katz,  ken@ken.hilco.com, Kevin B. Kenny, Steve Kirsch, Winfried Koenig, Marq
       Kole, Ronald Lamprecht, Greg Lee, Rohan Lenard, Craig Leres, John  Levine,  Steve  Liddle,
       David  Loffredo,  Mike  Long,  Mohamed  el  Lozy, Brian Madsen, Malte, Joe Marshall, Bengt
       Martensson, Chris Metcalf, Luke Mewburn, Jim Meyering, R. Alexander Milowski, Erik Naggum,
       G.T.  Nicol, Landon Noll, James Nordby, Marc Nozell, Richard Ohnemus, Karsten Pahnke, Sven
       Panne, Roland Pesch, Walter Pelissero, Gaumond Pierre, Esmond  Pitt,  Jef  Poskanzer,  Joe
       Rahmeh,	Jarmo  Raiha, Frederic Raimbault, Pat Rankin, Rick Richardson, Kevin Rodgers, Kai
       Uwe Rommel, Jim Roskind, Alberto Santini, Andreas Scherer,  Darrell  Schiebel,  Raf  Schi-
       etekat,	Doug Schmidt, Philippe Schnoebelen, Andreas Schwab, Larry Schwimmer, Alex Siegel,
       Eckehard Stolz, Jan-Erik Strvmquist, Mike Stump, Paul Stuart, Dave Tallman, Ian Lance Tay-
       lor, Chris Thewalt, Richard M. Timoney, Jodi Tsai, Paul Tuinenga, Gary Weik, Frank Whaley,
       Gerhard Wilhelms, Kent Williams, Ken Yap, Ron Zellar, Nathan Zelle, David Zuhn, and  those
       whose  names  have  slipped  my marginal mail-archiving skills but whose contributions are
       appreciated all the same.

       Thanks to Keith Bostic, Jon Forrest,  Noah  Friedman,  John  Gilmore,  Craig  Leres,  John
       Levine,	Bob  Mulcahy,  G.T.   Nicol, Francois Pinard, Rich Salz, and Richard Stallman for
       help with various distribution headaches.

       Thanks to Esmond Pitt and Earle Horton for 8-bit character support;  to	Benson	Margulies
       and Fred Burke for C++ support; to Kent Williams and Tom Epperly for C++ class support; to
       Ove Ewerlid for support of NUL's; and to Eric Hughes for support of multiple buffers.

       This work was primarily done when I was with the Real Time Systems Group at  the  Lawrence
       Berkeley Laboratory in Berkeley, CA.  Many thanks to all there for the support I received.

       Send comments to vern@ee.lbl.gov.

Version 2.5				    April 1995					  FLEX(1)

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