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DVIPS(1)										 DVIPS(1)

       dvips - convert a TeX DVI file to PostScript

       dvips [ options ] file[.dvi]

       THIS MAN PAGE IS OBSOLETE!  See the Texinfo documentation instead.  You can read it either
       in Emacs or with the standalone info program which comes with the GNU texinfo distribution
       as prep.ai.mit.edu:pub/gnu/texinfo*.tar.gz.

       The  program dvips takes a DVI file file[.dvi] produced by TeX (or by some other processor
       such as GFtoDVI) and converts it to PostScript, normally sending the  result  directly  to
       the (laser)printer.  The DVI file may be specified without the .dvi extension.  Fonts used
       may either be resident in the printer or defined as bitmaps in PK files,  or  a	`virtual'
       combination of both.  If the mktexpk program is installed, dvips will automatically invoke
       METAFONT to generate fonts that don't already exist.

       For more information, see the Texinfo manual dvips.texi, which should be  installed  some-
       where on your system, hopefully accessible through the standard Info tree.

       -a     Conserve	memory	by making three passes over the .dvi file instead of two and only
	      loading those characters actually used.  Generally only useful on machines  with	a
	      very limited amount of memory, like some PCs.

       -A     Print only odd pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -b num Generate	num  copies of each page, but duplicating the page body rather than using
	      the #numcopies option.  This can be useful in conjunction with a header  file  set-
	      ting \bop-hook to do color separations or other neat tricks.

       -B     Print only even pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -c num Generate num copies of every page.  Default is 1.  (For collated copies, see the -C
	      option below.)

       -C num Create num copies, but collated (by replicating the data in the  PostScript  file).
	      Slower  than  the  -c option, but easier on the hands, and faster than resubmitting
	      the same PostScript file multiple times.

       -d num Set the debug flags.  This is intended only for emergencies or  for  unusual  fact-
	      finding  expeditions;  it  will work only if dvips has been compiled with the DEBUG
	      option.  If nonzero, prints additional information on standard output.  The  number
	      is  taken  as  a set of independent bits.  The meaning of each bit follows.  1=spe-
	      cials;  2=paths;	4=fonts;  8=pages;  16=headers;  32=font  compression;	64=files;
	      128=memory;   256=Kpathsea   stat(2)   calls;   512=Kpathsea  hash  table  lookups;
	      1024=Kpathsea path element expansion; 2048=Kpathsea searches.  To trace  everything
	      having  to  do  with file searching and opening, use 3650 (2048 + 1024 + 512 + 64 +
	      2). To track all classes, you can use `-1' (output is extremely voluminous).

       -D num Set the resolution in dpi (dots per inch) to num.  This affects the choice of  bit-
	      map  fonts  that	are  loaded and also the positioning of letters in resident Post-
	      Script fonts. Must be between 10 and 10000.  This affects both the  horizontal  and
	      vertical resolution.  If a high resolution (something greater than 400 dpi, say) is
	      selected, the -Z flag should probably also be used.

       -e num Make sure that each character is placed at most this many pixels	from  its  `true'
	      resolution-independent position on the page. The default value of this parameter is
	      resolution dependent.  Allowing individual characters to `drift'	from  their  cor-
	      rectly  rounded positions by a few pixels, while regaining the true position at the
	      beginning of each new word, improves the spacing of letters in words.

       -E     makes dvips attempt to generate an EPSF file with a tight bounding box.  This  only
	      works  on  one-page files, and it only looks at marks made by characters and rules,
	      not by any included graphics.  In addition, it gets the glyph metrics from the  tfm
	      file,  so  characters  that lie outside their enclosing tfm box may confuse it.  In
	      addition, the bounding box might be a bit too loose if the character glyph has sig-
	      nificant left or right side bearings.  Nonetheless, this option works well for cre-
	      ating small EPSF files for equations or tables or the like.  (Note, of course, that
	      dvips  output  is resolution dependent and thus does not make very good EPSF files,
	      especially if the images are to be scaled; use these EPSF files with a  great  deal
	      of care.)

       -f     Run  as  a filter.  Read the .dvi file from standard input and write the PostScript
	      to standard output.  The standard input must be seekable, so it cannot be  a  pipe.
	      If  you must use a pipe, write a shell script that copies the pipe output to a tem-
	      porary file and then points dvips at this file.	This  option  also  disables  the
	      automatic  reading of the PRINTER environment variable, and turns off the automatic
	      sending of control D if it was turned on with the -F option or in the configuration
	      file; use -F after this option if you want both.

       -F     Causes  Control-D  (ASCII  code 4) to be appended as the very last character of the
	      PostScript file.	This is useful when dvips is driving the printer directly instead
	      of  working  through  a spooler, as is common on extremely small systems.  NOTE! DO

       -h name
	      Prepend file name as an additional header file. (However, if the name is simply `-'
	      suppress	all  header  files  from the output.)  This header file gets added to the
	      PostScript userdict.

       -i     Make each section be a separate file.   Under  certain  circumstances,  dvips  will
	      split  the  document up into `sections' to be processed independently; this is most
	      often done for memory reasons.  Using this option tells dvips to place each section
	      into  a  separate  file; the new file names are created replacing the suffix of the
	      supplied output file name by a three-digit sequence number.  This  option  is  most
	      often  used in conjunction with the -S option which sets the maximum section length
	      in pages.  For instance, some phototypesetters cannot print more	than  ten  or  so
	      consecutive  pages  before running out of steam; these options can be used to auto-
	      matically split a book into ten-page sections, each to its own file.

       -k     Print crop marks.  This option increases the paper size (which should be specified,
	      either  with  a  paper  size  special or with the -T option) by a half inch in each
	      dimension.  It translates each page by a quarter inch and  draws	cross-style  crop
	      marks.   It  is mostly useful with typesetters that can set the page size automati-

       -K     This option causes comments in included PostScript graphics, font files, and  head-
	      ers  to  be removed.  This is sometimes necessary to get around bugs in spoolers or
	      PostScript post-processing programs.  Specifically, the %%Page comments, when  left
	      in, often cause difficulties.  Use of this flag can cause some included graphics to
	      fail, since the PostScript header macros from some software packages read  portions
	      of  the input stream line by line, searching for a particular comment.  This option
	      has been turned off by default because PostScript previewers and spoolers have been
	      getting better.

       -l num The  last  page printed will be the first one numbered num Default is the last page
	      in the document.	If the num is prefixed by an equals sign, then it (and any  argu-
	      ment to the -p option) is treated as a sequence number, rather than a value to com-
	      pare with \count0 values.  Thus, using -l =9 will end with the ninth  page  of  the
	      document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.

       -m     Specify manual feed for printer.

       -M     Turns  off  the automatic font generation facility.  If any fonts are missing, com-
	      mands to generate the fonts are appended to the file missfont.log  in  the  current
	      directory; this file can then be executed and deleted to create the missing fonts.

       -n num At most num pages will be printed. Default is 100000.

       -N     Turns  off structured comments; this might be necessary on some systems that try to
	      interpret PostScript comments in weird ways, or on some PostScript  printers.   Old
	      versions of TranScript in particular cannot handle modern Encapsulated PostScript.

       -o name
	      The  output will be sent to file name If no file name is given, the default name is
	      file.ps where the .dvi file was called file.dvi; if this option  isn't  given,  any
	      default  in the configuration file is used.  If the first character of the supplied
	      output file name is an exclamation mark, then the remainder  will  be  used  as  an
	      argument	to  popen;  thus,  specifying  !lpr as the output file will automatically
	      queue the file for printing.  This option also disables the  automatic  reading  of
	      the  PRINTER environment variable, and turns off the automatic sending of control D
	      if it was turned on with the -F option or in the configuration file; use	-F  after
	      this option if you want both.

       -O offset
	      Move  the  origin  by  a	certain  amount.  The offset is a comma-separated pair of
	      dimensions, such as .1in,-.3cm (in the same syntax used in the papersize	special).
	      The  origin of the page is shifted from the default position (of one inch down, one
	      inch to the right from the upper left corner of the paper) by this amount.

       -p num The first page printed will be the first one numbered num.  Default  is  the  first
	      page  in	the document.  If the num is prefixed by an equals sign, then it (and any
	      argument to the -l option) is treated as a sequence number, rather than a value  to
	      compare  with  \count0 values.  Thus, using -p =3 will start with the third page of
	      the document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.

       -pp pagelist
	      A comma-separated list of pages and ranges (a-b) may be given, which will be inter-
	      preted  as  \count0 values.  Pages not specified will not be printed.  Multiple -pp
	      options may be specified or all pages and page ranges can be specified with one -pp

       -P printername
	      Sets  up the output for the appropriate printer.	This is implemented by reading in
	      config.printername , which can then set the output pipe (as in, !lpr  -Pprintername
	      as  well	as the font paths and any other config.ps defaults for that printer only.
	      Note that config.ps is read before config.printername  In  addition,  another  file
	      called  ~/.dvipsrc  is  searched	for  immediately  after  config.ps;  this file is
	      intended for user defaults.  If no -P command is given,  the  environment  variable
	      PRINTER  is  checked.   If  that variable exists, and a corresponding configuration
	      file exists, that configuration file is read in.

       -q     Run in quiet mode.  Don't chatter about pages converted, etc.; report  nothing  but
	      errors to standard error.

       -r     Stack pages in reverse order.  Normally, page 1 will be printed first.

       -R     Run  in  secure  mode.  This  means that ``backtick'' commands from a \special{} or
	      \psffile{} macro in the (La)TeX source like  \special{psfile="`zcat  foo.ps.Z"}  or
	      \psffile[72 72 540 720]{"`zcat screendump.ps.gz"} are not executed.

       -s     Causes the entire global output to be enclosed in a save/restore pair.  This causes
	      the file to not be truly conformant, and is thus not recommended, but is useful  if
	      you  are driving the printer directly and don't care too much about the portability
	      of the output.

       -S num Set the maximum number of pages in each `section'.  This option  is  most  commonly
	      used with the -i option; see that documentation above for more information.

       -t papertype
	      This  sets  the paper type to papertype.	The papertype should be defined in one of
	      the configuration files, along with the appropriate code to select it.   (Currently
	      known  types include letter, legal, ledger, a4, a3, ) You can also specify -t land-
	      scape, which rotates a document by 90 degrees.  To rotate a document whose size  is
	      not  letter,  you can use the -t option twice, once for the page size, and once for
	      landscape.  The upper left corner of each page in the .dvi file is placed one  inch
	      from the left and one inch from the top.	Use of this option is highly dependent on
	      the configuration file.  Note that executing the letter or a4 or	other  PostScript
	      operators  cause	the document to be nonconforming and can cause it not to print on
	      certain printers, so the paper size should not execute such an operator if  at  all

       -T offset
	      Set  the	paper  size to the given pair of dimensions.  This option takes its argu-
	      ments in the same style as -O.  It overrides any paper  size  special  in  the  dvi

       -U     Disable  a  PostScript virtual memory saving optimization that stores the character
	      metric information in the same string that is used to store the bitmap information.
	      This  is	only necessary when driving the Xerox 4045 PostScript interpreter.  It is
	      caused by a bug in that interpreter that results in `garbage' on the bottom of each
	      character.  Not recommended unless you must drive this printer.

       -V     Download	non-resident PostScript fonts as bitmaps.  This requires use of `gsftopk'
	      or `pstopk' or some other such program(s) in order to generate the required  bitmap
	      fonts; these programs are supplied with dvips.

       -x num Set  the magnification ratio to num /1000. Overrides the magnification specified in
	      the .dvi file.  Must be between 10 and 100000.

       -X num Set the horizontal resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -Y num Set the vertical resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -Z     Causes bitmapped fonts to be compressed before they are downloaded, thereby  reduc-
	      ing  the size of the PostScript font-downloading information.  Especially useful at
	      high resolutions or when very large fonts are used.  Will slow down printing  some-
	      what, especially on early 68000-based PostScript printers.

       mf(1), afm2tfm(1), tex(1), latex(1), lpr(1), dvips.texi.

       Dvipsk  uses  the  same environment variables and algorithms for finding font files as TeX
       and its friends do.  See the documentation for the Kpathsea library for details.  (Repeat-
       ing it here is too cumbersome.)

       KPATHSEA_DEBUG: Trace Kpathsea lookups; set to -1 for complete tracing.

       PRINTER: see above.

       PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

       Tomas  Rokicki  <rokicki@cs.stanford.edu>;  extended  to virtual fonts by Don Knuth.  Path
       searching and configuration modifications by kb@mail.tug.org.

					   1 June 1996					 DVIPS(1)
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