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DVDRECORD(1)			      Schily's USER COMMANDS			     DVDRECORD(1)

       dvdrecord - record audio or data Compact Discs and DVDs from a master

       dvdrecord [ general options ] dev=device [ track options ] track1...trackn

       Cdrecord is used to record data or audio Compact Discs on an Orange Book CD-Recorder.

       The device refers to scsibus/target/lun of the CD-Recorder. Communication on SunOS is done
       with the SCSI general driver scg.  Other operating systems are using a library  simulation
       of  this  driver.  Possible syntax is: dev= scsibus,target,lun or dev= target,lun.  In the
       latter case, the CD-Recorder has to be connected to the default SCSI bus of  the  machine.
       Scsibus,  target  and  lun  are integer numbers.  Some operating systems or SCSI transport
       implementations may require to specify a filename in addition.  In this case  the  correct
       syntax  for  the  device  is:  dev=  devicename:scsibus,target,lun or dev= devicename:tar-
       get,lun.  If the name of the device node that has been specified on such a  system  refers
       to  exactly  one  SCSI  device,	a shorthand in the form dev= devicename:@ or dev= device-
       name:@,lun may be used instead of dev= devicename:scsibus,target,lun.

       To access remote SCSI devices, you need to prepend the SCSI device name by a remote device
       indicator. The remote device indicator is either REMOTE:user@host: or  REMOTE:host:
       A  valid  remote SCSI device name may be: REMOTE:user@host: to allow remote SCSI bus scan-
       ning or REMOTE:user@host:1,0,0 to access the SCSI device at host connected to SCSI  bus	#
       1,target 0 lun 0.

       To  make dvdrecord portable to all UNIX platforms, the syntax dev= devicename:scsibus,tar-
       get,lun is preferred as is hides OS specific knowledge about device names from  the  user.
       A  specific OS must not necessarily support a way to specify a real device file name nor a
       way to specify scsibus,target,lun.

       Scsibus 0 is the default SCSI bus on the machine. Watch the boot messages for more  infor-
       mation or look into /var/adm/messages for more information about the SCSI configuration of
       your machine.  If you have problems to  figure  out  what  values  for  scsibus,target,lun
       should be used, try the -scanbus option of dvdrecord described below.

       If a file /etc/dvdrecord.conf exists, the parameter to the dev= option may also be a drive
       name label in said file (see FILES section).

       On SVr4 compliant systems, dvdrecord uses the the real  time  class  to	get  the  highest
       scheduling  priority that is possible (higher than all kernel processes).  On systems with
       POSIX real time scheduling dvdrecord uses real time scheduling too, but may not be able to
       gain a priority that is higher than all kernel processes.

       In  Track At Once mode, each track corresponds to a single file that contains the prepared
       data for that track.  If the argument is `-', standard input is used for that track.  Only
       one track may be taken from stdin.

       General options must be before any track file name or track option.

	      Print version information and exit.

       -v     Increment  the level of general verbosity by one.  This is used e.g. to display the
	      progress of the writing process.

       -V     Increment the verbose level in respect of SCSI  command  transport  by  one.   This
	      helps  to debug problems during the writing process, that occur in the CD-Recorder.
	      If you get incomprehensible error messages you should use this  flag  to	get  more
	      detailed	output.   -VV will show data buffer content in addition.  Using -V or -VV
	      slows down the process and may be the reason for a buffer underrun.

       debug=#, -d
	      Set the misc debug value to # (with debug=#) or increment the misc debug	level  by
	      one  (with  -d). If you specify -dd, this equals to debug=2.  This may help to find
	      problems while opening a driver for libscg as well as with sector sizes and  sector
	      types.   Using  -debug  slows  down  the process and may be the reason for a buffer

       kdebug=#, kd=#
	      Tell the scg-driver to modify the kernel debug value while SCSI commands	are  run-

       -silent, -s
	      Do not print out a status report for failed SCSI commands.

       -force Force  to  continue  on  some errors.  This option currently implements some tricks
	      that will allow you to blank bad CD-RW disks.

       -dummy The CD-Recorder will go through all steps of the recording process, but  the  laser
	      is turned off during this procedure.  It is recommended to run several tests before
	      actually writing to a Compact Disk, if the timing and load response of  the  system
	      is not known.

       -dao   Set Disk At Once mode.  This currently only works with MMC drives that support Ses-
	      sion At Once mode.

       -raw   Set RAW writing mode.  Using this option defaults to -raw96r.

	      Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes of  raw	P-W  sub-
	      channel  data  resulting in a sector size of 2448 bytes.	This is the preferred raw
	      writing mode as it gives best control over the CD writing process.

	      Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes of packed P-W sub-
	      channel  data resulting in a sector size of 2448 bytes.  This is the less preferred
	      raw writing mode as only a few recorders support it and  some  of  these	recorders
	      have  bugs  in  the  firmware implementation.  Don't use this mode if your recorder
	      supports -raw96r or -raw16.

       -raw16 Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 6 bytes of  P-Q  subchannel
	      data  resulting  in  a  sector  size of 2368 bytes.  If a recorder does not support
	      -raw96r, this is the preferred raw writing mode.	It does not allow  to  write  CD-
	      Text  or	CD+Grahpics  but it is the only raw writing mode in cheap CD writers.  As
	      these cheap writers in most cases do not support -dao mode.  Don't use this mode if
	      your recorder supports -raw96r.

       -multi Allow  multi session CD's to be made. This flag needs to be present on all sessions
	      of a multi session disk, except you want to create a session that will be the  last
	      session  on  the	media.	 The  fixation	will be done in a way that allows the CD-
	      Recorder to append additional sessions later. This is done by generation a TOC with
	      a  link  to the next program area. The so generated media is not 100% compatible to
	      manufactured CD's (except for CDplus).  Use only for  recording  of  multi  session
	      CD's.   If this option is present, the default track type is CD-ROM XA mode 2.  The
	      Sony drives have no hardware support for CD-ROM XA mode 2.  You have to specify the
	      -data  option  in  order to create multi session disks on these drives.  As long as
	      dvdrecord does not have a coder for converting data sectors to audio  sectors,  you
	      need  to force CD-ROM sectors by including the -data option if you like to record a
	      multisession disk in DAO/SAO mode.  Not  all  drives  allow  multisession  CD's  in
	      DAO/SAO mode.

	      Retrieve multi session info in a form suitable for mkisofs-1.10 or later.

	      This  option  makes  only sense with a CD that contains at least one closed session
	      and is appendable (not finally closed yet).  Some drives create error  messages  if
	      you  try	to  get  the  multi session info for a disk that is not suitable for this

       -toc   Retrieve and print out the table of content or PMA of  a	CD.   With  this  option,
	      dvdrecord will work with CD-R drives and with CD-ROM drives.

       -atip  Retrieve	and  print out the ATIP (absolute Time in Pregroove) info of a CD record-
	      able or CD rewritable media.  With this option, dvdrecord will try to retrieve  the
	      ATIP  info.  If  the actual drive does not support to read the ATIP info, it may be
	      that only a reduced set of information records or even nothing is displayed. Only a
	      limited number of MMC compliant drives support to read the ATIP info.

	      If  dvdrecord  is able to retrieve the lead-in start time for the first session, it
	      will try to decode and print the manufacturer info from the media.

       -fix   The disk will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a CD-Reader will be  written).   This
	      may  be  used,  if  for some reason the disk has been written but not fixated. This
	      option currently does not work with old TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -nofix Do not fixate the disk after writing the tracks. This may  be  used  to  create  an
	      audio  disk in steps. An un-fixated disk can usually not be used on a non CD-writer
	      type drive but there are audio CD players that will be able to play such a disk.

       -waiti Wait for input to become available on standard input before trying to open the SCSI
	      driver.  This  allows  dvdrecord	to  read it's input from a pipe even when writing
	      additional sessions to a multi session disk.  When writing  another  session  to	a
	      multi  session  disk,  mkisofs needs to read the old session from the device before
	      writing output.  This cannot be done if dvdrecord opens the SCSI driver at the same

       -load  Load the media and exit. This only works with a tray loading mechanism but seems to
	      be useful when using the Kodak disk transporter.

       -eject Eject disk after doing the work.	Some Devices (e.g. Philips)  need  to  eject  the
	      medium  before  creating a new disk. Doing a -dummy test and immediately creating a
	      real disk would not work on these devices.

	      Set the speed factor of the writing process to #.  # is an integer, representing	a
	      multiple	of the audio speed.  This is about 150 KB/s for CD-ROM and about 172 KB/s
	      for CD-Audio.  If no speed option is present, dvdrecord will try to get  the  speed
	      value  from  the CDR_SPEED environment.  If your drive has problems with speed=2 or
	      speed=4, you should try speed=0.

	      Blank a CD-RW and exit or blank a CD-RW before writing. The blanking  type  may  be
	      one of:

	      help	  Display a list of possible blanking types.

	      all	  Blank the entire disk. This may take a long time.

	      fast	  Minimally  blank the disk. This results in erasing the PMA, the TOC and
			  the pregap.

	      track	  Blank a track.

	      unreserve   Unreserve a reserved track.

	      trtail	  Blank the tail of a track.

	      unclose	  Unclose last session.

	      session	  Blank the last session.
       If used together with the -force flag, this option may be used to blank CD-RW  disks  that
       otherwise  cannot  be  blanked.	Note  that you may need to specify blank=all because some
       drives will not continue with certain types of bad CD-RW disks.	Note  also  that  cdecord
       does  it's  best if the -force flag is used but it finally depends on the drive's firmware
       whether the blanking operation will succeed or not.

       fs=#   Set the fifo (ring buffer) size to #.  You may use the same  method  as  in  dd(1),
	      sdd(1)  or star(1).  The number representing the size is taken in bytes unless oth-
	      erwise specified.  If a number is followed directly by the letter  `b',  `k',  `m',
	      `s'  of  `f', the size is multiplied by 512, 1024, 1024*1024, 2048 or 2352.  If the
	      size consists of numbers separated by `x' or `*', multiplication of the two numbers
	      is performed.  Thus fs=10x63k will specify a fifo size of 630 kBytes.

	      The  size  specified  by the fs= argument includes the shared memory that is needed
	      for administration. This is at least one page of	memory.   If  no  fs=  option  is
	      present,	dvdrecord will try to get the fifo size value from the CDR_FIFOSIZE envi-
	      ronment.	The default fifo size is currently 4 MB.

	      The fifo is used to increase buffering for  the  real  time  writing  process.   It
	      allows  to  run a pipe from mkisofs directly into dvdrecord.  If the fifo is active
	      and a pipe from mkisofs into dvdrecord is used to create a CD, dvdrecord will abort
	      prior to do any modifications on the disk if mkisofs dies before it starts writing.
	      The recommended fifo size is between 4 and 32 MBytes.  As a rule of thumb, the fifo
	      size should be at least equal to the size of the internal buffer of the CD-Recorder
	      and no more than half of the physical amount of RAM available in the  machine.   If
	      the  fifo  size is big enough, the fifo statistics will print a fifo empty count of
	      zero and the fifo min fill is not below 20%.  It is not wise to use too much  space
	      for  the	fifo.  If  you need more than 8 MB to write a CD on an idle machine, your
	      machine is either underpowered, has hardware problems or	is  mis-configured.   The
	      sun4c  architecture  (e.g. a Sparcstation-2) has only MMU page table entries for 16
	      MBytes per process. Using more than 14 MBytes for the fifo may cause the	operating
	      system  in  this case to spend much time to constantly reload the MMU tables. Newer
	      machines from Sun do not have this MMU hardware problem. I have no  information  on
	      PC-hardware reflecting this problem.

	      If  you  have  buffer  underruns	or similar problems and observe a zero fifo empty
	      count, you have hardware problems. The fifo size in this case is sufficient.

	      Sets the SCSI target for the CD-Recorder, see notes above.  A typical device speci-
	      fication	is  dev=6,0 .  If a filename must be provided together with the numerical
	      target specification, the filename is implementation specific.  The  correct  file-
	      name in this case can be found in the system specific manuals of the target operat-
	      ing system.  On a FreeBSD system without CAM support, you need to use  the  control
	      device  (e.g.   /dev/rcd0.ctl).  A correct device specification in this case may be
	      dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

	      On Linux, drives connected to a parallel port adapter are mapped to a virtual  SCSI
	      bus. Different adapters are mapped to different targets on this virtual SCSI bus.

	      If  no  dev  option  is  present,  dvdrecord  will  try  to get the device from the
	      CDR_DEVICE environment.

	      If the argument to the dev= option does not contain the characters ',', '/', '@' or
	      ':',  it	is  interpreted  as  an  label	name  that  may  be  found  in	the  file
	      /etc/dvdrecord.conf (see FILES section).

	      Set the default SCSI command timeout value to # seconds.	The default SCSI  command
	      timeout  is  the minimum timeout used for sending SCSI commands.	If a SCSI command
	      fails due to a timeout, you may try to raise the default SCSI command timeout above
	      the  timeout  value  of  the  failed command.  If the command runs correctly with a
	      raised command timeout, please report the better timeout value and the  correspond-
	      ing  command  to	the  author  of  the program.  If no timeout option is present, a
	      default timeout of 40 seconds is used.

	      Allows to use a user supplied driver name for the device.  To get a list of  possi-
	      ble  drivers  use  driver=help.	The reason for the existence of this option is to
	      allow users to use dvdrecord with drives that are similar to supported  drives  but
	      not  known  directly  by	dvdrecord.  Use this option with extreme care. If a wrong
	      driver is used for a device, the possibility of creating corrupted disks	is  high.
	      The minimum problem related to a wrong driver is that the -speed or -dummy will not

	      There are two special driver entries in the list: cdr_simul and  dvd_simul.   These
	      driver  entries  are designed to make timing tests at any speed or timing tests for
	      drives that do not support the -dummy option.  The simulation drivers  implement	a
	      drive with a buffer size of 1MB that can be changed via the CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE envi-
	      ronment variable.  The simulation driver correctly simulates even a buffer underrun
	      condition.   If the -dummy option is present, the simulation is not aborted in case
	      of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
	      Set driver specific options. The options are specified a comma separated list.   To
	      get  a  list  of	valid  options	use driveropts=help together with the -checkdrive
	      option.  Currently only the burnfree option is implemented to support Buffer Under-
	      run  Free  writing  with drives that support Buffer Underrun Free technology.  This
	      may be called: Sanyo BURN-Proof, Ricoh Just-Link or similar.

	      Checks if a driver for the current drive is present and exit.  If the  drive  is	a
	      known drive, dvdrecord uses exit code 0.

       -prcap Print  the drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc compliant drives as obtained from mode
	      page 0x2A. Values marked with kB use 1000 bytes as kilo-byte, values marked with KB
	      use 1024 bytes as Kilo-byte.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for the drive, print the inquiry info and exit.

	      Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print the inquiry strings. This option
	      may be used to find SCSI address of the  CD-Recorder  on	a  system.   The  numbers
	      printed out as labels are computed by: bus * 100 + target

       -reset Try  to  reset the SCSI bus where the CD recorder is located. This works not on all
	      operating systems.

	      Allow dvdrecord to write more than the official size of a medium. This  feature  is
	      usually  called  overburning and depends on the fact that most blank media may hold
	      more space than the official size. As the official size of the lead-out area on the
	      disk  is	90  seconds (6750 sectors) and a disk usually works if there are at least
	      150 sectors of lead out, all media may be overburned by at least 88  seconds  (6600
	      sectors).   Most CD recorders only do overburning in DAO mode. Known exceptions are
	      TEAC CD-R50S, TEAC CD-R55S and the Panasonic CW-7502. There is  no  guarantee  that
	      your  drive supports overburning at all.	Make a test to check if your drive imple-
	      ments the feature.

	      Ignore the known size of the medium. This options should be used with extreme care,
	      it  exists  only	for debugging purposes don't use it for other reasons.	It is not
	      needed to write disks with more than the nominal	capacity.   This  option  implies

	      Use  *.inf  files  to  overwrite audio options.  If this option is used, the pregap
	      size information is read from the *.inf file that is associated with the file  that
	      contains the audio data for a track.

	      Set  the	default  pre-gap  size for all tracks except track number 1.  This option
	      currently only makes sense with the TEAC drive when  creating  track-at-once  disks
	      without the 2 second silence before each track.
	      This option may go away in future.

	      Set Packet writing mode.	This is an experimental interface.

	      Set  the paket size to #, forces fixed packet mode.  This is an experimental inter-

	      Do not close the current track, useful only when in packet writing mode.	 This  is
	      an experimental interface.

	      Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to med_cat_nr.

       -text  Write  CD-Text  created by cdrecord and based on information taken from a file that
	      contains ascii information for the text strings. Currently only the format  in  the
	      *.inf  files  created by cdda2wav is supported. You need to use the -useinfo option
	      in addition in order to tell cdrecord to read these files. If  you  like	to  write
	      your  own  CD-Text  information, edit the *.inf files with a text editor and change
	      the field that are relevant for CD-Text.

	      Write CD-Text based on information found in the binary file  filename.   This  file
	      must  contain information in a data format defined in the SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard and
	      in the Red Book. The four byte size header that is defined in the SCSI standard  is
	      optional	and  allows to make the recognition of correct data less ambiguous.  This
	      is the best option to be used to copy CD-Text data from existing CDs  that  already
	      carry  CD-Text  information.  To	get data in a format suitable for this option use
	      cdrecord -vv -toc to extract the information from disk.

       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

	      Set the International Standard Recording Number for the next track to ISRC_number.

	      Sets an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma separated list  of
	      numbers that are counting from index 1. The first entry in this list must contain a
	      0, the following numbers must be an ascending list of  numbers  (counting  in  1/75
	      seconds)	that  represent  the  start  of  the  indices. An index list in the form:
	      0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the track, index 2 100 seconds	from  the
	      start of the track and index 3 200 seconds from the start of the track.

       -audio If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-DA (similar to Red
	      Book) audio format.  The file with data for  this  tracks  should  contain  stereo,
	      16-bit digital audio with 44100 samples/s.  The byte order should be the following:
	      MSB left, LSB left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB left and so on. The track should be a
	      multiple	of  2352  bytes.  It  is not possible to put the master image of an audio
	      track on a raw disk because data will be read in multiple of 2352 bytes during  the
	      recording process.

	      If  a  filename ends in .au or .wav the file is considered to be a structured audio
	      data file.  Cdrecord assumes that the file in this case is a Sun audio  file  or	a
	      Microsoft .WAV file and extracts the audio data from the files by skipping over the
	      non-audio header information.  In all other cases, dvdrecord will  only  work  cor-
	      rectly  if the audio data stream does not have any header.  Because many structured
	      audio files do not have an integral number of blocks (1/75th second) in length,  it
	      is  often  necessary to specify the -pad option as well.	dvdrecord recognizes that
	      audio data in a .WAV file is stored in Intel (little-endian) byte order,	and  will
	      automatically  byte-swap	the  data  if  the  CD recorder requires big-endian data.
	      Cdrecord will reject any audio file that does not match the Red  Book  requirements
	      of 16-bit stereo samples in PCM coding at 44100 samples/second.

	      Using  other  structured audio data formats as input to dvdrecord will usually work
	      if the structure of the data is the structure described above (raw pcm data in big-
	      endian byte order).  However, if the data format includes a header, you will hear a
	      click at the start of a track.

	      If neither -data nor -audio have been specified, dvdrecord defaults to  -audio  for
	      all filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data for all other files.

       -swab  If  this	flag  is  present,  audio  data is assumed to be in byte-swapped (little-
	      endian) order.  Some types of CD-Writers e.g. Yamaha, Sony and the  new  SCSI-3/mmc
	      drives require audio data to be presented in little-endian order, while other writ-
	      ers require audio data to be presented in the big-endian (network) byte order  nor-
	      mally  used by the SCSI protocol.  Cdrecord knows if a CD-Recorder needs audio data
	      in big- or little-endian order, and corrects the byte order of the data  stream  to
	      match  the needs of the recorder.  You only need the -swab flag if your data stream
	      is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

	      Note that the verbose output of dvdrecord will show you if swapping is necessary to
	      make  the byte order of the input data fit the required byte order of the recorder.
	      Cdrecord will not show you if the -swab flag was actually present for a track.

       -data  If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM mode 1 (Yellow
	      Book)  format.  The  data  is  a	multiple of 2048 bytes.  The file with track data
	      should contain an ISO-9660 or Rock Ridge filesystem image  (see  mkisofs	for  more
	      details). If the track data is an ufs filesystem image, fragment size should be set
	      to 2 KB or more to allow CR-drives with 2 KB sector size to to be used for reading.

	      -data is the default, if no other flag is present.

	      If neither -data nor -audio have been specified, dvdrecord defaults to  -audio  for
	      all filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data for all other files.

       -mode2 If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM mode 2 format.
	      The data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.

       -xa1   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM XA mode 1 for-
	      mat. The data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.

       -xa2   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM XA mode 2 for-
	      mat. The data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.

       -cdi   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CDI format. The  data
	      is a multiple of 2048 bytes.

	      Use  the	ISO-9660  file system size as the size of the next track.  This option is
	      needed if you want dvdrecord to directly read the image of a track from a raw  disk
	      partition  or from a TAO master CD. In the first case the option -isosize is needed
	      to limit the size of the CD to the size of the ISO filesystem.  In the second  case
	      the  option  -isosize  is  needed to prevent dvdrecord from reading the two run out
	      blocks that are appended by each CD-recorder in track at once mode. These  two  run
	      out  blocks  cannot  be  read and would cause a buffer under run that would cause a
	      defective copy.  Do not use this option on files created by  mkisofs  and  in  case
	      dvdrecord  reads	the  track data from stdin.  In the first case, you would prevent
	      dvdrecord from writing the amount of padding that has been appended by mkisofs  and
	      in the latter case, it will not work because stdin is not seekable.

	      If  -isosize is used for a track, dvdrecord will automatically add padding for this
	      track as if the -pad option has been used but the amount of  padding  may  be  less
	      than the padding written by mkisofs.  Note that if you use -isosize on a track that
	      contains Sparc boot information, the boot information will be lost.

	      Note also that this option cannot be used to determine the size of a file system if
	      the multi session option is present.

       -pad   If the track is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will be added to the end of
	      this and each subsequent data track.  In this case, the -pad option  is  superseded
	      by  the padsize= option. It will remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.  If
	      the -pad option refers to an audio track, dvdrecord will pad the audio data to be a
	      multiple of 2352 bytes.  The audio data padding is done with binary zeroes which is
	      equal to absolute silence.

	      -pad remains valid until disabled by -nopad.

	      Set the amount of data to be appended as padding to the next track to  #.   Opposed
	      to  the  behavior  of  the -pad option, the value for padsize= is reset to zero for
	      each new track.  See fs= option for possible arguments.  Use this  option  if  your
	      CD-drive	is not able to read the last sectors of a track or if you want to be able
	      to read the CD on a Linux system with the ISO-9660 filesystem read ahead	bug.   If
	      an empty file is used for track data, this option may be used to create a disk that
	      is entirely made of padding.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks - the default.

	      Allow all subsequent tracks to violate the Read Book track  length  standard  which
	      requires a minimum track length of 4 seconds.  This option is only useful when used
	      in DAO mode.  Not all drives support this feature. The drive  must  be  accept  the
	      resulting CUE sheet.

	      Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at least 4 seconds.

	      Set  the	 pre-gap size for the next track.  This option currently only makes sense
	      with the TEAC drive when creating track-at-once disks without the 2 second  silence
	      before each track.
	      This option may go away in future.

	      If  this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks will indicate
	      that the audio data has been sampled with 50/15 usec preemphasis.  The  data,  how-
	      ever  is	not  modified during the process of transferring from file to disk.  This
	      option has no effect on data tracks.

	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks will  indicate
	      that the audio data has been mastered with linear data - this is the default.

       -copy  If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks of the result-
	      ing CD will indicate that the audio data has permission to be copied without limit.
	      This option has no effect on data tracks.

	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks of the result-
	      ing CD will indicate that the audio data has permission to be copied only once  for
	      personal use - this is the default.

       -scms  If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks of the result-
	      ing CD will indicate that the audio data has no permission to be copied anymore.

	      If the master image for the next track has been stored on  a  raw  disk,	use  this
	      option  to  specify the valid amount of data on this disk. If the image of the next
	      track is stored in a regular file, the size of that file is taken to determine  the
	      length  of  this track.  If the track contains an ISO 9660 filesystem image use the
	      -isosize option to determine the length of that filesystem image.
	      In Disk at Once mode and with some drives that use the TEAC programming  interface,
	      even  in	Track at Once mode, dvdrecord needs to know the size of each track before
	      starting to write the disk.  Cdrecord now checks this and aborts before starting to
	      write.  If this happens you will need to run mkisofs -print-size before and use the
	      output as an argument to the tsize= option of dvdrecord.
	      See fs= option for possible arguments.

       For all examples below, it will be assumed that the CD-Recorder is connected to	the  pri-
       mary SCSI bus of the machine. The SCSI target id is set to 2.

       To record a pure CD-ROM at double speed, using data from the file cdimage.raw:

	   dvdrecord -v speed=2 dev=2,0 cdimage.raw

       To create an image for a ISO 9660 filesystem with Rock Ridge extensions:

	   mkisofs -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check the resulting file before writing to CD on Solaris:

	   mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs /dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       On Linux:

	   mount cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
	   ls -lR /mnt
	   umount /mnt

       If  the	overall  speed of the system is sufficient and the structure of the filesystem is
       not too complex, dvdrecord will run without creating an image of the ISO 9660  filesystem.
       Simply run the pipeline:

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree | dvdrecord -v fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The  recommended  minimum fifo size for running this pipeline is 4 MBytes.  As the default
       fifo size is 4 MB, the fs= option needs only be present if you want  to	use  a	different
       fifo  size.   If your system is loaded, you should run mkisofs in the real time class too.
       To raise the priority of mkisofs replace the command

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree
	   priocntl -e -c RT -p 59 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

	   nice --18 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on systems that don't have UNIX International compliant realtime scheduling.

       Cdrecord runs at priority 59 on Solaris, you should run mkisofs at no more  than  priority
       58. On other systems, you should run mkisofs at no less than nice --18.

       Creating  a  CD-ROM  without file system image on disk has been tested on a Sparcstation-2
       with a Yamaha CDR-400. It did work up to quad speed when the machine was  not  loaded.	A
       faster machine may be able to handle quad speed also in the loaded case.

       To  record a pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed, with each track contained in a file named
       track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

	   dvdrecord -v speed=1 dev=2,0 -audio track*.cdaudio

       To check if it will be ok to use double speed for the example above.  Use the dummy  write

	   dvdrecord -v -dummy speed=2 dev=2,0 -audio track*.cdaudio

       To record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO 9660 filesystem from cdimage.raw on the first track,
       the other tracks being audio tracks from the files track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

	   dvdrecord -v -dummy dev=2,0 cdimage.raw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To handle drives that need to know the size of a track before starting to write, first run

	   mkisofs -R -q -print-size /master/tree

       and then run

	   mkisofs -R /master/tree | dvdrecord speed=2 dev=2,0 tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of mkisofs.

       To copy an audio CD in the most accurate way, first run

	   cdda2wav -v255 -D2,0 -B -Owav

       and then run

	   dvdrecord -v dev=2,0 -dao -useinfo  *.wav

	      This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the open call  of  the
	      SCSI transport library or a label in the file /etc/dvdrecord.conf.

	      Sets the default speed value for writing (see also -speed option).

	      Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      Default  values  can  be set for the following options in /etc/dvdrecord.conf.  For
	      example: CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m or CDR_SPEED=2

		     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the  open  call
		     of  the  SCSI  transport  library or a label in the file /etc/dvdrecord.conf
		     that allows to identify a specific drive on the system.

		     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also -speed option).

		     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      Any other label
		     is an identifier for a specific drive on the system.  Such an identifier may
		     not contain the characters ',', '/', '@' or ':'.

		     Each line that follows a label contains a TAB separated list of items.  Cur-
		     rently, three items are recognized: the SCSI ID of the  drive,  the  default
		     speed  that  should  be  used  for this drive and the default FIFO size that
		     should be used for this drive. The values for speed and fifosize may be  set
		     to -1 to tell dvdrecord to use the global defaults.  A typical line may look
		     this way:

		     teac1= 0,5,0   4	 8m

		     yamaha= 1,6,0  -1	 -1

		     This tells dvdrecord that a drive named teac1 is at scsibus 0, target 5, lun
		     0	and  should be used with speed 4 and a FIFO size of 8 MB.  A second drive
		     may be found at scsibus 1, target 6, lun 0 and uses the  default  speed  and
		     the default FIFO size.

       cdda2wav(1), readcd(1), scg(7), fbk(7), mkisofs(8).

       On  Solaris  you  need to stop the volume management if you like to use the USCSI fallback
       SCSI transport code. Even things like dvdrecord -scanbus will not work if the volume  man-
       agement is running.

       Disks  made  in Track At Once mode are not suitable as a master for direct mass production
       by CD manufacturers.  You will need the disk at once option to record such disks.   Never-
       theless	the disks made in Track At Once will normally be read in all CD players. Some old
       audio CD players however may produce a two second click between two audio tracks.

       The minimal size of a track is 4 seconds or 300 sectors. If you write smaller tracks,  the
       CD-Recorder  will  add dummy blocks. This is not an error, even though the SCSI-error mes-
       sage looks this way.

       Dvdrecord has been tested on a Pioneer DVD-RW DVR-103, Firmware	1.55.	It  is	based  on
       Cdrecord  which has been tested on an upgraded Philips CDD-521 recorder at single and dou-
       ble speed on a SparcStation 20/502 with no problems, slower computer systems  should  work
       also.   The  newer Philips/HP/Plasmon/Grundig drives as well as Yamaha CDR-100 and CDR-102
       work also. The Plasmon RF-4100 work, but has not  tested  in  multi  session.   A  Philips
       CDD-521	that  has not been upgraded will not work.  The Sony CDU-924 has been tested, but
       does not support XA-mode2 in hardware.  The sony therefore cannot create conforming  multi
       session	disks.	 The  Ricoh  RO-1420C works, but some people seem to have problems to use
       them with speed=2, try speed=0 in this case.

       The Yamaha CDR-400 and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming drives are supported  in  single  and

       You  should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with the -dummy option
       turned on if you are using dvdrecord on an unknown system. Writing  a  CD  is  a  realtime
       process.   NFS  will  not always deliver constantly the needed data rates.  If you want to
       use dvdrecord with CD-images that are located on a NFS mounted filesystem,  be  sure  that
       the  fifo  size	is  big enough.  I used Dvdrecord with with medium load on a SS20/502 and
       even at quad speed on a Sparcstation-2 which was heavily loaded, but it is recommended  to
       leave  the  system  as lightly loaded as possible while writing a CD.  If you want to make
       sure that buffer underrungs are not caused by your source disk, you may use the command

	   dvdrecord -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to create a disk that is entirely made of dummy data.  Dvdrecord needs to run as  root  to
       get access to the /dev/scg?  device nodes and to be able to lock itself into memory.

       If  you	don't  want to allow users to become root on your system, dvdrecord may safely be
       installed suid root. This allows all users or a group of users with no root privileges  to
       use  dvdrecord.	 Dvdrecord  in this case checks, if the real user would have been able to
       read the specified files.  To give all user access to use dvdrecord, enter:

	    chown root /usr/local/bin/dvdrecord
	    chmod 4711 /usr/local/bin/dvdrecord

       To give a restricted group of users access to dvdrecord enter:

	    chown root /usr/local/bin/dvdrecord
	    chgrp cdburners /usr/local/bin/dvdrecord
	    chmod 4710 /usr/local/bin/dvdrecord

       and add a group cdburners on your system.

       Never give write permissions for non root users to the /dev/scg?  devices unless you would
       allow anybody to read/write/format all your disks.

       You  should  not connect old drives that do not support disconnect/reconnect to either the
       SCSI bus that is connected to the CD-Recorder or the source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When creating a disc with both audio and data tracks, the data should be on track 1 other-
       wise  you should create a CDplus disk which is a multi session disk with the first session
       containing the audio tracks and the following session containing the data track.

       Many operating systems are not able to read more than a single data track, or need special
       software to do so.

       More information on the SCSI command set of a HP CD-Recorder can be found at:


       If  you	have  more  information  or  SCSI  command  manuals for currently unsupported CD-
       Recorders please contact the author.

       The Philips CDD 521 CD-Recorder (even in the upgraded version) has several firmware  bugs.
       Some of them will force you to power cycle the device or to reboot the machine.

       You have 9 seconds to type ^C to abort dvdrecord after you see the message:

       Starting to write CD at speed %d in %s mode for %s session.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks like:

	      dvdrecord: I/O error. test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  00 20 00 00 00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00 00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       The  first  line gives information about the transport of the command.  The text after the
       first colon gives the error text for the system call from the view of the kernel. It  usu-
       ally  is:  I/O error unless other problems happen. The next words contain a short descrip-
       tion for the SCSI command that fails. The rest of the line tells you  if  there	were  any
       problems  for  the  transport of the command over the SCSI bus.	fatal error means that it
       was not possible to transport the command (i.e. no device present at  the  requested  SCSI

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block for the failed command.

       The  third  line gives information on the SCSI status code returned by the command, if the
       transport of the command succeeds.  This is error information from the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex dump of the auto request sense information for the command.

       The fifth line is the error text for the sense key if available, followed by  the  segment
       number  that  is only valid if the command was a copy command. If the error message is not
       directly related to the current command, the text deferred error is appended.

       The sixth line is the error text for the sense code and the sense qualifier if  available.
       If  the type of the device is known, the sense data is decoded from tables in scsierrs.c .
       The text is followed by the error value for a field replaceable unit.

       The seventh line prints the block number that is related to the failed  command	and  text
       for several error flags. The block number may not be valid.

       The  eight  line reports the timeout set up for this command and the time that the command
       realy needed to be finished.

       The following message is not an error:
	      Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
	      dvdrecord: I/O error. flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00 00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy data blocks added) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       It simply notifies, that a track that is smaller than the minimum size has  been  expanded
       to 300 sectors.

       Dvdrecord has even more options than ls.

       Dvdrecord  currently  only warns if the input data will not fit on the disk.  If you don't
       abort the command you will get unpredictable results.

       There should be an option to write index numbers for audio tracks.

       There should be a recover option to make disks usable, that have  been  written	during	a
       power failure.

       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
		      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
		      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
		      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
		      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
		      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
		      For creating the experimental packet writing support, the first implementa-
		      tion of CD-RW blanking support, the first .wav file decoder and  many  nice
		      discussions on dvdrecord.

       Chris P. Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
		      For the first implementation os a BSDI SCSI rtansport.

       Grant R. Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
		      For creating the first parallel port transport implementation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry (ken@kdm.org)
		      for  providing  the  CAM	port  for  FreeBSD  together  with  Michael Smith

       If you want to actively take part on the development of cdrecord (on  which  dvdrecord  is
       based), you may join the cdwriting mailing list by sending mail to:


       and include the word subscribe in the body.  The mail address of the list is:


       dvdrecord is currently maintained by bero@gnu.org.  It is based on cdrecord:
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin

       Additional information on cdrecord can be found on:

       If you have support questions, send them to:

       or other-cdwrite@lists.debian.org

       Of you definitly found a bug, send a mail to:

       or schilling@fokus.gmd.de

       To subscribe, use:

       or http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-support

Joerg Schilling 			 Version 1.11a03			     DVDRECORD(1)
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