
CIPHERS(1) OpenSSL CIPHERS(1)
NAME
ciphers  SSL cipher display and cipher list tool.
SYNOPSIS
openssl ciphers [v] [ssl2] [ssl3] [tls1] [cipherlist]
DESCRIPTION
The cipherlist command converts OpenSSL cipher lists into ordered SSL cipher preference
lists. It can be used as a test tool to determine the appropriate cipherlist.
COMMAND OPTIONS
v verbose option. List ciphers with a complete description of protocol version (SSLv2 or
SSLv3; the latter includes TLS), key exchange, authentication, encryption and mac
algorithms used along with any key size restrictions and whether the algorithm is
classed as an "export" cipher. Note that without the v option, ciphers may seem to
appear twice in a cipher list; this is when similar ciphers are available for SSL v2
and for SSL v3/TLS v1.
ssl3
only include SSL v3 ciphers.
ssl2
only include SSL v2 ciphers.
tls1
only include TLS v1 ciphers.
h, ?
print a brief usage message.
cipherlist
a cipher list to convert to a cipher preference list. If it is not included then the
default cipher list will be used. The format is described below.
CIPHER LIST FORMAT
The cipher list consists of one or more cipher strings separated by colons. Commas or
spaces are also acceptable separators but colons are normally used.
The actual cipher string can take several different forms.
It can consist of a single cipher suite such as RC4SHA.
It can represent a list of cipher suites containing a certain algorithm, or cipher suites
of a certain type. For example SHA1 represents all ciphers suites using the digest algo
rithm SHA1 and SSLv3 represents all SSL v3 algorithms.
Lists of cipher suites can be combined in a single cipher string using the + character.
This is used as a logical and operation. For example SHA1+DES represents all cipher suites
containing the SHA1 and the DES algorithms.
Each cipher string can be optionally preceded by the characters !,  or +.
If ! is used then the ciphers are permanently deleted from the list. The ciphers deleted
can never reappear in the list even if they are explicitly stated.
If  is used then the ciphers are deleted from the list, but some or all of the ciphers
can be added again by later options.
If + is used then the ciphers are moved to the end of the list. This option doesn't add
any new ciphers it just moves matching existing ones.
If none of these characters is present then the string is just interpreted as a list of
ciphers to be appended to the current preference list. If the list includes any ciphers
already present they will be ignored: that is they will not moved to the end of the list.
Additionally the cipher string @STRENGTH can be used at any point to sort the current
cipher list in order of encryption algorithm key length.
CIPHER STRINGS
The following is a list of all permitted cipher strings and their meanings.
DEFAULT
the default cipher list. This is determined at compile time and is normally
ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+SSLv2:@STRENGTH. This must be the first cipher string specified.
COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT
the ciphers included in ALL, but not enabled by default. Currently this is ADH. Note
that this rule does not cover eNULL, which is not included by ALL (use COMPLEMENTOFALL
if necessary).
ALL all ciphers suites except the eNULL ciphers which must be explicitly enabled.
COMPLEMENTOFALL
the cipher suites not enabled by ALL, currently being eNULL.
HIGH
"high" encryption cipher suites. This currently means those with key lengths larger
than 128 bits.
MEDIUM
"medium" encryption cipher suites, currently those using 128 bit encryption.
LOW "low" encryption cipher suites, currently those using 64 or 56 bit encryption algo
rithms but excluding export cipher suites.
EXP, EXPORT
export encryption algorithms. Including 40 and 56 bits algorithms.
EXPORT40
40 bit export encryption algorithms
EXPORT56
56 bit export encryption algorithms.
eNULL, NULL
the "NULL" ciphers that is those offering no encryption. Because these offer no
encryption at all and are a security risk they are disabled unless explicitly
included.
aNULL
the cipher suites offering no authentication. This is currently the anonymous DH algo
rithms. These cipher suites are vulnerable to a "man in the middle" attack and so
their use is normally discouraged.
kRSA, RSA
cipher suites using RSA key exchange.
kEDH
cipher suites using ephemeral DH key agreement.
kDHr, kDHd
cipher suites using DH key agreement and DH certificates signed by CAs with RSA and
DSS keys respectively. Not implemented.
aRSA
cipher suites using RSA authentication, i.e. the certificates carry RSA keys.
aDSS, DSS
cipher suites using DSS authentication, i.e. the certificates carry DSS keys.
aDH cipher suites effectively using DH authentication, i.e. the certificates carry DH
keys. Not implemented.
kFZA, aFZA, eFZA, FZA
ciphers suites using FORTEZZA key exchange, authentication, encryption or all FORTEZZA
algorithms. Not implemented.
TLSv1, SSLv3, SSLv2
TLS v1.0, SSL v3.0 or SSL v2.0 cipher suites respectively.
DH cipher suites using DH, including anonymous DH.
ADH anonymous DH cipher suites.
AES cipher suites using AES.
3DES
cipher suites using triple DES.
DES cipher suites using DES (not triple DES).
RC4 cipher suites using RC4.
RC2 cipher suites using RC2.
IDEA
cipher suites using IDEA.
MD5 cipher suites using MD5.
SHA1, SHA
cipher suites using SHA1.
CIPHER SUITE NAMES
The following lists give the SSL or TLS cipher suites names from the relevant specifica
tion and their OpenSSL equivalents. It should be noted, that several cipher suite names do
not include the authentication used, e.g. DESCBC3SHA. In these cases, RSA authentication
is used.
SSL v3.0 cipher suites.
SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5 NULLMD5
SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA NULLSHA
SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5 EXPRC4MD5
SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5 RC4MD5
SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA RC4SHA
SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC2_CBC_40_MD5 EXPRC2CBCMD5
SSL_RSA_WITH_IDEA_CBC_SHA IDEACBCSHA
SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXPDESCBCSHA
SSL_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA DESCBCSHA
SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA DESCBC3SHA
SSL_DH_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA Not implemented.
SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA Not implemented.
SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA Not implemented.
SSL_DH_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA Not implemented.
SSL_DH_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA Not implemented.
SSL_DH_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA Not implemented.
SSL_DHE_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXPEDHDSSDESCBCSHA
SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA EDHDSSCBCSHA
SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA EDHDSSDESCBC3SHA
SSL_DHE_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXPEDHRSADESCBCSHA
SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA EDHRSADESCBCSHA
SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA EDHRSADESCBC3SHA
SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5 EXPADHRC4MD5
SSL_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5 ADHRC4MD5
SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXPADHDESCBCSHA
SSL_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA ADHDESCBCSHA
SSL_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA ADHDESCBC3SHA
SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_NULL_SHA Not implemented.
SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_FORTEZZA_CBC_SHA Not implemented.
SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA Not implemented.
TLS v1.0 cipher suites.
TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5 NULLMD5
TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA NULLSHA
TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5 EXPRC4MD5
TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5 RC4MD5
TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA RC4SHA
TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC2_CBC_40_MD5 EXPRC2CBCMD5
TLS_RSA_WITH_IDEA_CBC_SHA IDEACBCSHA
TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXPDESCBCSHA
TLS_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA DESCBCSHA
TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA DESCBC3SHA
TLS_DH_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA Not implemented.
TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA Not implemented.
TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA Not implemented.
TLS_DH_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA Not implemented.
TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA Not implemented.
TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA Not implemented.
TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXPEDHDSSDESCBCSHA
TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA EDHDSSCBCSHA
TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA EDHDSSDESCBC3SHA
TLS_DHE_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXPEDHRSADESCBCSHA
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA EDHRSADESCBCSHA
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA EDHRSADESCBC3SHA
TLS_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5 EXPADHRC4MD5
TLS_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5 ADHRC4MD5
TLS_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA EXPADHDESCBCSHA
TLS_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA ADHDESCBCSHA
TLS_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA ADHDESCBC3SHA
AES ciphersuites from RFC3268, extending TLS v1.0
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA AES128SHA
TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA AES256SHA
TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA DHDSSAES128SHA
TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA DHDSSAES256SHA
TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA DHRSAAES128SHA
TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA DHRSAAES256SHA
TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA DHEDSSAES128SHA
TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA DHEDSSAES256SHA
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA DHERSAAES128SHA
TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA DHERSAAES256SHA
TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA ADHAES128SHA
TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA ADHAES256SHA
Additional Export 1024 and other cipher suites
Note: these ciphers can also be used in SSL v3.
TLS_RSA_EXPORT1024_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA EXP1024DESCBCSHA
TLS_RSA_EXPORT1024_WITH_RC4_56_SHA EXP1024RC4SHA
TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT1024_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA EXP1024DHEDSSDESCBCSHA
TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT1024_WITH_RC4_56_SHA EXP1024DHEDSSRC4SHA
TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_RC4_128_SHA DHEDSSRC4SHA
SSL v2.0 cipher suites.
SSL_CK_RC4_128_WITH_MD5 RC4MD5
SSL_CK_RC4_128_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5 EXPRC4MD5
SSL_CK_RC2_128_CBC_WITH_MD5 RC2MD5
SSL_CK_RC2_128_CBC_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5 EXPRC2MD5
SSL_CK_IDEA_128_CBC_WITH_MD5 IDEACBCMD5
SSL_CK_DES_64_CBC_WITH_MD5 DESCBCMD5
SSL_CK_DES_192_EDE3_CBC_WITH_MD5 DESCBC3MD5
NOTES
The nonephemeral DH modes are currently unimplemented in OpenSSL because there is no sup
port for DH certificates.
Some compiled versions of OpenSSL may not include all the ciphers listed here because some
ciphers were excluded at compile time.
EXAMPLES
Verbose listing of all OpenSSL ciphers including NULL ciphers:
openssl ciphers v 'ALL:eNULL'
Include all ciphers except NULL and anonymous DH then sort by strength:
openssl ciphers v 'ALL:!ADH:@STRENGTH'
Include only 3DES ciphers and then place RSA ciphers last:
openssl ciphers v '3DES:+RSA'
Include all RC4 ciphers but leave out those without authentication:
openssl ciphers v 'RC4:!COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT'
Include all chiphers with RSA authentication but leave out ciphers without encryption.
openssl ciphers v 'RSA:!COMPLEMENTOFALL'
SEE ALSO
s_client(1), s_server(1), ssl(3)
HISTORY
The COMPLENTOFALL and COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT selection options were added in version 0.9.7.
0.9.7a 20021229 CIPHERS(1) 
