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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for busybox (redhat section 1)

BUSYBOX(1)				     BusyBox				       BUSYBOX(1)

NAME
       BusyBox - The Swiss Army Knife of Embedded Linux

SYNTAX
	BusyBox <function> [arguments...]  # or

	<function> [arguments...]	   # if symlinked

DESCRIPTION
       BusyBox combines tiny versions of many common UNIX utilities into a single small exe-
       cutable. It provides minimalist replacements for most of the utilities you usually find in
       fileutils, shellutils, findutils, textutils, grep, gzip, tar, etc.  BusyBox provides a
       fairly complete POSIX environment for any small or embedded system.  The utilities in
       BusyBox generally have fewer options than their full-featured GNU cousins; however, the
       options that are included provide the expected functionality and behave very much like
       their GNU counterparts.

       BusyBox has been written with size-optimization and limited resources in mind.  It is also
       extremely modular so you can easily include or exclude commands (or features) at compile
       time.  This makes it easy to customize your embedded systems.  To create a working system,
       just add a kernel, a shell (such as ash), and an editor (such as elvis-tiny or ae).

USAGE
       When you create a link to BusyBox for the function you wish to use, when BusyBox is called
       using that link it will behave as if the command itself has been invoked.

       For example, entering

	       ln -s ./BusyBox ls
	       ./ls

       will cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls' (if the 'ls' command has been compiled into BusyBox).

       You can also invoke BusyBox by issuing the command as an argument on the command line.
       For example, entering

	       ./BusyBox ls

       will also cause BusyBox to behave as 'ls'.

COMMON OPTIONS
       Most BusyBox commands support the -h option to provide a terse runtime description of
       their behavior.

COMMANDS
       Currently defined functions include:

       adjtimex, ar, basename, busybox, cat, chgrp, chmod, chown, chroot, chvt, clear, cmp, cp,
       cpio, cut, date, dc, dd, deallocvt, df, dirname, dmesg, dos2unix, dpkg, dpkg-deb, du,
       dumpkmap, dutmp, echo, expr, false, fbset, fdflush, find, free, freeramdisk, fsck.minix,
       getopt, grep, gunzip, gzip, halt, head, hostid, hostname, id, ifconfig, init, insmod,
       kill, killall, klogd, length, ln, loadacm, loadfont, loadkmap, logger, logname, ls, lsmod,
       makedevs, md5sum, mkdir, mkfifo, mkfs.minix, mknod, mkswap, mktemp, more, mount, mt, mv,
       nc, nslookup, ping, pivot_root, poweroff, printf, ps, pwd, rdate, readlink, reboot,
       renice, reset, rm, rmdir, rmmod, route, rpm2cpio, sed, setkeycodes, sh, sleep, sort, stty,
       swapoff, swapon, sync, syslogd, tail, tar, tee, telnet, test, tftp, touch, tr, true, tty,
       umount, uname, uniq, unix2dos, update, uptime, usleep, uudecode, uuencode, watchdog, wc,
       wget, which, whoami, xargs, yes, zcat, [

       adjtimex
	   adjtimex [-q] [-o offset] [-f frequency] [-p timeconstant] [-t tick]

	   Reads and optionally sets system timebase parameters.  See adjtimex(2).

	   Options:

		   -q		   quiet mode - do not print
		   -o offset	   time offset, microseconds
		   -f frequency    frequency adjust, integer kernel units (65536 is 1ppm)
				   (positive values make the system clock run fast)
		   -t tick	   microseconds per tick, usually 10000
		   -p timeconstant

	   -------------------------------

       ar  ar -[ov][ptx] ARCHIVE FILES

	   Extract or list FILES from an ar archive.

	   Options:

		   -o		   preserve original dates
		   -p		   extract to stdout
		   -t		   list
		   -x		   extract
		   -v		   verbosely list files processed

	   -------------------------------

       basename
	   basename FILE [SUFFIX]

	   Strips directory path and suffixes from FILE.  If specified, also removes any trailing
	   SUFFIX.

	   Example:

		   $ basename /usr/local/bin/foo
		   foo
		   $ basename /usr/local/bin/
		   bin
		   $ basename /foo/bar.txt .txt
		   bar

	   -------------------------------

       cat cat [FILE]...

	   Concatenates FILE(s) and prints them to stdout.

	   Example:

		   $ cat /proc/uptime
		   110716.72 17.67

	   -------------------------------

       chgrp
	   chgrp [OPTION]... GROUP FILE...

	   Change the group membership of each FILE to GROUP.

	   Options:

		   -R	   Changes files and directories recursively.

	   Example:

		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -r--r--r--	 1 andersen andersen	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
		   $ chgrp root /tmp/foo
		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -r--r--r--	 1 andersen root	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

	   -------------------------------

       chmod
	   chmod [-R] MODE[,MODE]... FILE...

	   Each MODE is one or more of the letters ugoa, one of the symbols +-= and one or more
	   of the letters rwxst.

	   Options:

		   -R	   Changes files and directories recursively.

	   Example:

		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -rw-rw-r--	 1 root     root	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
		   $ chmod u+x /tmp/foo
		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -rwxrw-r--	 1 root     root	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo*
		   $ chmod 444 /tmp/foo
		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -r--r--r--	 1 root     root	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

	   -------------------------------

       chown
	   chown [ -Rh ]...  OWNER[<.|:>[GROUP]] FILE...

	   Change the owner and/or group of each FILE to OWNER and/or GROUP.

	   Options:

		   -R	   Changes files and directories recursively.
		   -h	   Do not dereference symbolic links.

	   Example:

		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -r--r--r--	 1 andersen andersen	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
		   $ chown root /tmp/foo
		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -r--r--r--	 1 root     andersen	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo
		   $ chown root.root /tmp/foo
		   ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -r--r--r--	 1 root     root	    0 Apr 12 18:25 /tmp/foo

	   -------------------------------

       chroot
	   chroot NEWROOT [COMMAND...]

	   Run COMMAND with root directory set to NEWROOT.

	   Example:

		   $ ls -l /bin/ls
		   lrwxrwxrwx	 1 root     root	  12 Apr 13 00:46 /bin/ls -> /BusyBox
		   $ mount /dev/hdc1 /mnt -t minix
		   $ chroot /mnt
		   $ ls -l /bin/ls
		   -rwxr-xr-x	 1 root     root	40816 Feb  5 07:45 /bin/ls*

	   -------------------------------

       chvt
	   chvt N

	   Changes the foreground virtual terminal to /dev/ttyN

	   -------------------------------

       clear
	   clear

	   Clear screen.

	   -------------------------------

       cmp cmp FILE1 [FILE2]

		   -s	   quiet mode - do not print
	   Compare files.

	   -------------------------------

       cp  cp [OPTION]... SOURCE DEST

	   Copies SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.

		   -a	   Same as -dpR
		   -d	   Preserves links
		   -p	   Preserves file attributes if possible
		   -f	   force (implied; ignored) - always set
		   -R	   Copies directories recursively

	   -------------------------------

       cpio
	   cpio -[dimtuv][F cpiofile]

	   Extract or list files from a cpio archive Main operation mode:

		   d		   make leading directories
		   i		   extract
		   m		   preserve mtime
		   t		   list
		   u		   unconditional overwrite	   F		   input from file

	   -------------------------------

       cut cut [OPTION]... [FILE]...

	   Prints selected fields from each input FILE to standard output.

	   Options:

		   -b LIST	   Output only bytes from LIST
		   -c LIST	   Output only characters from LIST
		   -d CHAR	   Use CHAR instead of tab as the field delimiter
		   -s		   Output only the lines containing delimiter
		   -f N 	   Print only these fields
		   -n		   Ignored

	   Example:

		   $ echo "Hello world" | cut -f 1 -d ' '
		   Hello
		   $ echo "Hello world" | cut -f 2 -d ' '
		   world

	   -------------------------------

       date
	   date [OPTION]... [+FORMAT]

	   Displays the current time in the given FORMAT, or sets the system date.

	   Options:

		   -R		   Outputs RFC-822 compliant date string
		   -d STRING	   display time described by STRING, not `now'
		   -s		   Sets time described by STRING
		   -u		   Prints or sets Coordinated Universal Time

	   Example:

		   $ date
		   Wed Apr 12 18:52:41 MDT 2000

	   -------------------------------

       dc  dc expression ...

	   This is a Tiny RPN calculator that understands the following operations: +, -, /, *,
	   and, or, not, eor.  i.e., 'dc 2 2 add' -> 4, and 'dc 8 8 \* 2 2 + /' -> 16

	   Example:

		   $ dc 2 2 +
		   4
		   $ dc 8 8 * 2 2 + /
		   16
		   $ dc 0 1 and
		   0
		   $ dc 0 1 or
		   1
		   $ echo 72 9 div 8 mul | dc
		   64

	   -------------------------------

       dd  dd [if=FILE] [of=FILE] [bs=N] [count=N] [skip=N]	   [seek=N] [conv=notrunc|noer-
	   ror|sync]

	   Copy a file, converting and formatting according to options

		   if=FILE	   read from FILE instead of stdin
		   of=FILE	   write to FILE instead of stdout
		   bs=N 	   read and write N bytes at a time
		   count=N	   copy only N input blocks
		   skip=N	   skip N input blocks
		   seek=N	   skip N output blocks
		   conv=notrunc    don't truncate output file
		   conv=noerror    continue after read errors
		   conv=sync	   pad blocks with zeros

	   Numbers may be suffixed by c (x1), w (x2), b (x512), kD (x1000), k (x1024), MD
	   (x1000000), M (x1048576), GD (x1000000000) or G (x1073741824).

	   Example:

		   $ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ram1 bs=1M count=4
		   4+0 records in
		   4+0 records out

	   -------------------------------

       deallocvt
	   deallocvt N

	   Deallocate unused virtual terminal /dev/ttyN

	   -------------------------------

       df  df [-hmk] [FILESYSTEM ...]

	   Print the filesystem space used and space available.

	   Options:

		   -h	   print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )
		   -m	   print sizes in megabytes
		   -k	   print sizes in kilobytes(default)

	   Example:

		   $ df
		   Filesystem		1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
		   /dev/sda3		  8690864   8553540    137324  98% /
		   /dev/sda1		    64216     36364	27852  57% /boot
		   $ df /dev/sda3
		   Filesystem		1k-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
		   /dev/sda3		  8690864   8553540    137324  98% /

	   -------------------------------

       dirname
	   dirname [FILENAME ...]

	   Strips non-directory suffix from FILENAME

	   Example:

		   $ dirname /tmp/foo
		   /tmp
		   $ dirname /tmp/foo/
		   /tmp

	   -------------------------------

       dmesg
	   dmesg [-c] [-n LEVEL] [-s SIZE]

	   Prints or controls the kernel ring buffer

	   Options:

		   -c		   Clears the ring buffer's contents after printing
		   -n LEVEL	   Sets console logging level
		   -s SIZE	   Use a buffer of size SIZE

	   -------------------------------

       dos2unix
	   dos2unix [option] [FILE]

	   Converts FILE from dos format to unix format.  When no option is given, the input is
	   converted to the opposite output format.  When no file is given, uses stdin for input
	   and stdout for output.

	   Options:

		   -u	   output will be in UNIX format
		   -d	   output will be in DOS format

	   -------------------------------

       dpkg
	   dpkg -i package_file [-CPru] package_name

		   -i	   Install the package
		   -C	   Configure an unpackaged package
		   -P	   Purge all files of a package
		   -r	   Remove all but the configuration files for a package
		   -u	   Unpack a package, but dont configure it

	   -------------------------------

       dpkg_deb
	   dpkg_deb [-cefItxX] FILE [argument]

	   Perform actions on debian packages (.debs)

	   Options:

		   -c	   List contents of filesystem tree
		   -e	   Extract control files to [argument] directory
		   -f	   Display control field name starting with [argument]
		   -I	   Display the control filenamed [argument]
		   -t	   Extract filesystem tree to stdout in tar format
		   -x	   Extract packages filesystem tree to directory
		   -X	   Verbose extract

	   Example:

		   $ dpkg-deb -X ./busybox_0.48-1_i386.deb /tmp

	   -------------------------------

       du  du [-lsxhmk] [FILE]...

	   Summarizes disk space used for each FILE and/or directory.  Disk space is printed in
	   units of 1024 bytes.

	   Options:

		   -l	   count sizes many times if hard linked
		   -s	   display only a total for each argument
		   -h	   print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )
		   -m	   print sizes in megabytes
		   -x	   skip directories on different filesystems
		   -k	   print sizes in kilobytes(default)

	   Example:

		   $ du
		   16	   ./CVS
		   12	   ./kernel-patches/CVS
		   80	   ./kernel-patches
		   12	   ./tests/CVS
		   36	   ./tests
		   12	   ./scripts/CVS
		   16	   ./scripts
		   12	   ./docs/CVS
		   104	   ./docs
		   2417    .

	   -------------------------------

       dumpkmap
	   dumpkmap > keymap

	   Prints out a binary keyboard translation table to standard output.

	   Example:

		   $ dumpkmap > keymap

	   -------------------------------

       dutmp
	   dutmp [FILE]

	   Dump utmp file format (pipe delimited) from FILE or stdin to stdout.  (i.e., 'dutmp
	   /var/run/utmp')

	   Example:

		   $ dutmp /var/run/utmp
		   8|7||si|||0|0|0|955637625|760097|0
		   2|0|~|~~|reboot||0|0|0|955637625|782235|0
		   1|20020|~|~~|runlevel||0|0|0|955637625|800089|0
		   8|125||l4|||0|0|0|955637629|998367|0
		   6|245|tty1|1|LOGIN||0|0|0|955637630|998974|0
		   6|246|tty2|2|LOGIN||0|0|0|955637630|999498|0
		   7|336|pts/0|vt00andersen|andersen|:0.0|0|0|0|955637763|0|0

	   -------------------------------

       echo
	   echo [-neE] [ARG ...]

	   Prints the specified ARGs to stdout

	   Options:

		   -n	   suppress trailing newline
		   -e	   interpret backslash-escaped characters (i.e., \t=tab)
		   -E	   disable interpretation of backslash-escaped characters

	   Example:

		   $ echo "Erik is cool"
		   Erik is cool
		   $  echo -e "Erik\nis\ncool"
		   Erik
		   is
		   cool
		   $ echo "Erik\nis\ncool"
		   Erik\nis\ncool

	   -------------------------------

       env env [-iu] [-] [name=value]... [command]

	   Prints the current environment or runs a program after setting up the specified envi-
	   ronment.

	   Options:

		   -, -i   start with an empty environment
		   -u	   remove variable from the environment

	   -------------------------------

       expr
	   expr EXPRESSION

	   Prints the value of EXPRESSION to standard output.

	   EXPRESSION may be:

		   ARG1 |  ARG2    ARG1 if it is neither null nor 0, otherwise ARG2
		   ARG1 &  ARG2    ARG1 if neither argument is null or 0, otherwise 0
		   ARG1 <  ARG2    ARG1 is less than ARG2
		   ARG1 <= ARG2    ARG1 is less than or equal to ARG2
		   ARG1 =  ARG2    ARG1 is equal to ARG2
		   ARG1 != ARG2    ARG1 is unequal to ARG2
		   ARG1 >= ARG2    ARG1 is greater than or equal to ARG2
		   ARG1 >  ARG2    ARG1 is greater than ARG2
		   ARG1 +  ARG2    arithmetic sum of ARG1 and ARG2
		   ARG1 -  ARG2    arithmetic difference of ARG1 and ARG2
		   ARG1 *  ARG2    arithmetic product of ARG1 and ARG2
		   ARG1 /  ARG2    arithmetic quotient of ARG1 divided by ARG2
		   ARG1 %  ARG2    arithmetic remainder of ARG1 divided by ARG2
		   STRING : REGEXP	       anchored pattern match of REGEXP in STRING
		   match STRING REGEXP	       same as STRING : REGEXP
		   substr STRING POS LENGTH    substring of STRING, POS counted from 1
		   index STRING CHARS	       index in STRING where any CHARS is found,
					       or 0
		   length STRING	       length of STRING
		   quote TOKEN		       interpret TOKEN as a string, even if
					       it is a keyword like `match' or an
					       operator like `/'
		   ( EXPRESSION )	       value of EXPRESSION

	   Beware that many operators need to be escaped or quoted for shells.	Comparisons are
	   arithmetic if both ARGs are numbers, else lexicographical.  Pattern matches return the
	   string matched between \( and \) or null; if \( and \) are not used, they return the
	   number of characters matched or 0.

	   -------------------------------

       false
	   false

	   Return an exit code of FALSE (1).

	   Example:

		   $ false
		   $ echo $?
		   1

	   -------------------------------

       fbset
	   fbset [options] [mode]

	   Show and modify frame buffer settings

	   Example:

		   $ fbset
		   mode "1024x768-76"
			   # D: 78.653 MHz, H: 59.949 kHz, V: 75.694 Hz
			   geometry 1024 768 1024 768 16
			   timings 12714 128 32 16 4 128 4
			   accel false
			   rgba 5/11,6/5,5/0,0/0
		   endmode

	   -------------------------------

       fdflush
	   fdflush DEVICE

	   Forces floppy disk drive to detect disk change

	   -------------------------------

       find
	   find [PATH...] [EXPRESSION]

	   Search for files in a directory hierarchy.  The default PATH is the current directory;
	   default EXPRESSION is '-print'

	   EXPRESSION may consist of:

		   -follow	   Dereference symbolic links.
		   -name PATTERN   File name (leading directories removed) matches PATTERN.
		   -print	   Print (default and assumed).

		   -type X	   Filetype matches X (where X is one of: f,d,l,b,c,...)
		   -perm PERMS	   Permissions match any of (+NNN); all of (-NNN);
				   or exactly (NNN)
		   -mtime TIME	   Modified time is greater than (+N); less than (-N);
				   or exactly (N) days
		   -newer FILE	   Modified time is more recent than FILE's

	   Example:

		   $ find / -name /etc/passwd
		   /etc/passwd

	   -------------------------------

       free
	   free

	   Displays the amount of free and used system memory

	   Example:

		   $ free
				 total	       used	    free       shared	   buffers
		     Mem:	257628	     248724	    8904	59644	     93124
		    Swap:	128516	       8404	  120112
		   Total:	386144	     257128	  129016

	   -------------------------------

       freeramdisk
	   freeramdisk DEVICE

	   Frees all memory used by the specified ramdisk.

	   Example:

		   $ freeramdisk /dev/ram2

	   -------------------------------

       fsck_minix
	   fsck_minix [-larvsmf] /dev/name

	   Performs a consistency check for MINIX filesystems.

	   Options:

		   -l	   Lists all filenames
		   -r	   Perform interactive repairs
		   -a	   Perform automatic repairs
		   -v	   verbose
		   -s	   Outputs super-block information
		   -m	   Activates MINIX-like "mode not cleared" warnings
		   -f	   Force file system check.

	   -------------------------------

       getopt
	   getopt [OPTIONS]...

	   Parse command options

		   -a, --alternative		   Allow long options starting with single -
		   -l, --longoptions=longopts	   Long options to be recognized
		   -n, --name=progname		   The name under which errors are reported
		   -o, --options=optstring Short options to be recognized
		   -q, --quiet			   Disable error reporting by getopt(3)
		   -Q, --quiet-output		   No normal output
		   -s, --shell=shell		   Set shell quoting conventions
		   -T, --test			   Test for getopt(1) version
		   -u, --unqote 		   Do not quote the output

	   Example:

		   $ cat getopt.test
		   #!/bin/sh
		   GETOPT=`getopt -o ab:c:: --long a-long,b-long:,c-long:: \
			  -n 'example.busybox' -- "$@"`
		   if [ $? != 0 ] ; then  exit 1 ; fi
		   eval set -- "$GETOPT"
		   while true ; do
		    case $1 in
		      -a|--a-long) echo "Option a" ; shift ;;
		      -b|--b-long) echo "Option b, argument `$2'" ; shift 2 ;;
		      -c|--c-long)
			case "$2" in
			  "") echo "Option c, no argument"; shift 2 ;;
			  *)  echo "Option c, argument `$2'" ; shift 2 ;;
			esac ;;
		      --) shift ; break ;;
		      *) echo "Internal error!" ; exit 1 ;;
		    esac
		   done

	   -------------------------------

       grep
	   grep [-ihHnqvs] PATTERN [FILEs...]

	   Search for PATTERN in each FILE or standard input.

	   Options:

		   -H	   prefix output lines with filename where match was found
		   -h	   suppress the prefixing filename on output
		   -i	   ignore case distinctions
		   -l	   list names of files that match
		   -n	   print line number with output lines
		   -q	   be quiet. Returns 0 if result was found, 1 otherwise
		   -v	   select non-matching lines
		   -s	   suppress file open/read error messages

	   Example:

		   $ grep root /etc/passwd
		   root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
		   $ grep ^[rR]oo. /etc/passwd
		   root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash

	   -------------------------------

       gunzip
	   gunzip [OPTION]... FILE

	   Uncompress FILE (or standard input if FILE is '-').

	   Options:

		   -c	   Write output to standard output
		   -t	   Test compressed file integrity

	   Example:

		   $ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox*
		   -rw-rw-r--	 1 andersen andersen   557009 Apr 11 10:55 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz
		   $ gunzip /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar.gz
		   $ ls -la /tmp/BusyBox*
		   -rw-rw-r--	 1 andersen andersen  1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/BusyBox-0.43.tar

	   -------------------------------

       gzip
	   gzip [OPTION]... FILE

	   Compress FILE with maximum compression.  When FILE is '-', reads standard input.
	   Implies -c.

	   Options:

		   -c	   Write output to standard output instead of FILE.gz
		   -d	   decompress

	   Example:

		   $ ls -la /tmp/busybox*
		   -rw-rw-r--	 1 andersen andersen  1761280 Apr 14 17:47 /tmp/busybox.tar
		   $ gzip /tmp/busybox.tar
		   $ ls -la /tmp/busybox*
		   -rw-rw-r--	 1 andersen andersen   554058 Apr 14 17:49 /tmp/busybox.tar.gz

	   -------------------------------

       halt
	   halt

	   Halt the system.

	   -------------------------------

       head
	   head [OPTION] [FILE]...

	   Print first 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more than one FILE, pre-
	   cede each with a header giving the file name. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read
	   standard input.

	   Options:

		   -n NUM	   Print first NUM lines instead of first 10

	   Example:

		   $ head -n 2 /etc/passwd
		   root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
		   daemon:x:1:1:daemon:/usr/sbin:/bin/sh

	   -------------------------------

       hostid
	   hostid

	   Print out a unique 32-bit identifier for the machine.

	   -------------------------------

       hostname
	   hostname [OPTION] {hostname | -F FILE}

	   Get or set the hostname or DNS domain name. If a hostname is given (or FILE with the
	   -F parameter), the host name will be set.

	   Options:

		   -s		   Short
		   -i		   Addresses for the hostname
		   -d		   DNS domain name
		   -F, --file FILE Use the contents of FILE to specify the hostname

	   Example:

		   $ hostname
		   sage

	   -------------------------------

       id  id [OPTIONS]... [USERNAME]

	   Print information for USERNAME or the current user

	   Options:

		   -g	   prints only the group ID
		   -u	   prints only the user ID
		   -n	   print a name instead of a number (with for -ug)
		   -r	   prints the real user ID instead of the effective ID (with -ug)

	   Example:

		   $ id
		   uid=1000(andersen) gid=1000(andersen)

	   -------------------------------

       ifconfig
	   ifconfig [-a] <interface> [<address>]

	   configure a network interface

	   Options:

		   [[-]broadcast [<address>]]  [[-]pointopoint [<address>]]
		   [netmask <address>]	[dstaddr <address>]
		   [outfill <NN>] [keepalive <NN>]
		   [hw ether <address>]  [metric <NN>]	[mtu <NN>]
		   [[-]trailers]  [[-]arp]  [[-]allmulti]
		   [multicast]	[[-]promisc]  [txqueuelen <NN>]  [[-]dynamic]
		   [mem_start <NN>]  [io_addr <NN>]  [irq <NN>]
		   [up|down] ...

	   -------------------------------

       init
	   init

	   Init is the parent of all processes.

	   This version of init is designed to be run only by the kernel.

	   BusyBox init doesn't support multiple runlevels.  The runlevels field of the
	   /etc/inittab file is completely ignored by BusyBox init. If you want runlevels, use
	   sysvinit.

	   BusyBox init works just fine without an inittab.  If no inittab is found, it has the
	   following default behavior:

		   ::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS
		   ::askfirst:/bin/sh
		   ::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/reboot
		   ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a
		   ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r
		   ::restart:/sbin/init

	   if it detects that /dev/console is _not_ a serial console, it will also run:

		   tty2::askfirst:/bin/sh
		   tty3::askfirst:/bin/sh
		   tty4::askfirst:/bin/sh

	   If you choose to use an /etc/inittab file, the inittab entry format is as follows:

		   <id>:<runlevels>:<action>:<process>

		   <id>:

			   WARNING: This field has a non-traditional meaning for BusyBox init!
			   The id field is used by BusyBox init to specify the controlling tty for
			   the specified process to run on.  The contents of this field are
			   appended to "/dev/" and used as-is.	There is no need for this field to
			   be unique, although if it isn't you may have strange results.  If this
			   field is left blank, the controlling tty is set to the console.  Also
			   note that if BusyBox detects that a serial console is in use, then only
			   entries whose controlling tty is either the serial console or /dev/null
			   will be run.  BusyBox init does nothing with utmp.  We don't need no
			   stinkin' utmp.

		   <runlevels>:

			   The runlevels field is completely ignored.

		   <action>:

			   Valid actions include: sysinit, respawn, askfirst, wait,
			   once, restart, ctrlaltdel, and shutdown.

			   The available actions can be classified into two groups: actions
			   that are run only once, and actions that are re-run when the specified
			   process exits.

			   Run only-once actions:

				   'sysinit' is the first item run on boot.  init waits until all
				   sysinit actions are completed before continuing.  Following the
				   completion of all sysinit actions, all 'wait' actions are run.
				   'wait' actions, like  'sysinit' actions, cause init to wait until
				   the specified task completes.  'once' actions are asynchronous,
				   therefore, init does not wait for them to complete.	'restart' is
				   the action taken to restart the init process.  By default this should
				   simply run /sbin/init, but can be a script which runs pivot_root or it
				   can do all sorts of other interesting things.  The 'ctrlaltdel' init
				   actions are run when the system detects that someone on the system
				  console has pressed the CTRL-ALT-DEL key combination.  Typically one
				  wants to run 'reboot' at this point to cause the system to reboot.
				   Finally the 'shutdown' action specifies the actions to taken when
				  init is told to reboot.  Unmounting filesystems and disabling swap
				  is a very good here

			   Run repeatedly actions:

				   'respawn' actions are run after the 'once' actions.	When a process
				   started with a 'respawn' action exits, init automatically restarts
				   it.	Unlike sysvinit, BusyBox init does not stop processes from
				   respawning out of control.  The 'askfirst' actions acts just like
				   respawn, except that before running the specified process it
				   displays the line "Please press Enter to activate this console."
				   and then waits for the user to press enter before starting the
				   specified process.

			   Unrecognized actions (like initdefault) will cause init to emit an
			   error message, and then go along with its business.	All actions are
			   run in the order they appear in /etc/inittab.

		   <process>:

			   Specifies the process to be executed and it's command line.

	   Example /etc/inittab file:

		   # This is run first except when booting in single-user mode.
		   #
		   ::sysinit:/etc/init.d/rcS

		   # /bin/sh invocations on selected ttys
		   #
		   # Start an "askfirst" shell on the console (whatever that may be)
		   ::askfirst:-/bin/sh
		   # Start an "askfirst" shell on /dev/tty2-4
		   tty2::askfirst:-/bin/sh
		   tty3::askfirst:-/bin/sh
		   tty4::askfirst:-/bin/sh

		   # /sbin/getty invocations for selected ttys
		   #
		   tty4::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty5
		   tty5::respawn:/sbin/getty 38400 tty6

		   # Example of how to put a getty on a serial line (for a terminal)
		   #
		   #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS0 9600 vt100
		   #::respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyS1 9600 vt100
		   #
		   # Example how to put a getty on a modem line.
		   #::respawn:/sbin/getty 57600 ttyS2

		   # Stuff to do when restarting the init process
		   ::restart:/sbin/init

		   # Stuff to do before rebooting
		   ::ctrlaltdel:/sbin/reboot
		   ::shutdown:/bin/umount -a -r
		   ::shutdown:/sbin/swapoff -a

	   -------------------------------

       insmod
	   insmod [OPTION]... MODULE [symbol=value]...

	   Loads the specified kernel modules into the kernel.

	   Options:

		   -f	   Force module to load into the wrong kernel version.
		   -k	   Make module autoclean-able.
		   -v	   verbose output
		   -L	   Lock to prevent simultaneous loads of a module
		   -x	   do not export externs

	   -------------------------------

       kill
	   kill [-signal] process-id [process-id ...]

	   Send a signal (default is SIGTERM) to the specified process(es).

	   Options:

		   -l	   List all signal names and numbers.

	   Example:

		   $ ps | grep apache
		   252 root	root	 S [apache]
		   263 www-data www-data S [apache]
		   264 www-data www-data S [apache]
		   265 www-data www-data S [apache]
		   266 www-data www-data S [apache]
		   267 www-data www-data S [apache]
		   $ kill 252

	   -------------------------------

       killall
	   killall [-signal] process-name [process-name ...]

	   Send a signal (default is SIGTERM) to the specified process(es).

	   Options:

		   -l	   List all signal names and numbers.

	   Example:

		   $ killall apache

	   -------------------------------

       klogd
	   klogd -n

	   Kernel logger.  Options:

		   -n	   Run as a foreground process.

	   -------------------------------

       lash
	   lash [FILE]...  or: sh -c command [args]...

	   lash: The BusyBox LAme SHell (command interpreter)

	   This command does not yet have proper documentation.

	   Use lash just as you would use any other shell.  It properly handles pipes, redirects,
	   job control, can be used as the shell for scripts, and has a sufficient set of
	   builtins to do what is needed.  It does not (yet) support Bourne Shell syntax.  If you
	   need things like "if-then-else", "while", and such use ash or bash.	If you just need
	   a very simple and extremely small shell, this will do the job.

	   -------------------------------

       length
	   length STRING

	   Prints out the length of the specified STRING.

	   Example:

		   $ length Hello
		   5

	   -------------------------------

       ln  ln [OPTION] TARGET... LINK_NAME|DIRECTORY

	   Create a link named LINK_NAME or DIRECTORY to the specified TARGET

	   You may use '--' to indicate that all following arguments are non-options.

	   Options:

		   -s	   make symbolic links instead of hard links
		   -f	   remove existing destination files
		   -n	   no dereference symlinks - treat like normal file

	   Example:

		   $ ln -s BusyBox /tmp/ls
		   $ ls -l /tmp/ls
		   lrwxrwxrwx	 1 root     root	    7 Apr 12 18:39 ls -> BusyBox*

	   -------------------------------

       loadacm
	   loadacm < mapfile

	   Loads an acm from standard input.

	   Example:

		   $ loadacm < /etc/i18n/acmname

	   -------------------------------

       loadfont
	   loadfont < font

	   Loads a console font from standard input.

	   Example:

		   $ loadfont < /etc/i18n/fontname

	   -------------------------------

       loadkmap
	   loadkmap < keymap

	   Loads a binary keyboard translation table from standard input.

	   Example:

		   $ loadkmap < /etc/i18n/lang-keymap

	   -------------------------------

       logger
	   logger [OPTION]... [MESSAGE]

	   Write MESSAGE to the system log.  If MESSAGE is omitted, log stdin.

	   Options:

		   -s	   Log to stderr as well as the system log.
		   -t	   Log using the specified tag (defaults to user name).
		   -p	   Enter the message with the specified priority.
			   This may be numerical or a ``facility.level'' pair.

	   Example:

		   $ logger "hello"

	   -------------------------------

       logname
	   logname

	   Print the name of the current user.

	   Example:

		   $ logname
		   root

	   -------------------------------

       logread
	   logread

	   Shows the messages from syslogd (using circular buffer).

	   -------------------------------

       losetup
	   losetup [OPTION]... LOOPDEVICE [FILE]

	   Associate LOOPDEVICE with FILE.

	   Options:

		   -d		   Disassociate LOOPDEVICE.
		   -o OFFSET	   Start OFFSET bytes into FILE.

	   -------------------------------

       ls  ls [-1AacCdeFilnpLRrSsTtuvwxXhk] [filenames...]

	   List directory contents

	   Options:

		   -1	   list files in a single column
		   -A	   do not list implied . and ..
		   -a	   do not hide entries starting with .
		   -C	   list entries by columns
		   -c	   with -l: show ctime
		   -d	   list directory entries instead of contents
		   -e	   list both full date and full time
		   -F	   append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries
		   -i	   list the i-node for each file
		   -l	   use a long listing format
		   -n	   list numeric UIDs and GIDs instead of names
		   -p	   append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries
		   -L	   list entries pointed to by symbolic links
		   -R	   list subdirectories recursively
		   -r	   sort the listing in reverse order
		   -S	   sort the listing by file size
		   -s	   list the size of each file, in blocks
		   -T NUM  assume Tabstop every NUM columns
		   -t	   with -l: show modification time
		   -u	   with -l: show access time
		   -v	   sort the listing by version
		   -w NUM  assume the terminal is NUM columns wide
		   -x	   list entries by lines instead of by columns
		   -X	   sort the listing by extension
		   -h	   print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 243M 2G )
		   -k	   print sizes in kilobytes(default)

	   -------------------------------

       lsmod
	   lsmod

	   List the currently loaded kernel modules.

	   -------------------------------

       makedevs
	   makedevs NAME TYPE MAJOR MINOR FIRST LAST [s]

	   Creates a range of block or character special files

	   TYPEs include:

		   b:	   Make a block (buffered) device.
		   c or u: Make a character (un-buffered) device.
		   p:	   Make a named pipe. MAJOR and MINOR are ignored for named pipes.

	   FIRST specifies the number appended to NAME to create the first device.  LAST speci-
	   fies the number of the last item that should be created.  If 's' is the last argument,
	   the base device is created as well.

	   For example:

		   makedevs /dev/ttyS c 4 66 2 63   ->	ttyS2-ttyS63
		   makedevs /dev/hda b 3 0 0 8 s    ->	hda,hda1-hda8

	   Example:

		   $ makedevs /dev/ttyS c 4 66 2 63
		   [creates ttyS2-ttyS63]
		   $ makedevs /dev/hda b 3 0 0 8 s
		   [creates hda,hda1-hda8]

	   -------------------------------

       md5sum
	   md5sum [OPTION] [FILE]...  or: md5sum [OPTION] -c [FILE]

	   Print or check MD5 checksums.

	   Options: With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

		   -b	   read files in binary mode
		   -c	   check MD5 sums against given list
		   -t	   read files in text mode (default)
		   -g	   read a string

	   The following two options are useful only when verifying checksums:

		   -s	   don't output anything, status code shows success
		   -w	   warn about improperly formated MD5 checksum lines

	   Example:

		   $ md5sum < busybox
		   6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003
		   $ md5sum busybox
		   6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003  busybox
		   $ md5sum -c -
		   6fd11e98b98a58f64ff3398d7b324003  busybox
		   busybox: OK
		   ^D

	   -------------------------------

       mkdir
	   mkdir [OPTION] DIRECTORY...

	   Create the DIRECTORY(ies) if they do not already exist

	   Options:

		   -m	   set permission mode (as in chmod), not rwxrwxrwx - umask
		   -p	   no error if existing, make parent directories as needed

	   Example:

		   $ mkdir /tmp/foo
		   $ mkdir /tmp/foo
		   /tmp/foo: File exists
		   $ mkdir /tmp/foo/bar/baz
		   /tmp/foo/bar/baz: No such file or directory
		   $ mkdir -p /tmp/foo/bar/baz

	   -------------------------------

       mkfifo
	   mkfifo [OPTIONS] name

	   Creates a named pipe (identical to 'mknod name p')

	   Options:

		   -m	   create the pipe using the specified mode (default a=rw)

	   -------------------------------

       mkfs_minix
	   mkfs_minix [-c | -l filename] [-nXX] [-iXX] /dev/name [blocks]

	   Make a MINIX filesystem.

	   Options:

		   -c		   Check the device for bad blocks
		   -n [14|30]	   Specify the maximum length of filenames
		   -i INODES	   Specify the number of inodes for the filesystem
		   -l FILENAME	   Read the bad blocks list from FILENAME
		   -v		   Make a Minix version 2 filesystem

	   -------------------------------

       mknod
	   mknod [OPTIONS] NAME TYPE MAJOR MINOR

	   Create a special file (block, character, or pipe).

	   Options:

		   -m	   create the special file using the specified mode (default a=rw)

	   TYPEs include:

		   b:	   Make a block (buffered) device.
		   c or u: Make a character (un-buffered) device.
		   p:	   Make a named pipe. MAJOR and MINOR are ignored for named pipes.

	   Example:

		   $ mknod /dev/fd0 b 2 0
		   $ mknod -m 644 /tmp/pipe p

	   -------------------------------

       mkswap
	   mkswap [-c] [-v0|-v1] device [block-count]

	   Prepare a disk partition to be used as a swap partition.

	   Options:

		   -c		   Check for read-ability.
		   -v0		   Make version 0 swap [max 128 Megs].
		   -v1		   Make version 1 swap [big!] (default for kernels >
				   2.1.117).
		   block-count	   Number of block to use (default is entire partition).

	   -------------------------------

       mktemp
	   mktemp [-q] TEMPLATE

	   Creates a temporary file with its name based on TEMPLATE.  TEMPLATE is any name with
	   six `Xs' (i.e., /tmp/temp.XXXXXX).

	   Example:

		   $ mktemp /tmp/temp.XXXXXX
		   /tmp/temp.mWiLjM
		   $ ls -la /tmp/temp.mWiLjM
		   -rw-------	 1 andersen andersen	    0 Apr 25 17:10 /tmp/temp.mWiLjM

	   -------------------------------

       modprobe
	   modprobe modprobe	[  -adnqv  ] [ -C config ] module [ symbol=value ... ] modprobe [
	   -adnqv ] [ -C config ] [ -t type ] pattern modprobe -l [ -C config ] [ -t type ] pat-
	   tern modprobe -c [ -C config ] modprobe -r [ -dnv ] [ -C config ] [ module ...]  mod-
	   probe -V

	   Used to load kernel modules and automatically load their dependancies.USAGE:

		   modprobe	    [  -adnqv  ] [ -C config ] module [ symbol=value ... ]
		   modprobe [ -adnqv ] [ -C config ] [ -t type ] pattern
		   modprobe -l [ -C config ] [ -t type ] pattern
		   modprobe -c [ -C config ]
		   modprobe -r [ -dnv ] [ -C config ] [ module ...]
		   modprobe -V

	   OPTIONS

		   -a (*** not supported ***)
		      Load all matching modules instead of stopping after
		      the first successful loading.

		   -c (*** not supported ***)
		      Show the currently used configuration.

		   -d
		      Show  information about the internal representation
		      of the stack of modules.

		   -k
		      Set 'autoclean' on loaded     modules.   Used  by  the
		      kernel  when it calls on modprobe to satify a miss
		      ing feature (supplied as a module).  The -q  option
		      is implied by -k.     These options will automatically
		      be sent to insmod.

		   -l (*** not supported ***)
		      List matching modules.

		   -n
		      Don't actually perform the action, just  show  what
		      would be done.

		   -q
		      Do  not  complain about insmod failing to install a
		      module.  Continue as  normal,  but  silently,  with
		      other  possibilities  for     modprobe  to test.	This
		      option will automatically be sent to insmod.

		   -r
		      Remove module (stacks) or do  autoclean,	   depending
		      on  whether  there are any modules mentioned on the
		      command line.

		   -s
		      Report via syslog instead of stderr.  This  options
		      will automatically be sent to insmod.

		   -t type (*** not supported ***)
		      Only consider modules of this type (tag).

		   -v
		      Print all commands as they are executed.

		   -V
		      Show the release version of modprobe.

		   -C configfile (*** not supported ***)
		      Use  the	   file configfile instead of (the optional)
		      /etc/modules.conf     to	specify  the  configuration.
		      The  environment	   variable  MODULECONF  can also be
		      used to select (and override) a different     configu
		      ration  file from the default /etc/modules.conf (or
		      /etc/conf.modules (depreciated)).

	   Example:

		   $ modprobe pcnet_cs
		   $ modprobe -r pcnet_cs

	   -------------------------------

       more
	   more [FILE ...]

	   More is a filter for viewing FILE one screenful at a time.

	   Example:

		   $ dmesg | more

	   -------------------------------

       mount
	   mount [flags] DEVICE NODE [-o options,more-options]

	   Mount a filesystem

	   Flags:

		   -a:		   Mount all filesystems in fstab.
		   -f:		   "Fake" Add entry to mount table but don't mount it.
		   -n:		   Don't write a mount table entry.
		   -o option:	   One of many filesystem options, listed below.
		   -r:		   Mount the filesystem read-only.
		   -t fs-type:	   Specify the filesystem type.
		   -w:		   Mount for reading and writing (default).

	   Options for use with the "-o" flag:

		   async/sync:	   Writes are asynchronous / synchronous.
		   atime/noatime:  Enable / disable updates to inode access times.
		   dev/nodev:	   Allow use of special device files / disallow them.
		   exec/noexec:    Allow use of executable files / disallow them.
		   loop:	   Mounts a file via loop device.
		   suid/nosuid:    Allow set-user-id-root programs / disallow them.
		   remount:	   Re-mount a mounted filesystem, changing its flags.
		   ro/rw:	   Mount for read-only / read-write.
		   bind:	   Use the linux 2.4.x "bind" feature.

	   There are EVEN MORE flags that are specific to each filesystem.  You'll have to see
	   the written documentation for those filesystems.

	   Example:

		   $ mount
		   /dev/hda3 on / type minix (rw)
		   proc on /proc type proc (rw)
		   devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw)
		   $ mount /dev/fd0 /mnt -t msdos -o ro
		   $ mount /tmp/diskimage /opt -t ext2 -o loop

	   -------------------------------

       mt  mt [-f device] opcode value

	   Control magnetic tape drive operation

	   Available Opcodes:

	   bsf bsfm bsr bss datacompression drvbuffer eof eom erase fsf fsfm fsr fss load lock
	   mkpart nop offline ras1 ras2 ras3 reset retension rew rewoffline seek setblk setden-
	   sity setpart tell unload unlock weof wset

	   -------------------------------

       mv  mv SOURCE DEST or: mv SOURCE... DIRECTORY

	   Rename SOURCE to DEST, or move SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.

	   Example:

		   $ mv /tmp/foo /bin/bar

	   -------------------------------

       nc  nc [OPTIONS] [IP] [port]

	   Netcat opens a pipe to IP:port

	   Options:

		   -l		   listen mode, for inbound connects
		   -p PORT	   local port number
		   -e PROG	   program to exec after connect (dangerous!)

	   Example:

		   $ nc foobar.somedomain.com 25
		   220 foobar ESMTP Exim 3.12 #1 Sat, 15 Apr 2000 00:03:02 -0600
		   help
		   214-Commands supported:
		   214-    HELO EHLO MAIL RCPT DATA AUTH
		   214	   NOOP QUIT RSET HELP
		   quit
		   221 foobar closing connection

	   -------------------------------

       nslookup
	   nslookup [HOST] [SERVER]

	   Queries the nameserver for the IP address of the given HOST optionally using a speci-
	   fied DNS server

	   Example:

		   $ nslookup localhost
		   Server:     default
		   Address:    default

		   Name:       debian
		   Address:    127.0.0.1

	   -------------------------------

       pidof
	   pidof process-name [process-name ...]

	   Lists the PIDs of all processes with names that match the names on the command line

	   Example:

		   $ pidof init
		   1

	   -------------------------------

       ping
	   ping [OPTION]... host

	   Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST packets to network hosts.

	   Options:

		   -c COUNT	   Send only COUNT pings.
		   -s SIZE	   Send SIZE data bytes in packets (default=56).
		   -q		   Quiet mode, only displays output at start
				   and when finished.

	   Example:

		   $ ping localhost
		   PING slag (127.0.0.1): 56 data bytes
		   64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=20.1 ms

		   --- debian ping statistics ---
		   1 packets transmitted, 1 packets received, 0% packet loss
		   round-trip min/avg/max = 20.1/20.1/20.1 ms

	   -------------------------------

       pivot_root
	   pivot_root NEW_ROOT PUT_OLD

	   Move the current root file system to PUT_OLD and make NEW_ROOT the new root file sys-
	   tem.

	   -------------------------------

       poweroff
	   poweroff

	   Halt the system and request that the kernel shut off the power.

	   -------------------------------

       printf
	   printf FORMAT [ARGUMENT...]

	   Formats and prints ARGUMENT(s) according to FORMAT, Where FORMAT controls the output
	   exactly as in C printf.

	   Example:

		   $ printf "Val=%d\n" 5
		   Val=5

	   -------------------------------

       ps  ps

	   Report process status

	   This version of ps accepts no options.

	   Example:

		   $ ps
		     PID  Uid	   Gid State Command
		       1 root	  root	   S init
		       2 root	  root	   S [kflushd]
		       3 root	  root	   S [kupdate]
		       4 root	  root	   S [kpiod]
		       5 root	  root	   S [kswapd]
		     742 andersen andersen S [bash]
		     743 andersen andersen S -bash
		     745 root	  root	   S [getty]
		    2990 andersen andersen R ps

	   -------------------------------

       pwd pwd

	   Print the full filename of the current working directory.

	   Example:

		   $ pwd
		   /root

	   -------------------------------

       rdate
	   rdate [OPTION] HOST

	   Get and possibly set the system date and time from a remote HOST.

	   Options:

		   -s	   Set the system date and time (default).
		   -p	   Print the date and time.

	   -------------------------------

       readlink
	   readlink

	   Read a symbolic link.

	   -------------------------------

       reboot
	   reboot

	   Reboot the system.

	   -------------------------------

       renice
	   renice priority pid [pid ...]

	   Changes priority of running processes. Allowed priorities range from 20 (the process
	   runs only when nothing else is running) to 0 (default priority) to -20 (almost nothing
	   else ever gets to run).

	   -------------------------------

       reset
	   reset

	   Resets the screen.

	   -------------------------------

       rm  rm [OPTION]... FILE...

	   Remove (unlink) the FILE(s).  You may use '--' to indicate that all following argu-
	   ments are non-options.

	   Options:

		   -i		   always prompt before removing each destination  -f		   remove existing destinations, never prompt
		   -r or -R	   remove the contents of directories recursively

	   Example:

		   $ rm -rf /tmp/foo

	   -------------------------------

       rmdir
	   rmdir [OPTION]... DIRECTORY...

	   Remove the DIRECTORY(ies), if they are empty.

	   Example:

		   # rmdir /tmp/foo

	   -------------------------------

       rmmod
	   rmmod [OPTION]... [MODULE]...

	   Unloads the specified kernel modules from the kernel.

	   Options:

		   -a	   Try to remove all unused kernel modules.

	   Example:

		   $ rmmod tulip

	   -------------------------------

       route
	   route [{add|del|flush}]

	   Edit the kernel's routing tables

	   -------------------------------

       rpm2cpio
	   rpm2cpio package.rpm

	   Outputs a cpio archive of the rpm file.

	   -------------------------------

       sed sed [-nef] pattern [files...]

	   Options:

		   -n		   suppress automatic printing of pattern space
		   -e script	   add the script to the commands to be executed
		   -f scriptfile   add the contents of script-file to the commands to be executed

	   If no -e or -f is given, the first non-option argument is taken as the sed script to
	   interpret. All remaining arguments are names of input files; if no input files are
	   specified, then the standard input is read.

	   Example:

		   $ echo "foo" | sed -e 's/f[a-zA-Z]o/bar/g'
		   bar

	   -------------------------------

       setkeycodes
	   setkeycodes SCANCODE KEYCODE ...

	   Set entries into the kernel's scancode-to-keycode map, allowing unusual keyboards to
	   generate usable keycodes.

	   SCANCODE may be either xx or e0xx (hexadecimal), and KEYCODE is given in decimal

	   Example:

		   $ setkeycodes e030 127

	   -------------------------------

       sleep
	   sleep N

	   Pause for N seconds.

	   Example:

		   $ sleep 2
		   [2 second delay results]

	   -------------------------------

       sort
	   sort [-nru] [FILE]...

	   Sorts lines of text in the specified files

	   Options:

		   -u	   suppress duplicate lines
		   -r	   sort in reverse order
		   -n	   sort numerics

	   Example:

		   $ echo -e "e\nf\nb\nd\nc\na" | sort
		   a
		   b
		   c
		   d
		   e
		   f

	   -------------------------------

       stty
	   stty [-a|g] [-F DEVICE] [SETTING]...

	   Without arguments, prints baud rate, line discipline, and deviations from stty sane.

	   Options:

		   -F DEVICE	   open device instead of stdin
		   -a		   print all current settings in human-readable form
		   -g		   print in stty-readable form
		   [SETTING]	   see manpage

	   -------------------------------

       swapoff
	   swapoff [OPTION] [DEVICE]

	   Stop swapping virtual memory pages on DEVICE.

	   Options:

		   -a	   Stop swapping on all swap devices

	   -------------------------------

       swapon
	   swapon [OPTION] [DEVICE]

	   Start swapping virtual memory pages on DEVICE.

	   Options:

		   -a	   Start swapping on all swap devices

	   -------------------------------

       sync
	   sync

	   Write all buffered filesystem blocks to disk.

	   -------------------------------

       syslogd
	   syslogd [OPTION]...

	   Linux system and kernel logging utility.  Note that this version of syslogd ignores
	   /etc/syslog.conf.

	   Options:

		   -m NUM	   Interval between MARK lines (default=20min, 0=off)
		   -n		   Run as a foreground process
		   -O FILE	   Use an alternate log file (default=/var/log/messages)
		   -R HOST[:PORT]  Log to IP or hostname on PORT (default PORT=514/UDP)
		   -L		   Log locally and via network logging (default is network only)

	   Example:

		   $ syslogd -R masterlog:514
		   $ syslogd -R 192.168.1.1:601

	   -------------------------------

       tail
	   tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

	   Print last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more than one FILE, precede
	   each with a header giving the file name. With no FILE, or when FILE is -, read stan-
	   dard input.

	   Options:

		   -c N[kbm]	   output the last N bytes
		   -n N[kbm]	   print last N lines instead of last 10
		   -f		   output data as the file grows
		   -q		   never output headers giving file names
		   -s SEC	   wait SEC seconds between reads with -f
		   -v		   always output headers giving file names

	   If the first character of N (bytes or lines) is a '+', output begins with the Nth item
	   from the start of each file, otherwise, print the last N items in the file. N bytes
	   may be suffixed by k (x1024), b (x512), or m (1024^2).

	   Example:

		   $ tail -n 1 /etc/resolv.conf
		   nameserver 10.0.0.1

	   -------------------------------

       tar tar -[cxtvO] [--exclude FILE] [-X FILE][-f TARFILE] [-C DIR] [FILE(s)] ...

	   Create, extract, or list files from a tar file.

	   Options:

		   c		   create
		   x		   extract
		   t		   list

	   File selection:

		   f		   name of TARFILE or "-" for stdin
		   O		   extract to stdout
		   exclude	   file to exclude
		   X		   file with names to exclude
		   C		   change to directory DIR before operation
		   v		   verbosely list files processed

	   Example:

		   $ zcat /tmp/tarball.tar.gz | tar -xf -
		   $ tar -cf /tmp/tarball.tar /usr/local

	   -------------------------------

       tee tee [OPTION]... [FILE]...

	   Copy standard input to each FILE, and also to standard output.

	   Options:

		   -a	   append to the given FILEs, do not overwrite

	   Example:

		   $ echo "Hello" | tee /tmp/foo
		   $ cat /tmp/foo
		   Hello

	   -------------------------------

       telnet
	   telnet HOST [PORT]

	   Telnet is used to establish interactive communication with another computer over a
	   network using the TELNET protocol.

	   -------------------------------

       test
	   test EXPRESSION
	     or   [ EXPRESSION ]

	   Checks file types and compares values returning an exit code determined by the value
	   of EXPRESSION.

	   Example:

		   $ test 1 -eq 2
		   $ echo $?
		   1
		   $ test 1 -eq 1
		   $ echo $?
		   0
		   $ [ -d /etc ]
		   $ echo $?
		   0
		   $ [ -d /junk ]
		   $ echo $?
		   1

	   -------------------------------

       tftp
	   tftp [OPTION]... HOST [PORT]

	   Transfers a file from/to a tftp server using "octet" mode.

	   Options:

		   -b SIZE Transfer blocks of SIZE octets.
		   -g	   Get file.
		   -l FILE Transfer local FILE.
		   -p	   Put file.
		   -r FILE Transfer remote FILE.

	   -------------------------------

       time
	   time [OPTION]... COMMAND [ARGS...]

	   Runs the program COMMAND with arguments ARGS.  When COMMAND finishes,

	   -------------------------------

       top top [-d <seconds>]

	   top provides an view of processor activity in real time.  This utility reads the sta-
	   tus for all processes in /proc each <seconds> and shows the status for however many
	   processes will fit on the screen.  This utility will not show processes that are
	   started after program startup, but it will show the EXIT status for and PIDs that exit
	   while it is running.

	   -------------------------------

       touch
	   touch [-c] FILE [FILE ...]

	   Update the last-modified date on the given FILE[s].

	   Options:

		   -c	   Do not create any files

	   Example:

		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   /bin/ls: /tmp/foo: No such file or directory
		   $ touch /tmp/foo
		   $ ls -l /tmp/foo
		   -rw-rw-r--	 1 andersen andersen	    0 Apr 15 01:11 /tmp/foo

	   -------------------------------

       tr  tr [-cds] STRING1 [STRING2]

	   Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters from standard input, writing to standard
	   output.

	   Options:

		   -c	   take complement of STRING1
		   -d	   delete input characters coded STRING1
		   -s	   squeeze multiple output characters of STRING2 into one character

	   Example:

		   $ echo "gdkkn vnqkc" | tr [a-y] [b-z]
		   hello world

	   -------------------------------

       traceroute
	   traceroute [-dnrv] [-m max_ttl] [-p port#] [-q nqueries]	 [-s src_addr] [-t tos]
	   [-w wait] host [data size]

	   trace the route ip packets follow going to "host" Options:

		   -d	   set SO_DEBUG options to socket
		   -n	   Print hop addresses numerically rather than symbolically
		   -r	   Bypass the normal routing tables and send directly to a host
		   -v	   Verbose output
		   -m max_ttl	   Set the max time-to-live (max number of hops)
		   -p port#	   Set the base UDP port number used in probes
			   (default is 33434)
		   -q nqueries	   Set the number of probes per ``ttl'' to nqueries
			   (default is 3)
		   -s src_addr	   Use the following IP address as the source address
		   -t tos  Set the type-of-service in probe packets to the following value
			   (default 0)
		   -w wait Set the time (in seconds) to wait for a response to a probe
			   (default 3 sec.).

	   -------------------------------

       true
	   true

	   Return an exit code of TRUE (0).

	   Example:

		   $ true
		   $ echo $?
		   0

	   -------------------------------

       tty tty

	   Print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input.

	   Options:

		   -s	   print nothing, only return an exit status

	   Example:

		   $ tty
		   /dev/tty2

	   -------------------------------

       umount
	   umount [flags] FILESYSTEM|DIRECTORY

	   Unmount file systems

	   Flags:

		   -a	   Unmount all file systems in /etc/mtab
		   -n	   Don't erase /etc/mtab entries
		   -r	   Try to remount devices as read-only if mount is busy
		   -f	   Force umount (i.e., unreachable NFS server)
		   -l	   Do not free loop device (if a loop device has been used)

	   Example:

		   $ umount /dev/hdc1

	   -------------------------------

       uname
	   uname [OPTION]...

	   Print certain system information.  With no OPTION, same as -s.

	   Options:

		   -a	   print all information
		   -m	   the machine (hardware) type
		   -n	   print the machine's network node hostname
		   -r	   print the operating system release
		   -s	   print the operating system name
		   -p	   print the host processor type
		   -v	   print the operating system version

	   Example:

		   $ uname -a
		   Linux debian 2.2.15pre13 #5 Tue Mar 14 16:03:50 MST 2000 i686 unknown

	   -------------------------------

       uniq
	   uniq [OPTION]... [INPUT [OUTPUT]]

	   Discard all but one of successive identical lines from INPUT (or standard input),
	   writing to OUTPUT (or standard output).

	   Options:

		   -c	   prefix lines by the number of occurrences
		   -d	   only print duplicate lines
		   -u	   only print unique lines

	   Example:

		   $ echo -e "a\na\nb\nc\nc\na" | sort | uniq
		   a
		   b
		   c

	   -------------------------------

       unix2dos
	   unix2dos [option] [FILE]

	   Converts FILE from unix format to dos format.  When no option is given, the input is
	   converted to the opposite output format.  When no file is given, uses stdin for input
	   and stdout for output.  Options:

		   -u	   output will be in UNIX format
		   -d	   output will be in DOS format

	   -------------------------------

       update
	   update [options]

	   Periodically flushes filesystem buffers.

	   Options:

		   -S	   force use of sync(2) instead of flushing
		   -s SECS call sync this often (default 30)
		   -f SECS flush some buffers this often (default 5)

	   -------------------------------

       uptime
	   uptime

	   Display the time since the last boot.

	   Example:

		   $ uptime
		     1:55pm  up  2:30, load average: 0.09, 0.04, 0.00

	   -------------------------------

       usleep
	   usleep N

	   Pause for N microseconds.

	   Example:

		   $ usleep 1000000
		   [pauses for 1 second]

	   -------------------------------

       uudecode
	   uudecode [FILE]...

	   Uudecode a file that is uuencoded.

	   Options:

		   -o FILE direct output to FILE

	   Example:

		   $ uudecode -o busybox busybox.uu
		   $ ls -l busybox
		   -rwxr-xr-x	1 ams	   ams	      245264 Jun  7 21:35 busybox

	   -------------------------------

       uuencode
	   uuencode [OPTION] [INFILE] REMOTEFILE

	   Uuencode a file.

	   Options:

		   -m	   use base64 encoding per RFC1521

	   Example:

		   $ uuencode busybox busybox
		   begin 755 busybox
		   <encoded file snipped>
		   $ uudecode busybox busybox > busybox.uu
		   $

	   -------------------------------

       vi  vi [OPTION] [FILE]...

	   edit FILE.

	   Options:

		   -R	   Read-only- do not write to the file.

	   -------------------------------

       watchdog
	   watchdog DEV

	   Periodically write to watchdog device DEV

	   -------------------------------

       wc  wc [OPTION]... [FILE]...

	   Print line, word, and byte counts for each FILE, and a total line if more than one
	   FILE is specified.  With no FILE, read standard input.

	   Options:

		   -c	   print the byte counts
		   -l	   print the newline counts
		   -L	   print the length of the longest line
		   -w	   print the word counts

	   Example:

		   $ wc /etc/passwd
			31	46    1365 /etc/passwd

	   -------------------------------

       wget
	   wget [-c|--continue] [-q|--quiet] [-O|--output-document file]      [--header 'header:
	   value'] [-P DIR] url

	   wget retrieves files via HTTP or FTP

	   Options:

		   -c	   continue retrieval of aborted transfers
		   -q	   quiet mode - do not print
		   -P	   Set directory prefix to DIR
		   -O	   save to filename ('-' for stdout)

	   -------------------------------

       which
	   which [COMMAND ...]

	   Locates a COMMAND.

	   Example:

		   $ which login
		   /bin/login

	   -------------------------------

       whoami
	   whoami

	   Prints the user name associated with the current effective user id.

	   -------------------------------

       xargs
	   xargs [COMMAND] [ARGS...]

	   Executes COMMAND on every item given by standard input.

	   Example:

		   $ ls | xargs gzip
		   $ find . -name '*.c' -print | xargs rm

	   -------------------------------

       yes yes [OPTION]... [STRING]...

	   Repeatedly outputs a line with all specified STRING(s), or 'y'.

	   -------------------------------

       zcat
	   zcat FILE

	   Uncompress to stdout.

	   -------------------------------

LIBC NSS
       GNU Libc uses the Name Service Switch (NSS) to configure the behavior of the C library for
       the local environment, and to configure how it reads system data, such as passwords and
       group information.  BusyBox has made it Policy that it will never use NSS, and will never
       use and libc calls that make use of NSS.  This allows you to run an embedded system with-
       out the need for installing an /etc/nsswitch.conf file and without and /lib/libnss_*
       libraries installed.

       If you are using a system that is using a remote LDAP server for authentication via GNU
       libc NSS, and you want to use BusyBox, then you will need to adjust the BusyBox source.
       Chances are though, that if you have enough space to install of that stuff on your system,
       then you probably want the full GNU utilities.

SEE ALSO
       textutils(1), shellutils(1), etc...

MAINTAINER
       Erik Andersen <andersee@debian.org> <andersen@codepoet.org>

AUTHORS
       The following people have contributed code to BusyBox whether they know it or not.

       Erik Andersen <andersee@debian.org> <andersen@codepoet.org>

	   Tons of new stuff, major rewrite of most of the
	   core apps, tons of new apps as noted in header files.

       John Beppu <beppu@codepoet.org>

	   du, head, nslookup, sort, tee, uniq (so Kraai could rewrite them ;-),
	   documentation

       Edward Betts <edward@debian.org>

	   expr, hostid, logname, tty, wc, whoami, yes

       Brian Candler <B.Candler@pobox.com>

	   tiny-ls(ls)

       Randolph Chung <tausq@debian.org>

	   fbset, ping, hostname, and mkfifo

       Dave Cinege <dcinege@psychosis.com>

	   more(v2), makedevs, dutmp, modularization, auto links file,
	   various fixes, Linux Router Project maintenance

       Larry Doolittle <ldoolitt@recycle.lbl.gov>

	   various fixes, shell rewrite

       Karl M. Hegbloom <karlheg@debian.org>

	   cp_mv.c, the test suite, various fixes to utility.c, &c.

       Sterling Huxley <sterling@europa.com>

	   vi (!!!)

       Daniel Jacobowitz <dan@debian.org>

	   mktemp.c

       Matt Kraai <kraai@alumni.carnegiemellon.edu>

	   documentation, bugfixes

       John Lombardo <john@deltanet.com>

	   dirname, tr

       Glenn McGrath <bug1@netconnect.com.au>

	   ar.c

       Vladimir Oleynik <dzo@simtreas.ru>

	   cmdedit, stty-port, locale, various fixes
	   and irreconcilable critic of everything not perfect.

       Bruce Perens <bruce@pixar.com>

	   Original author of BusyBox. His code is still in many apps.

       Chip Rosenthal <chip@unicom.com>, <crosenth@covad.com>

	   wget - Contributed by permission of Covad Communications

       Pavel Roskin <proski@gnu.org>

	   Lots of bugs fixes and patches.

       Gyepi Sam <gyepi@praxis-sw.com>

	   Remote logging feature for syslogd

       Linus Torvalds <torvalds@transmeta.com>

	   mkswap, fsck.minix, mkfs.minix

       Mark Whitley <markw@codepoet.org>

	   sed remix, bug fixes, style-guide, etc.

       Charles P. Wright <cpwright@villagenet.com>

	   gzip, mini-netcat(nc)

       Enrique Zanardi <ezanardi@ull.es>

	   tarcat (since removed), loadkmap, various fixes, Debian maintenance

version 0.60.5				    2003-01-24				       BUSYBOX(1)


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