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Test Your Knowledge in Computers #388
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The Unix make command uses A.I. to maintain, update, and regenerate related programs and files.
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gshadow(5) [posix man page]

GSHADOW(5)						   File Formats and Conversions 						GSHADOW(5)

gshadow - shadowed group file DESCRIPTION
/etc/gshadow contains the shadowed information for group accounts. This file must not be readable by regular users if password security is to be maintained. Each line of this file contains the following colon-separated fields: group name It must be a valid group name, which exist on the system. encrypted password Refer to crypt(3) for details on how this string is interpreted. If the password field contains some string that is not a valid result of crypt(3), for instance ! or *, users will not be able to use a unix password to access the group (but group members do not need the password). The password is used when a user who is not a member of the group wants to gain the permissions of this group (see newgrp(1)). This field may be empty, in which case only the group members can gain the group permissions. A password field which starts with an exclamation mark means that the password is locked. The remaining characters on the line represent the password field before the password was locked. This password supersedes any password specified in /etc/group. administrators It must be a comma-separated list of user names. Administrators can change the password or the members of the group. Administrators also have the same permissions as the members (see below). members It must be a comma-separated list of user names. Members can access the group without being prompted for a password. You should use the same list of users as in /etc/group. FILES
/etc/group Group account information. /etc/gshadow Secure group account information. SEE ALSO
gpasswd(5), group(5), grpck(8), grpconv(8), newgrp(1). shadow-utils 4.5 01/25/2018 GSHADOW(5)

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NEWGRP(1)                                                          User Commands                                                         NEWGRP(1)

newgrp - log in to a new group SYNOPSIS
newgrp [-] [group] DESCRIPTION
The newgrp command is used to change the current group ID during a login session. If the optional - flag is given, the user's environment will be reinitialized as though the user had logged in, otherwise the current environment, including current working directory, remains unchanged. newgrp changes the current real group ID to the named group, or to the default group listed in /etc/passwd if no group name is given. newgrp also tries to add the group to the user groupset. If not root, the user will be prompted for a password if she does not have a password (in /etc/shadow if this user has an entry in the shadowed password file, or in /etc/passwd otherwise) and the group does, or if the user is not listed as a member and the group has a password. The user will be denied access if the group password is empty and the user is not listed as a member. If there is an entry for this group in /etc/gshadow, then the list of members and the password of this group will be taken from this file, otherwise, the entry in /etc/group is considered. CONFIGURATION
The following configuration variables in /etc/login.defs change the behavior of this tool: SYSLOG_SG_ENAB (boolean) Enable "syslog" logging of sg activity. FILES
/etc/passwd User account information. /etc/shadow Secure user account information. /etc/group Group account information. /etc/gshadow Secure group account information. SEE ALSO
id(1), login(1), su(1), sg(1), gpasswd(1), group(5), gshadow(5). shadow-utils 4.5 01/25/2018 NEWGRP(1)

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