# expm1l(3) [posix man page]

EXPM1(P)POSIX Programmer's Manual EXPM1(P)NAME

expm1, expm1f, expm1l - compute exponential functionsSYNOPSIS

#include <math.h> double expm1(double x); float expm1f(float x); long double expm1l(long double x);DESCRIPTION

These functions shall compute e**x-1.0. An application wishing to check for error situations should set errno to zero and call feclearexcept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before calling these functions. On return, if errno is non-zero or fetestexcept(FE_INVALID | FE_DIVBYZERO | FE_OVERFLOW | FE_UNDERFLOW) is non-zero, an error has occurred.RETURN VALUE

Upon successful completion, these functions return e**x-1.0. If the correct value would cause overflow, a range error shall occur and expm1(), expm1f(), and expm1l() shall return the value of the macro HUGE_VAL, HUGE_VALF, and HUGE_VALL, respectively. If x is NaN, a NaN shall be returned. If x is +-0, +-0 shall be returned. If x is,-Infshall be returned. If x is +Inf, x shall be returned. If x is subnormal, a range error may occur and x should be returned.-1ERRORS

These functions shall fail if: Range Error The result overflows. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the overflow floating-point exception shall be raised. These functions may fail if: Range Error The value of x is subnormal. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the underflow floating-point exception shall be raised. The following sections are informative.EXAMPLES

None.APPLICATION USAGE

The value of expm1(x) may be more accurate than exp(x)-1.0 for small values of x. The expm1() and log1p() functions are useful for financial calculations of ((1+x)**n-1)/x, namely: expm1(n * log1p(x))/x when x is very small (for example, when calculating small daily interest rates). These functions also simplify writing accurate inverse hyperbolic functions. For IEEE Std 754-1985 double, 709.8 < x implies expm1( x) has overflowed. On error, the expressions (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) and (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) are independent of each other, but at least one of them must be non-zero.RATIONALE

None.FUTURE DIRECTIONS

None.SEE ALSO

exp() , feclearexcept() , fetestexcept() , ilogb() , log1p() , the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 4.18, Treatment of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions, <math.h>COPYRIGHT

Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technol- ogyPortable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .--IEEE

/The Open Group 2003 EXPM1(P)

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EXPM1(P)POSIX Programmer's Manual EXPM1(P)NAME

expm1, expm1f, expm1l - compute exponential functionsSYNOPSIS

#include <math.h> double expm1(double x); float expm1f(float x); long double expm1l(long double x);DESCRIPTION

These functions shall compute e**x-1.0. An application wishing to check for error situations should set errno to zero and call feclearexcept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before calling these functions. On return, if errno is non-zero or fetestexcept(FE_INVALID | FE_DIVBYZERO | FE_OVERFLOW | FE_UNDERFLOW) is non-zero, an error has occurred.RETURN VALUE

Upon successful completion, these functions return e**x-1.0. If the correct value would cause overflow, a range error shall occur and expm1(), expm1f(), and expm1l() shall return the value of the macro HUGE_VAL, HUGE_VALF, and HUGE_VALL, respectively. If x is NaN, a NaN shall be returned. If x is +-0, +-0 shall be returned. If x is,-Infshall be returned. If x is +Inf, x shall be returned. If x is subnormal, a range error may occur and x should be returned.-1ERRORS

These functions shall fail if: Range Error The result overflows. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the overflow floating-point exception shall be raised. These functions may fail if: Range Error The value of x is subnormal. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the underflow floating-point exception shall be raised. The following sections are informative.EXAMPLES

None.APPLICATION USAGE

The value of expm1(x) may be more accurate than exp(x)-1.0 for small values of x. The expm1() and log1p() functions are useful for financial calculations of ((1+x)**n-1)/x, namely: expm1(n * log1p(x))/x when x is very small (for example, when calculating small daily interest rates). These functions also simplify writing accurate inverse hyperbolic functions. For IEEE Std 754-1985 double, 709.8 < x implies expm1( x) has overflowed. On error, the expressions (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) and (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) are independent of each other, but at least one of them must be non-zero.RATIONALE

None.FUTURE DIRECTIONS

None.SEE ALSO

exp() , feclearexcept() , fetestexcept() , ilogb() , log1p() , the Base Definitions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 4.18, Treatment of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions, <math.h>COPYRIGHT

Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technol- ogyPortable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .--IEEE

/The Open Group 2003 EXPM1(P)