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POSIX 1003.1 - man page for split (posix section 1p)

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SPLIT(1P) 			    POSIX Programmer's Manual				  SPLIT(1P) 

PROLOG
       This  manual  page  is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux implementation of
       this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux  manual  page  for  details  of
       Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.

NAME
       split -- split files into pieces

SYNOPSIS
       split [-l line_count] [-a suffix_length] [file[name]]

       split -b n[k|m] [-a suffix_length] [file[name]]

DESCRIPTION
       The  split  utility  shall  read  an  input  file and write one or more output files.  The
       default size of each output file shall be 1000 lines. The size of the output files can  be
       modified  by specification of the -b or -l options. Each output file shall be created with
       a unique suffix. The suffix shall consist of exactly suffix_length lowercase letters  from
       the  POSIX locale. The letters of the suffix shall be used as if they were a base-26 digit
       system, with the first suffix to be created consisting of all 'a' characters,  the  second
       with  a	'b' replacing the last 'a', and so on, until a name of all 'z' characters is cre-
       ated. By default, the names of the output files shall be 'x', followed by a  two-character
       suffix  from  the character set as described above, starting with "aa", "ab", "ac", and so
       on, and continuing until the suffix "zz", for a maximum of 676 files.

       If the number of files required exceeds the maximum allowed by the suffix length provided,
       such that the last allowable file would be larger than the requested size, the split util-
       ity shall fail after creating the last file with a valid suffix; split  shall  not  delete
       the files it created with valid suffixes. If the file limit is not exceeded, the last file
       created shall contain the remainder of the  input  file,  and  may  be  smaller	than  the
       requested size.

OPTIONS
       The  split  utility  shall conform to the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1-2008, Section
       12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported:

       -a suffix_length
		 Use suffix_length letters to form the suffix portion of  the  filenames  of  the
		 split	file.  If -a is not specified, the default suffix length shall be two. If
		 the sum of the name operand and the suffix_length option-argument would create a
		 filename  exceeding  {NAME_MAX}  bytes,  an error shall result; split shall exit
		 with a diagnostic message and no files shall be created.

       -b n	 Split a file into pieces n bytes in size.

       -b nk	 Split a file into pieces n*1024 bytes in size.

       -b nm	 Split a file into pieces n*1048576 bytes in size.

       -l line_count
		 Specify the number of lines in each resulting file piece. The	line_count  argu-
		 ment  is an unsigned decimal integer. The default is 1000. If the input does not
		 end with a <newline>, the partial line shall be  included  in	the  last  output
		 file.

OPERANDS
       The following operands shall be supported:

       file	 The pathname of the ordinary file to be split. If no input file is given or file
		 is '-', the standard input shall be used.

       name	 The prefix to be used for each of the files resulting from the split  operation.
		 If  no  name  argument  is  given, 'x' shall be used as the prefix of the output
		 files. The combined length of the basename of prefix  and  suffix_length  cannot
		 exceed {NAME_MAX} bytes. See the OPTIONS section.

STDIN
       See the INPUT FILES section.

INPUT FILES
       Any file can be used as input.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of split:

       LANG	 Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or
		 null. (See the Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1-2008,  Section  8.2,  Interna-
		 tionalization	Variables  for	the  precedence of internationalization variables
		 used to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL	 If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other  inter-
		 nationalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE  Determine  the  locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data
		 as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to multi-byte  characters  in
		 arguments and input files).

       LC_MESSAGES
		 Determine  the  locale  that should be used to affect the format and contents of
		 diagnostic messages written to standard error.

       NLSPATH	 Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       Not used.

STDERR
       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES
       The output files contain portions of the original input file; otherwise, unchanged.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

	0    Successful completion.

       >0    An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       Default.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       None.

EXAMPLES
       In the following examples foo is a text file that contains 5000 lines.

	1. Create five files, xaa, xab, xac, xad, and xae:

	       split foo

	2. Create five files, but the suffixed portion of the created  files  consists	of  three
	   letters, xaaa, xaab, xaac, xaad, and xaae:

	       split -a 3 foo

	3. Create  three  files  with  four-letter  suffixes  and  a  supplied	prefix, bar_aaaa,
	   bar_aaab, and bar_aaac:

	       split -a 4 -l 2000 foo bar_

	4. Create as many files as are necessary to contain at most 20*1024 bytes, each with  the
	   default prefix of x and a five-letter suffix:

	       split -a 5 -b 20k foo

RATIONALE
       The  -b	option	was added to provide a mechanism for splitting files other than by lines.
       While most uses of the -b option are for transmitting files over networks,  some  believed
       it would have additional uses.

       The -a option was added to overcome the limitation of being able to create only 676 files.

       Consideration was given to deleting this utility, using the rationale that the functional-
       ity provided by this utility is available via  the  csplit  utility  (see  csplit).   Upon
       reconsideration of the purpose of the User Portability Utilities option, it was decided to
       retain both this utility and the csplit utility because users use both utilities and  have
       historical  expectations  of their behavior. Furthermore, the splitting on byte boundaries
       in split cannot be duplicated with the historical csplit.

       The text ``split shall not delete the files it created with valid  suffixes''  would  nor-
       mally be assumed, but since the related utility, csplit, does delete files under some cir-
       cumstances, the historical behavior of split is made explicit to avoid misinterpretation.

       Earlier versions of this standard allowed a -line_count option. This  form  is  no  longer
       specified by POSIX.1-2008 but may be present in some implementations.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       csplit

       The  Base  Definitions  volume  of POSIX.1-2008, Chapter 8, Environment Variables, Section
       12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and	reproduced  in	electronic  form  from	IEEE  Std
       1003.1,	2013  Edition,	Standard  for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System
       Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013  by  the
       Institute  of  Electrical  and  Electronics  Engineers,	Inc and The Open Group.  (This is
       POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1 applied.) In the event of any  discrep-
       ancy  between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original
       IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The  original	Standard  can  be
       obtained online at http://www.unix.org/online.html .

       Any  typographical  or  formatting errors that appear in this page are most likely to have
       been introduced during the conversion of the source files to man page  format.  To  report
       such errors, see https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/reporting_bugs.html .

IEEE/The Open Group			       2013					  SPLIT(1P)
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