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Plan 9 - man page for map (plan9 section 7)

MAP(7)				 Miscellaneous Information Manual			   MAP(7)

       map, mapdemo - draw maps on various projections

       map projection [ option ...  ]


       Map  prepares  on  the  standard  output a map suitable for display by any plotting filter
       described in plot(1).  A menu of projections is produced in response to an unknown projec-
       tion.  Mapdemo is a short course in mapping.

       The  default  data  for	map  are world shorelines.  Option -f accesses more detailed data
       classified by feature.

       -f [ feature ... ]
	      Features are ranked 1 (default) to 4 from major to  minor.   Higher-numbered  ranks
	      include all lower-numbered ones.	Features are

		     seacoasts, lakes, and islands; option -f always shows shore1

		     intermittent lakes


		     intermittent rivers

		     3=irrigation canals





		     2=disputed boundaries, 3=indefinite boundaries

	      state  states and provinces (US and Canada only)

       In  other  options  coordinates	are  in  degrees,  with north latitude and west longitude
       counted as positive.

       -l S N E W
       Set the southern and northern latitude and  the	eastern  and  western  longitude  limits.
       Missing	arguments are filled out from the list -90, 90, -180, 180, or lesser limits suit-
       able to the projection at hand.

       -k S N E W
       Set the scale as if for a map with limits -l S N E W .  Do  not	consider  any  -l  or  -w
       option in setting scale.

       -o lat lon rot
       Orient the map in a nonstandard position.  Imagine a transparent gridded sphere around the
       globe.  Turn the overlay about the North Pole so that the Prime Meridian (longitude 0)  of
       the  overlay  coincides	with  meridian lon on the globe.  Then tilt the North Pole of the
       overlay along its Prime Meridian to latitude lat on the globe.	Finally  again	turn  the
       overlay	about  its  `North  Pole'  so that its Prime Meridian coincides with the previous
       position of meridian rot.  Project the map in the standard form appropriate to  the  over-
       lay,  but  presenting information from the underlying globe.  Missing arguments are filled
       out from the list 90, 0, 0.  In the absence of -o, the orientation is 90, 0, m, where m is
       the middle of the longitude range.

       -w S N E W
       Window the map by the specified latitudes and longitudes in the tilted, rotated coordinate
       system.	Missing arguments are filled out from the list -90, 90, -180, 180.  (It  is  wise
       to  give  an  encompassing  -l option with -w.  Otherwise for small windows computing time
       varies inversely with area!)

       -d n
       For speed, plot only every nth point.

       Reverse left and right (good for star charts and inside-out views).

       Save the screen, don't erase before drawing.  Output made under -s  must  be  appended  to
       output of another map command.

       -g dlat dlon res
       Grid  spacings  are  dlat, dlon.  Zero spacing means no grid.  Missing dlat is taken to be
       zero.  Missing dlon is taken the same as dlat.  Grid lines are drawn to	a  resolution  of
       res (2o or less by default).  In the absence of -g, grid spacing is 10o.

       -p lat lon extent
       Position the point lat, lon at the center of the plotting area.	Scale the map so that the
       height (and width) of the nominal plotting area is extent times the size of one degree  of
       latitude at the center.	By default maps are scaled and positioned to fit within the plot-
       ting area.  An extent overrides option -k.

       -c x y rot
       After all other positioning and scaling operations have been performed, rotate  the  image
       rot  degrees counterclockwise about the center and move the center to position x, y, where
       the nominal plotting area is -1<=x<=1, -1<=y<=1.  Missing arguments are taken to be 0.

       -m [ file ... ]
       Use map data from named files.  If no files are named, omit map data.  Names that  do  not
       exist  as  pathnames are looked up in a standard directory, which contains, in addition to
       the data for -f,

       world  World Data Bank I (default)

       states US map from Census Bureau

	      US map from Census Bureau

       The environment variables MAP and MAPDIR change the default map and default directory.

       -b [lat0 lon0 lat1 lon1... ]
       Suppress the drawing of the normal boundary (defined by options -l and -w).   Coordinates,
       if  present,  define  the  vertices of a polygon to which the map is clipped.  If only two
       vertices are given, they are taken to be the diagonal of a rectangle.  To draw  the  poly-
       gon, give its vertices as a -u track.

       -t file ...
       The  files  contain lists of points, given as latitude-longitude pairs in degrees.  If the
       first file is named the standard input is taken instead.  The  points  of  each	list  are
       plotted as connected `tracks'.

       Points  in  a  track  file may be followed by label strings.  A label breaks the track.	A
       label may be prefixed by ", or and is terminated by a newline.  An unprefixed string or	a
       string  prefixed  with  "  is  displayed  at the designated point.  The first word of a or
       string names a special symbol (see option -y).  An optional numerical  second  word  is	a
       scale  factor  for the size of the symbol, 1 by default.  A symbol is aligned with its top
       to the north; a symbol is aligned vertically on the page.

       -u file ...
       Same as -t, except the tracks are unbroken lines.  (-t tracks appear as	dot-dashed  lines
       if the plotting filter supports them.)

       -y file
       The  file  contains  plot(6)-style  data  for or labels in -t or -u files.  Each symbol is
       defined by a comment :name then a sequence of and commands.  Coordinates (0,0) fall on the
       plotting point.	Default scaling is as if the nominal plotting range were commands in file
       change the scaling.

       Equatorial projections centered on  the	Prime  Meridian  (longitude  0).   Parallels  are
       straight horizontal lines.

       mercator       equally spaced straight meridians, conformal, straight compass courses
       sinusoidal     equally spaced parallels, equal-area, same as
       cylequalarea lat0
		      equally spaced straight meridians, equal-area, true scale on lat0
       cylindrical    central projection on tangent cylinder
       rectangular lat0
		      equally  spaced parallels, equally spaced straight meridians, true scale on
       gall lat0      parallels  spaced  stereographically  on	prime  meridian,  equally  spaced
		      straight meridians, true scale on lat0
       mollweide      (homalographic) equal-area, hemisphere is a circle

       Azimuthal  projections  centered  on  the  North  Pole.	Parallels are concentric circles.
       Meridians are equally spaced radial lines.

       azequidistant  equally spaced parallels, true distances from pole
       azequalarea    equal-area
       gnomonic       central projection on tangent plane, straight great circles
       perspective dist
		      viewed along earth's axis dist earth radii from center of earth
       orthographic   viewed from infinity
       stereographic  conformal, projected from opposite pole
       laue	      radius = tan(2xcolatitude), used in X-ray crystallography
       fisheye r      radius = log(colatitude/r): New Yorker map from viewing pedestal of  radius
		      r degrees

       Polar  conic  projections  symmetric  about the Prime Meridian.	Parallels are segments of
       concentric circles.  Except in the Bonne projection, meridians are equally  spaced  radial
       lines orthogonal to the parallels.

       conic lat0     central projection on cone tangent at lat0
       simpleconic lat0 lat1
		      equally spaced parallels, true scale on lat0 and lat1
       lambert lat0 lat1
		      conformal, true scale on lat0 and lat1
       albers lat0 lat1
		      equal-area, true scale on lat0 and lat1
       bonne lat0     equally  spaced parallels, equal-area, parallel lat0 developed from tangent

       Projections with bilateral symmetry about the Prime Meridian and the equator.

       polyconic      parallels developed from tangent cones, equally spaced along Prime Meridian
       aitoff	      equal-area projection of globe onto 2-to-1 ellipse, based on azequalarea
       lagrange       conformal, maps whole sphere into a circle
       bicentric lon0 points plotted at true azimuth from two centers on the  equator  at  longi-
		      tudes +-lon0, great circles are straight lines (a stretched gnomonic )
       elliptic lon0  points  plotted  at true distance from two centers on the equator at longi-
		      tudes +-lon0
       globular       hemisphere is circle, circular arc meridians  equally  spaced  on  equator,
		      circular arc parallels equally spaced on 0- and 90-degree meridians
       vandergrinten  sphere is circle, meridians as in globular, circular arc parallels resemble
       gilbert	      sphere mapped conformally to hemisphere and viewed orthographically,  hori-
		      zontal parallels

       Doubly periodic conformal projections.

       guyou	      W and E hemispheres are square
       square	      world is square with Poles at diagonally opposite corners
       tetra	      map  on tetrahedron with edge tangent to Prime Meridian at S Pole, unfolded
		      into equilateral triangle
       hex	      world is hexagon centered on N Pole, N and S  hemispheres  are  equilateral

       Miscellaneous projections.

       harrison dist angle
		      oblique perspective from above the North Pole, dist earth radii from center
		      of earth, looking along the Date Line angle degrees off vertical
       trapezoidal lat0 lat1
		      equally spaced parallels, straight meridians equally  spaced  along  paral-
		      lels, true scale at lat0 and lat1 on Prime Meridian

       Retroazimuthal projections.  At every point the angle between vertical and a straight line
       to `Mecca', latitude lat0 on the prime meridian, is the true bearing of Mecca.

       mecca lat0     equally spaced vertical meridians
       homing lat0    distances to Mecca are true

       Maps based on the spheroid.  Of geodetic quality, these projections do not make sense  for
       tilted orientations.  For descriptions, see corresponding maps above.

       sp_albers lat0 lat1
       map perspective 1.025 -o 40.75 74
	      A  view  looking	down  on  New  York  from 100 miles (0.025 of the 4000-mile earth
	      radius) up.  The job can be done faster by limiting the map so as not to `plot' the
	      invisible part of the world: A circular border can be forced by adding option (Lat-
	      itude 77.33o falls just inside  a  polar	cap  of  opening  angle  arccos(1.025)	=
       map mercator -o 49.25 -106 180
	      An  `equatorial'	map  of  the  earth centered on New York.  The pole of the map is
	      placed 90o away (40.75+49.25=90) on the other side of  the  earth.   A  180o  twist
	      around  the pole of the map arranges that the `Prime Meridian' of the map runs from
	      the pole of the map over the North Pole to New York instead of down the  back  side
	      of the earth.  The same effect can be had from map mercator -o 130.75 74
       map albers 28 45 -l 20 50 60 130 -m states
	      A customary curved-latitude map of the United States.
       map harrison 2 30 -l -90 90 120 240 -o 90 0 0
	      A  fan  view  covering  60o on either side of the Date Line, as seen from one earth
	      radius above the North Pole gazing at the earth's limb, which is 30o off	vertical.
	      The  -o  option  overrides the default -o 90 0 180, which would rotate the scene to
	      behind the observer.
	      World Data Bank II, for -f
	      maps for -m
	      map indexes
	      Map driver program
       map(6), plot(1), road(7)
       `Map seems to be empty'--a coarse survey found zero extent within the -l  and  -w  bounds;
       for maps of limited extent the grid resolution, res, or the limits may have to be refined.
       Windows	(option  -w)  cannot  cross the Date Line.  No borders appear along edges arising
       from visibility limits.	Segments that cross a border are dropped,  not	clipped.   Exces-
       sively large scale or -d setting may cause long line segments to be dropped.  Map tries to
       draw grid lines dotted and -t tracks dot-dashed.  As very few  plotting	filters  properly
       support	curved	textured  lines, these lines are likely to appear solid.  The west-longi-
       tude-positive convention betrays Yankee chauvinism.


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