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STAT(2) 										  STAT(2)

       stat, fstat, wstat, fwstat, dirstat, dirfstat, dirwstat, dirfwstat - get and put file sta-

       #include <u.h>
       #include <libc.h>

       int stat(char *name, char *edir)

       int fstat(int fd, char *edir)

       int wstat(char *name, char *edir)

       int fwstat(int fd, char *edir)

       int dirstat(char *name, Dir *dir)

       int dirfstat(int fd, Dir *dir)

       int dirwstat(char *name, Dir *dir)

       int dirfwstat(int fd, Dir *dir)

       Given a file's name, or an open file descriptor fd, these routines retrieve or modify file
       status  information.   Stat, fstat, wstat, and fwstat are the system calls; they deal with
       machine-independent directory entries.  Their format is	defined  by  stat(5).	Stat  and
       fstat  retrieve information about name or fd into edir, a buffer of length DIRLEN, defined
       in <libc.h>.  Wstat and fwstat write  information  back,  thus  changing  file  attributes
       according to edir.

       Dirstat, dirfstat, dirwstat, and dirfwstat are the same as their counterparts, except that
       they operate on Dir structures:

	      struct Dir {
		    char    name[NAMELEN];   /* last element of path */
		    char    uid[NAMELEN];    /* owner name */
		    char    gid[NAMELEN];    /* group name */
		    Qid     qid;	     /* unique id from server */
		    long    mode;	     /* permissions */
		    long    atime;	     /* last read time */
		    long    mtime;	     /* last write time */
		    Length;		     /* file length: see <u.h> */
		    ushort  type;	     /* server type */
		    ushort  dev;	     /* server subtype */
	      } Dir;

       This structure, the Qid structure, NAMELEN, and	DIRLEN	are  defined  in  <libc.h>.   The
       Length  structure  is  defined  in  </$objtype/u.h>.   Length is an unnamed structure (see
       2c(1)), which means that its fields are directly accessible; if the length is known to fit
       in  a long, then use length as a field name to retrieve it.  If the file resides on perma-
       nent storage and is not a directory, the length returned by stat is the number of bytes in
       the  file.   For  directories,  the  length  returned is zero.  For files that are streams
       (e.g., pipes and network connections), the length is the number of bytes that can be  read
       without blocking.

       Each  file  is  the  responsibility  of	some  server: it could be a file server, a kernel
       device, or a user process.  Type identifies the server type, and dev says which of a group
       of servers of the same type is the one responsible for this file.  Qid is a structure con-
       taining path and vers fields, each an unsigned long: path is guaranteed to be unique among
       all  path names currently on the file server, and vers changes each time the file is modi-
       fied.  Thus, if two files have the same type, dev, and qid they are the same file.

       The bits in mode are defined by

	     0x80000000   directory
	     0x40000000   append only
	     0x20000000   exclusive use (locked)

		   0400   read permission by owner
		   0200   write permission by owner
		   0100   execute permission (search on directory) by owner
		   0070   read, write, execute (search) by group
		   0007   read, write, execute (search) by others

       There are constants defined in <libc.h> for these bits: CHDIR, CHAPPEND,  and  CHEXCL  for
       the first three; and CHREAD, CHWRITE, and CHEXEC for the read, write, and execute bits for

       The two time fields are measured in seconds since the epoch (Jan 1 00:00 1970 GMT).  Mtime
       is  the time of the last change of content.  Similarly, atime is set whenever the contents
       are accessed; also, it is set whenever mtime is set.

       Uid and gid are the names of the owner and group of the file.  Groups are also users,  but
       each  server  is  free to associate a list of users with any user name g, and that list is
       the set of users in the group g.  When an initial attachment is made to a server, the user
       string  in  the	process group is communicated to the server.  Thus, the server knows, for
       any given file access, whether the accessing process is the owner of, or in the group  of,
       the file.  This selects which sets of three bits in mode is used to check permissions.

       Only  some  of the fields may be changed with the wstat calls.  The name can be changed by
       anyone with write permission in the parent directory.  The mode and mtime can  be  changed
       by  the	owner or the group leader of the file's current group.	The gid can be changed by
       the owner if he or she is a member of the new group.  The gid can be changed by the  group
       leader  of  the	file's	current  group if he or she is the leader of the new group.  (See
       intro(5) for permission information, and users(6) for user and group information).

	      for the non-dir routines

	      for the routines prefixed dir

       intro(2), fcall(2), dirread(2), stat(5)

       All these functions return 0 on success, -1 on error, and set errstr.

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