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print(2) [plan9 man page]

PRINT(2)							System Calls Manual							  PRINT(2)

print, fprint, sprint, snprint, fmtinstall, strconv, Strconv, numbconv, fltconv, doprint - print formatted output SYNOPSIS
#include <u.h> #include <libc.h> int print(char *format, ...) int fprint(int fd, char *format, ...) int sprint(char *s, char *format, ...) int snprint(char *s, int len, char *format, ...) int fmtinstall(int c, int (*f)(void*, Fconv*)) void strconv(char *s, Fconv *fp) void Strconv(Rune *s, Fconv *fp) int numbconv(void *o, Fconv *fp) int fltconv(double f, Fconv *fp) char* doprint(char *s, char *es, char *format, void *argp) extern int printcol; DESCRIPTION
Print writes text to the standard output. Fprint writes to the named output file descriptor; a buffered form is described in bio(2). Sprint places text followed by the NUL character () in consecutive bytes starting at s; it is the user's responsibility to ensure that enough storage is available. Each function returns the number of bytes transmitted (not including the NUL in the case of sprint), or a negative value if an output error was encountered. Snprint is like sprint but will not place more than len bytes in s. Each of these functions converts, formats, and prints its trailing arguments under control of a format string. The format contains two types of objects: plain characters, which are simply copied to the output stream, and conversion specifications, each of which results in fetching of zero or more arguments. The results are undefined if there are arguments of the wrong type or too few arguments for the for- mat. If the format is exhausted while arguments remain, the excess is ignored. Each conversion specification has the following format: % [flags] verb The verb is a single character and each flag is a single character or a (decimal) numeric string. Up to two numeric strings may be used; the first is called f1, the second f2. A period can be used to separate them, and if the period is present then f1 and f2 are taken to be zero if missing, otherwise they are `omitted'. Either or both of the numbers may be replaced with the character *, meaning that the actual number will be obtained from the argument list as an integer. The flags and numbers are arguments to the verb described below. The numeric verbs d, o, x, and X format their arguments in decimal, octal, hexadecimal, and upper case hexadecimal. Each interprets the flags h, l, u, #, and - to mean short, long, unsigned, alternate format, and left justified. If neither short nor long is specified, then the argument is an int. If unsigned is specified, then the argument is interpreted as a positive number and no sign is output. If two l flags are given, then the argument is interpreted as a vlong (a 4-byte or sometimes 8-byte integer). If f2 is not omitted, the number is padded on the left with zeros until at least f2 digits appear. Then, if alternate format is specified, for o conversion, the number is preceded by a 0 if it doesn't already begin with one; for x conversion, the number is preceded by 0x; for X conversion, the number is pre- ceded by 0X. Finally, if f1 is not omitted, the number is padded on the left (or right, if left justification is specified) with enough blanks to make the field at least f1 characters long. The floating point verbs f, e, E, g, and G take a double argument. Each interprets the flags +, -, and # to mean always print a sign, left justified, and alternate format. F1 is the minimum field width and, if the converted value takes up less than f1 characters, it is padded on the left (or right, if `left justified') with spaces. F2 is the number of digits that are converted after the decimal place for e, E, and f conversions, and f2 is the maximum number of significant digits for g and G conversions. The f verb produces output of the form [-]digits[.digits]. E conversion appends an exponent E[-]digits, and e conversion appends an exponent e[-]digits. The g verb will output the argument in either e or f with the goal of producing the smallest output. Also, trailing zeros are omitted from the fraction part of the output, and a trailing decimal point appears only if it is followed by a digit. The G verb is similar, but uses E format instead of e. When alternate format is specified, the result will always contain a decimal point, and for g and G conversions, trailing zeros are not removed. The s verb copies a string (pointer to char) to the output. The number of characters copied (n) is the minimum of the size of the string and f2. These n characters are justified within a field of f1 characters as described above. The S verb is similar, but it interprets its pointer as an array of runes (see utf(6)); the runes are converted to UTF before output. The c verb copies a single char (promoted to int) justified within a field of f1 characters as described above. The C verb is similar, but works on runes. The r verb takes no arguments; it copies the error string returned by a call to errstr(2). Fmtinstall is used to install custom verbs and flags labeled by character c, must have value less than 512. Fn should be declared as int fn(void *o, Fconv *fp) Fn is passed a pointer o to whatever argument appears next in the list to print. Fp->chr is the flag or verb character to cause fn to be called. In fn, fp->f1 and fp->f2 are the decoded flags in the conversion. A missing fp->f1 is denoted by the value zero. A missing fp->f2 is denoted by a negative number. Fp->f3 is the bitwise OR of all the flags seen since the most recent The standard flags values are: 1 (+), 2 (-), 4 (#), 8 (l), 16 (h), 32 (u), and 64 (ll). If fp->chr is a verb, fn should return the size of the argument in bytes so print can skip over it. If fp->chr is a flag, fn should return a negative value: the negation of one of the above flag values, or some otherwise unused power of two. All interpretation of fp->f1, fp->f2, and fp->f3 is left up to the conversion routine. Fmtinstall returns 0 if the installation succeeds, -1 if it fails. Sprint and snprint are re-entrant; they may be called to help prepare output in custom conversion routines. The function strconv formats a UTF string. S is the string, fp has the same meaning as above. The strconv routine interprets the flag in fp->f3 as left-justification. The function Strconv (with a capital S) is like strconv, but its input is a rune string, which is converted to UTF on output. Printcol indicates the position of the next output character. Tabs, backspaces and carriage returns are interpreted appropriately. Numbconv is used to implement the integer verbs; its arguments are like those of the function argument to fmtinstall. Fltconv is used to implement the floating verbs. Its arguments are like those of the function argument to fmtinstall, except that the first argument is the double itself rather than a pointer to it. Both numbconv and fltconv use strconv to put their results into the current print buffer. One of strconv, Strconv, or numbconv must be called to produce output; no other routine puts characters in the output buffer. Doprint formats the arguments starting at argp into the buffer starting at s, but it writes no characters after the address es. It returns a pointer to the NUL terminating the formatted string. Alef In Alef, Fconv is called Printspec and the arguments to strconv are swapped. EXAMPLES
This function prints an error message with a variable number of arguments and then quits. void fatal(char *msg, ...) { char buf[1024], *out; out = doprint(buf, buf+sizeof(buf), "Fatal error: "); out = doprint(out, buf+sizeof(buf), msg, (&msg+1)); write(2, buf, out-buf); exits("fatal error"); } This example adds a verb to print complex numbers. typedef struct { double r, i; } Complex; int Xconv(void *v, Fconv *fp) { char str[50]; Complex *o; o = v; sprint(str, "(%g,%g)", o->r, o->i); strconv(str, fp); return(sizeof(Complex)); } main(...) { Complex x = (Complex){ 1.5, -2.3 }; fmtinstall('X', Xconv); print("x = %X ", x); } SOURCE
/sys/src/libc/port SEE ALSO
fprintf(2), utf(6), errstr(2) DIAGNOSTICS
Print and fprint set errstr. BUGS
The formatting is close to that specified for ANSI fprintf(2); the differences are: the - flag doesn't work u is a flag here instead of a verb X conversion doesn't use upper case A-F for digits ten to fifteen there are no 0 or space flags here there are no P or n verbs here Also, and distinctly not a bug, print and friends generate UTF rather than ASCII. PRINT(2)
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