2l, 6l, 8l, kl, vl, xl - loaders
2l [ option ... ] [ file ... ]
6l [ option ... ] [ file ... ]
8l [ option ... ] [ file ... ]
kl [ option ... ] [ file ... ]
vl [ option ... ] [ file ... ]
xl [ option ... ] [ file ... ]
2l, 6l, 8l, kl, vl, and xl load the named files into MC68020, i960, i386, SPARC, MIPS, and
ATT3210 executable files. The files should be object files or libraries (archives of
object files) for the appropriate architecture. Also, a name like -lext represents the
library libext.a in /$objtype/lib, where objtype is one of 68020, 960, 386, sparc, mips,
or 3210. The libraries must have tables of contents (see ar(1)).
In practice, -l options are rarely necessary as the header files for the libraries cause
their archives to be included automatically in the load (see 2c(1)). For example, any
program that includes header file libc.h causes the loader to search the C library /$obj-
type/lib/libc.a. Also, the loader creates an undefined symbol _main (or _mainp if profil-
ing is enabled) to force loading of the startup linkage from the C library.
The order of search to resolve undefined symbols is to load all files and libraries men-
tioned explicitly on the command line, and then to resolve remaining symbols by searching
in topological order libraries mentioned in header files included by files already loaded.
When scanning such libraries, the algorithm is to scan each library repeatedly until no
new undefined symbols are picked up, then to start on the next library. Thus if library A
needs B which needs A again, it may be necessary to mention A explicitly so it will be
read a second time.
The loader options are:
-l (As a bare option.) Suppress the default loading of the startup linkage and
libraries specified by header files.
-o out Place output in file out. Default is O.out, where O is the first letter of the
-p Insert profiling code into the executable output; no special action is needed
during compilation or assembly.
-s Strip the symbol tables from the output file.
-a Print the object code in assembly language, with addresses.
-v Print debugging output that annotates the activities of the load.
(Xl only) Place the function in the internal RAM of the DSP3210.
-M (Kl only) Generate instructions rather than calls to emulation routines for mul-
tiply and divide.
-msize (Xl only) Use size (default 0, maximum 8192) bytes of internal RAM of the
DSP3210 for functions and small data items.
-Esymbol The entry point for the binary is symbol (default _main; _mainp under -p).
-Hn Executable header is type n. The meaning of the types is architecture-depen-
dent; typically type 1 is Plan 9 boot format and type 2 is the regular Plan 9
format, the default. These are reversed on the MIPS. The Next boot format is
3. Type 4 in vl creates a MIPS executable for an SGI Unix system.
-Tt The text segment starts at address t.
-Dd The data segment starts at address d.
-Rr The text segment is rounded to a multiple of r (if r is nonzero).
The numbers in the above options can begin with or to change the default base from decimal
to hexadecimal or octal. The defaults for the values depend on the compiler and the
The loaded image has several symbols inserted by the loader: etext is the address of the
end of the text segment; bdata is the address of the beginning of the data segment; edata
is the address of the end of the data segment; and end is the address of the end of the
bss segment, and of the program.
for -llib arguments.
2c(1), 2a(1), alef(1), ar(1), nm(1), db(1), prof(1)
Rob Pike, ``How to Use the Plan 9 C Compiler''