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Plan 9 - man page for 2l (plan9 section 1)

2L(1)				     General Commands Manual				    2L(1)

NAME
       2l, 6l, 8l, kl, vl, xl - loaders

SYNOPSIS
       2l [ option ...	] [ file ...  ]
       6l [ option ...	] [ file ...  ]
       8l [ option ...	] [ file ...  ]
       kl [ option ...	] [ file ...  ]
       vl [ option ...	] [ file ...  ]
       xl [ option ...	] [ file ...  ]

DESCRIPTION
       2l, 6l, 8l, kl, vl, and xl load the named files into MC68020, i960, i386, SPARC, MIPS, and
       ATT3210 executable files.  The files should be object  files  or  libraries  (archives  of
       object  files)  for  the appropriate architecture.  Also, a name like -lext represents the
       library libext.a in /$objtype/lib, where objtype is one of 68020, 960, 386,  sparc,  mips,
       or 3210.  The libraries must have tables of contents (see ar(1)).

       In  practice,  -l options are rarely necessary as the header files for the libraries cause
       their archives to be included automatically in the load (see  2c(1)).   For  example,  any
       program	that includes header file libc.h causes the loader to search the C library /$obj-
       type/lib/libc.a.  Also, the loader creates an undefined symbol _main (or _mainp if profil-
       ing is enabled) to force loading of the startup linkage from the C library.

       The  order  of search to resolve undefined symbols is to load all files and libraries men-
       tioned explicitly on the command line, and then to resolve remaining symbols by	searching
       in topological order libraries mentioned in header files included by files already loaded.
       When scanning such libraries, the algorithm is to scan each library  repeatedly	until  no
       new undefined symbols are picked up, then to start on the next library.	Thus if library A
       needs B which needs A again, it may be necessary to mention A explicitly  so  it  will  be
       read a second time.

       The loader options are:

       -l	 (As  a  bare  option.)   Suppress the default loading of the startup linkage and
		 libraries specified by header files.

       -o out	 Place output in file out.  Default is O.out, where O is the first letter of  the
		 loader name.

       -p	 Insert  profiling  code  into the executable output; no special action is needed
		 during compilation or assembly.

       -s	 Strip the symbol tables from the output file.

       -a	 Print the object code in assembly language, with addresses.

       -v	 Print debugging output that annotates the activities of the load.

       -cfunction
		 (Xl only) Place the function in the internal RAM of the DSP3210.

       -M	 (Kl only) Generate instructions rather than calls to emulation routines for mul-
		 tiply and divide.

       -msize	 (Xl  only)  Use  size	(default  0,  maximum  8192) bytes of internal RAM of the
		 DSP3210 for functions and small data items.

       -Esymbol  The entry point for the binary is symbol (default _main; _mainp under -p).

       -Hn	 Executable header is type n.  The meaning of the  types  is  architecture-depen-
		 dent;	typically  type  1 is Plan 9 boot format and type 2 is the regular Plan 9
		 format, the default.  These are reversed on the MIPS.	The Next boot  format  is
		 3.  Type 4 in vl creates a MIPS executable for an SGI Unix system.

       -Tt	 The text segment starts at address t.

       -Dd	 The data segment starts at address d.

       -Rr	 The text segment is rounded to a multiple of r (if r is nonzero).

       The numbers in the above options can begin with or to change the default base from decimal
       to hexadecimal or octal.  The defaults for the values  depend  on  the  compiler  and  the
       header type.

       The  loaded  image has several symbols inserted by the loader: etext is the address of the
       end of the text segment; bdata is the address of the beginning of the data segment;  edata
       is  the	address  of the end of the data segment; and end is the address of the end of the
       bss segment, and of the program.

FILES
       /$objtype/lib
	      for -llib arguments.

SOURCE
       /sys/src/cmd/2l etc.

SEE ALSO
       2c(1), 2a(1), alef(1), ar(1), nm(1), db(1), prof(1)

       Rob Pike, ``How to Use the Plan 9 C Compiler''

											    2L(1)


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