EXIM_DB(8) System Manager's Manual EXIM_DB(8)
exim_db - Manage Exim's hint databases (exim_dumpdb, exim_fixdb, exim_tidydb)
exim_dumpdb spooldir database
exim_fixdb spooldir database
exim_tidydb [-f] [-t time] spooldir database
Three utility programs are provided for maintaining the DBM files that Exim uses to contain its delivery hint information. Each program
requires two arguments. The first specifies the name of Exim's spool directory, and the second is the name of the database it is to oper-
ate on. These are as follows:
retry the database of retry information
databases of information about messages waiting for remote hosts
misc other hints data (for example, for serializing ETRN runs)
The entire contents of a database are written to the standard output by the exim_dumpdb program, which has no options or arguments other
than the spool and database names. For example, to dump the retry database:
exim_dumpdb /var/spool/exim retry
Two lines of output are produced for each entry:
T:mail.ref.example:192.168.242.242 146 77 Connection refused
31-Oct-1995 12:00:12 02-Nov-1995 12:21:39 02-Nov-1995 20:21:39 *
The first item on the first line is the key of the record. It starts with one of the letters R, or T, depending on whether it refers to a
routing or transport retry. For a local delivery, the next part is the local address; for a remote delivery it is the name of the remote
host, followed by its failing IP address (unless "no_retry_include_ip_address" is set on the smtp transport). Then there follows an error
code, an additional error code, and a textual description of the error.
The three times on the second line are the time of first failure, the time of the last delivery attempt, and the computed time for the next
attempt. The line ends with an asterisk if the cutoff time for the last retry rule has been exceeded.
Each output line from exim_dumpdb for the wait-xxx databases consists of a host name followed by a list of ids for messages that are or
were waiting to be delivered to that host. If there are a very large number for any one host, continuation records, with a sequence number
added to the host name, may be seen. The data in these records is often out of date, because a message may be routed to several alterna-
tive hosts, and Exim makes no effort to keep cross-references.
The exim_tidydb utility program is used to tidy up the contents of the hints databases. If run with no options, it removes all records
from a database that are more than 30 days old. The cutoff date can be altered by means of the -t option, which must be followed by a
time. For example, to remove all records older than a week from the retry database:
exim_tidydb -t 7d /var/spool/exim retry
Both the wait-xxx and retry databases contain items that involve message ids. In the former these appear as data in records keyed by host
- they were messages that were waiting for that host - and in the latter they are the keys for retry information for messages that have
suffered certain types of error. When "exim_tidydb" is run, a check is made to ensure that message ids in database records are those of
messages that are still on the queue. Message ids for messages that no longer exist are removed from "wait-"xxx records, and if this
leaves any records empty, they are deleted. For the "retry" database, records whose keys are non-existent message ids are removed. The
exim_tidydb utility outputs comments on the standard output whenever it removes information from the database.
Removing records from a DBM file does not normally make the file smaller, but all the common DBM libraries are able to re-use the space
that is released. It is therefore suggested that exim_tidydb be run periodically on all the hints databases, but at a quiet time of day,
because it requires a database to be locked (and therefore inaccessible to Exim) while it does its work.
The exim_fixdb program is a utility for interactively modifying databases. Its main use is for testing Exim, but it might also be occa-
sionally useful for getting round problems in a live system. It has no options, and its interface is somewhat crude. On entry, it prompts
for input with a right angle-bracket. A key of a database record can then be entered, and the data for that record is displayed.
If 'd' is typed at the next prompt, the entire record is deleted. For all except the retry database, that is the only operation that can
be carried out. For the retry database, each field is output preceded by a number, and data for individual fields can be changed by typing
the field number followed by new data, for example:
> 4 951102:1000
resets the time of the next delivery attempt. Time values are given as a sequence of digit pairs for year, month, day, hour, and minute.
Colons can be used as optional separators.
This manual page needs a major re-work. If somebody knows better groff than us and has more experience in writing manual pages, any patches
would be greatly appreciated.
This manual page was stitched together from spec.txt by Andreas Metzler <ametzler at downhill.at.eu.org>, for the Debian GNU/Linux system
(but may be used by others).
March 26, 2003 EXIM_DB(8)