Moose::Manual::Classes(3) User Contributed Perl Documentation Moose::Manual::Classes(3)
Moose::Manual::Classes - Making your classes use Moose (and subclassing)
Using Moose is very simple, you just "use Moose":
That's it, you've made a class with Moose!
There's actually a lot going on here under the hood, so let's step through it.
When you load Moose, a bunch of sugar functions are exported into your class, such as "extends", "has", "with", and more. These functions
are what you use to define your class. For example, you might define an attribute ...
has 'ssn' => ( is => 'rw' );
Attributes are described in the Moose::Manual::Attributes documentation.
Loading Moose also enables the "strict" and "warnings" pragmas in your class.
When you load Moose, your class will become a subclass of Moose::Object. The Moose::Object class provides a default constructor and
destructor, as well as object construction helper methods. You can read more about this in the Moose::Manual::Construction document.
As a convenience, Moose creates a new class type for your class. See the Moose::Manual::Types document to learn more about types.
It also creates a Moose::Meta::Class object for your class. This metaclass object is now available by calling a "meta" method on your
class, for example "Person->meta".
The metaclass object provides an introspection API for your class. It is also used by Moose itself under the hood to add attributes, define
parent classes, and so on. In fact, all of Moose's sugar does the real work by calling methods on this metaclass object (and other meta API
Moose provides a simple sugar function for declaring your parent classes, "extends":
has 'username' => ( is => 'rw' );
Note that each call to "extends" will reset your parents. For multiple inheritance you must provide all the parents at once, "extends
You can use Moose to extend a non-Moose parent. However, when you do this, you will inherit the parent class's constructor (assuming it is
also called "new"). In that case, you will have to take care of initializing attributes manually, either in the parent's constructor, or in
your subclass, and you will lose a lot of Moose magic.
See the MooseX::NonMoose module on CPAN if you're interested in extending non-Moose parent classes with Moose child classes.
CLEANING UP MOOSE DROPPINGS
Moose exports a number of functions into your class. It's a good idea to remove these sugar functions from your class's namespace, so that
"Person->can('has')" will no longer return true.
There are several ways to do this. We recommend using namespace::autoclean, a CPAN module. Not only will it remove Moose exports, it will
also remove any other exports.
If you absolutely can't use a CPAN module (but can use Moose?), you can write "no Moose" at the end of your class. This will remove any
Moose exports in your class.
has 'ssn' => ( is => 'rw' );
MAKING IT FASTER
Moose has a feature called "immutabilization" that you can use to greatly speed up your classes at runtime. However, using it incurs a cost
when your class is first being loaded. When you make your class immutable you tell Moose that you will not be changing it in the future.
You will not be adding any more attributes, methods, roles, etc.
This allows Moose to generate code specific to your class. In particular, it creates an "inline" constructor, making object construction
To make your class immutable you simply call "make_immutable" on your class's metaclass object.
Immutabilization and "new()"
If you override "new()" in your class, then the immutabilization code will not be able to provide an optimized constructor for your class.
Instead, you should use a "BUILD()" method, which will be called from the inlined constructor.
Alternately, if you really need to provide a different "new()", you can also provide your own immutabilization method. Doing so requires
extending the Moose metaclasses, and is well beyond the scope of this manual.
Moose is maintained by the Moose Cabal, along with the help of many contributors. See "CABAL" in Moose and "CONTRIBUTORS" in Moose for
COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
This software is copyright (c) 2012 by Infinity Interactive, Inc..
This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.
perl v5.16.2 2012-09-19 Moose::Manual::Classes(3)