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dbix::class::relationship::base(3) [osx man page]

DBIx::Class::Relationship::Base(3)			User Contributed Perl Documentation			DBIx::Class::Relationship::Base(3)

DBIx::Class::Relationship::Base - Inter-table relationships SYNOPSIS
__PACKAGE__->add_relationship( spiders => 'My::DB::Result::Creatures', sub { my $args = shift; return { "$args->{foreign_alias}.id" => { -ident => "$args->{self_alias}.id" }, "$args->{foreign_alias}.type" => 'arachnid' }; }, ); DESCRIPTION
This class provides methods to describe the relationships between the tables in your database model. These are the "bare bones" relationships methods, for predefined ones, look in DBIx::Class::Relationship. METHODS
add_relationship Arguments: 'relname', 'Foreign::Class', $condition, $attrs __PACKAGE__->add_relationship('relname', 'Foreign::Class', $condition, $attrs); Create a custom relationship between one result source and another source, indicated by its class name. condition The condition argument describes the "ON" clause of the "JOIN" expression used to connect the two sources when creating SQL queries. To create simple equality joins, supply a hashref containing the remote table column name as the key(s), and the local table column name as the value(s), for example given: My::Schema::Author->has_many( books => 'My::Schema::Book', { 'foreign.author_id' => '' } ); A query like: $author_rs->search_related('books')->next will result in the following "JOIN" clause: ... FROM author me LEFT JOIN book books ON books.author_id = ... This describes a relationship between the "Author" table and the "Book" table where the "Book" table has a column "author_id" containing the ID value of the "Author". "foreign" and "self" are pseudo aliases and must be entered literally. They will be replaced with the actual correct table alias when the SQL is produced. Similarly: My::Schema::Book->has_many( editions => 'My::Schema::Edition', { 'foreign.publisher_id' => 'self.publisher_id', 'foreign.type_id' => 'self.type_id', } ); ... $book_rs->search_related('editions')->next will result in the "JOIN" clause: ... FROM book me LEFT JOIN edition editions ON editions.publisher_id = me.publisher_id AND editions.type_id = me.type_id ... This describes the relationship from "Book" to "Edition", where the "Edition" table refers to a publisher and a type (e.g. "paperback"): As is the default in SQL::Abstract, the key-value pairs will be "AND"ed in the result. "OR" can be achieved with an arrayref, for example a condition like: My::Schema::Item->has_many( related_item_links => My::Schema::Item::Links, [ { 'foreign.left_itemid' => '' }, { 'foreign.right_itemid' => '' }, ], ); will translate to the following "JOIN" clause: ... FROM item me JOIN item_relations related_item_links ON related_item_links.left_itemid = OR related_item_links.right_itemid = ... This describes the relationship from "Item" to "Item::Links", where "Item::Links" is a many-to-many linking table, linking items back to themselves in a peer fashion (without a "parent-child" designation) To specify joins which describe more than a simple equality of column values, the custom join condition coderef syntax can be used. For example: My::Schema::Artist->has_many( cds_80s => 'My::Schema::CD', sub { my $args = shift; return { "$args->{foreign_alias}.artist" => { -ident => "$args->{self_alias}.artistid" }, "$args->{foreign_alias}.year" => { '>', "1979", '<', "1990" }, }; } ); ... $artist_rs->search_related('cds_80s')->next; will result in the "JOIN" clause: ... FROM artist me LEFT JOIN cd cds_80s ON cds_80s.artist = me.artistid AND cds_80s.year < ? AND cds_80s.year > ? with the bind values: '1990', '1979' "$args->{foreign_alias}" and "$args->{self_alias}" are supplied the same values that would be otherwise substituted for "foreign" and "self" in the simple hashref syntax case. The coderef is expected to return a valid SQL::Abstract query-structure, just like what one would supply as the first argument to "search" in DBIx::Class::ResultSet. The return value will be passed directly to SQL::Abstract and the resulting SQL will be used verbatim as the "ON" clause of the "JOIN" statement associated with this relationship. While every coderef-based condition must return a valid "ON" clause, it may elect to additionally return a simplified join-free condition hashref when invoked as "$row_object->relationship", as opposed to "$rs->related_resultset('relationship')". In this case $row_object is passed to the coderef as "$args->{self_rowobj}", so a user can do the following: sub { my $args = shift; return ( { "$args->{foreign_alias}.artist" => { -ident => "$args->{self_alias}.artistid" }, "$args->{foreign_alias}.year" => { '>', "1979", '<', "1990" }, }, $args->{self_rowobj} && { "$args->{foreign_alias}.artist" => $args->{self_rowobj}->artistid, "$args->{foreign_alias}.year" => { '>', "1979", '<', "1990" }, }, ); } Now this code: my $artist = $schema->resultset("Artist")->find({ id => 4 }); $artist->cds_80s->all; Can skip a "JOIN" altogether and instead produce: SELECT cds_80s.cdid, cds_80s.artist, cds_80s.title, cds_80s.year, cds_80s.genreid, cds_80s.single_track FROM cd cds_80s WHERE cds_80s.artist = ? AND cds_80s.year < ? AND cds_80s.year > ? With the bind values: '4', '1990', '1979' Note that in order to be able to use $row->create_related, the coderef must not only return as its second such a "simple" condition hashref which does not depend on joins being available, but the hashref must contain only plain values/deflatable objects, such that the result can be passed directly to "set_from_related" in DBIx::Class::Relationship::Base. For instance the "year" constraint in the above example prevents the relationship from being used to to create related objects (an exception will be thrown). In order to allow the user to go truly crazy when generating a custom "ON" clause, the $args hashref passed to the subroutine contains some extra metadata. Currently the supplied coderef is executed as: $relationship_info->{cond}->({ self_alias => The alias of the invoking resultset ('me' in case of a row object), foreign_alias => The alias of the to-be-joined resultset (often matches relname), self_resultsource => The invocant's resultsource, foreign_relname => The relationship name (does *not* always match foreign_alias), self_rowobj => The invocant itself in case of $row_obj->relationship }); attributes The standard ResultSet attributes may be used as relationship attributes. In particular, the 'where' attribute is useful for filtering relationships: __PACKAGE__->has_many( 'valid_users', 'MyApp::Schema::User', { 'foreign.user_id' => 'self.user_id' }, { where => { valid => 1 } } ); The following attributes are also valid: join_type Explicitly specifies the type of join to use in the relationship. Any SQL join type is valid, e.g. "LEFT" or "RIGHT". It will be placed in the SQL command immediately before "JOIN". proxy => $column | @columns | \%column The 'proxy' attribute can be used to retrieve values, and to perform updates if the relationship has 'cascade_update' set. The 'might_have' and 'has_one' relationships have this set by default; if you want a proxy to update across a 'belongs_to' relationship, you must set the attribute yourself. @columns An arrayref containing a list of accessors in the foreign class to create in the main class. If, for example, you do the following: MyApp::Schema::CD->might_have(liner_notes => 'MyApp::Schema::LinerNotes', undef, { proxy => [ qw/notes/ ], }); Then, assuming MyApp::Schema::LinerNotes has an accessor named notes, you can do: my $cd = MyApp::Schema::CD->find(1); $cd->notes('Notes go here'); # set notes -- LinerNotes object is # created if it doesn't exist For a 'belongs_to relationship, note the 'cascade_update': MyApp::Schema::Track->belongs_to( cd => 'DBICTest::Schema::CD', 'cd, { proxy => ['title'], cascade_update => 1 } ); $track->title('New Title'); $track->update; # updates title in CD \%column A hashref where each key is the accessor you want installed in the main class, and its value is the name of the original in the fireign class. MyApp::Schema::Track->belongs_to( cd => 'DBICTest::Schema::CD', 'cd', { proxy => { cd_title => 'title' }, }); This will create an accessor named "cd_title" on the $track row object. NOTE: you can pass a nested struct too, for example: MyApp::Schema::Track->belongs_to( cd => 'DBICTest::Schema::CD', 'cd', { proxy => [ 'year', { cd_title => 'title' } ], }); accessor Specifies the type of accessor that should be created for the relationship. Valid values are "single" (for when there is only a single related object), "multi" (when there can be many), and "filter" (for when there is a single related object, but you also want the relationship accessor to double as a column accessor). For "multi" accessors, an add_to_* method is also created, which calls "create_related" for the relationship. is_foreign_key_constraint If you are using SQL::Translator to create SQL for you and you find that it is creating constraints where it shouldn't, or not creating them where it should, set this attribute to a true or false value to override the detection of when to create constraints. cascade_copy If "cascade_copy" is true on a "has_many" relationship for an object, then when you copy the object all the related objects will be copied too. To turn this behaviour off, pass "cascade_copy => 0" in the $attr hashref. The behaviour defaults to "cascade_copy => 1" for "has_many" relationships. cascade_delete By default, DBIx::Class cascades deletes across "has_many", "has_one" and "might_have" relationships. You can disable this behaviour on a per-relationship basis by supplying "cascade_delete => 0" in the relationship attributes. The cascaded operations are performed after the requested delete, so if your database has a constraint on the relationship, it will have deleted/updated the related records or raised an exception before DBIx::Class gets to perform the cascaded operation. cascade_update By default, DBIx::Class cascades updates across "has_one" and "might_have" relationships. You can disable this behaviour on a per- relationship basis by supplying "cascade_update => 0" in the relationship attributes. The "belongs_to" relationship does not update across relationships by default, so if you have a 'proxy' attribute on a belongs_to and want to use 'update' on it, you muse set "cascade_update => 1". This is not a RDMS style cascade update - it purely means that when an object has update called on it, all the related objects also have update called. It will not change foreign keys automatically - you must arrange to do this yourself. on_delete / on_update If you are using SQL::Translator to create SQL for you, you can use these attributes to explicitly set the desired "ON DELETE" or "ON UPDATE" constraint type. If not supplied the SQLT parser will attempt to infer the constraint type by interrogating the attributes of the opposite relationship. For any 'multi' relationship with "cascade_delete => 1", the corresponding belongs_to relationship will be created with an "ON DELETE CASCADE" constraint. For any relationship bearing "cascade_copy => 1" the resulting belongs_to constraint will be "ON UPDATE CASCADE". If you wish to disable this autodetection, and just use the RDBMS' default constraint type, pass "on_delete => undef" or "on_delete => ''", and the same for "on_update" respectively. is_deferrable Tells SQL::Translator that the foreign key constraint it creates should be deferrable. In other words, the user may request that the constraint be ignored until the end of the transaction. Currently, only the PostgreSQL producer actually supports this. add_fk_index Tells SQL::Translator to add an index for this constraint. Can also be specified globally in the args to "deploy" in DBIx::Class::Schema or "create_ddl_dir" in DBIx::Class::Schema. Default is on, set to 0 to disable. register_relationship Arguments: $relname, $rel_info Registers a relationship on the class. This is called internally by DBIx::Class::ResultSourceProxy to set up Accessors and Proxies. related_resultset Arguments: $relationship_name Return Value: $related_resultset $rs = $cd->related_resultset('artist'); Returns a DBIx::Class::ResultSet for the relationship named $relationship_name. search_related @objects = $rs->search_related('relname', $cond, $attrs); $objects_rs = $rs->search_related('relname', $cond, $attrs); Run a search on a related resultset. The search will be restricted to the item or items represented by the DBIx::Class::ResultSet it was called upon. This method can be called on a ResultSet, a Row or a ResultSource class. search_related_rs ( $objects_rs ) = $rs->search_related_rs('relname', $cond, $attrs); This method works exactly the same as search_related, except that it guarantees a resultset, even in list context. count_related $obj->count_related('relname', $cond, $attrs); Returns the count of all the items in the related resultset, restricted by the current item or where conditions. Can be called on a "ResultSet" in DBIx::Class::Manual::Glossary or a "Row" in DBIx::Class::Manual::Glossary object. new_related my $new_obj = $obj->new_related('relname', \%col_data); Create a new item of the related foreign class. If called on a Row object, it will magically set any foreign key columns of the new object to the related primary key columns of the source object for you. The newly created item will not be saved into your storage until you call "insert" in DBIx::Class::Row on it. create_related my $new_obj = $obj->create_related('relname', \%col_data); Creates a new item, similarly to new_related, and also inserts the item's data into your storage medium. See the distinction between "create" and "new" in DBIx::Class::ResultSet for details. find_related my $found_item = $obj->find_related('relname', @pri_vals | \%pri_vals); Attempt to find a related object using its primary key or unique constraints. See "find" in DBIx::Class::ResultSet for details. find_or_new_related my $new_obj = $obj->find_or_new_related('relname', \%col_data); Find an item of a related class. If none exists, instantiate a new item of the related class. The object will not be saved into your storage until you call "insert" in DBIx::Class::Row on it. find_or_create_related my $new_obj = $obj->find_or_create_related('relname', \%col_data); Find or create an item of a related class. See "find_or_create" in DBIx::Class::ResultSet for details. update_or_create_related my $updated_item = $obj->update_or_create_related('relname', \%col_data, \%attrs?); Update or create an item of a related class. See "update_or_create" in DBIx::Class::ResultSet for details. set_from_related $book->set_from_related('author', $author_obj); $book->author($author_obj); ## same thing Set column values on the current object, using related values from the given related object. This is used to associate previously separate objects, for example, to set the correct author for a book, find the Author object, then call set_from_related on the book. This is called internally when you pass existing objects as values to "create" in DBIx::Class::ResultSet, or pass an object to a belongs_to accessor. The columns are only set in the local copy of the object, call "update" to set them in the storage. update_from_related $book->update_from_related('author', $author_obj); The same as "set_from_related", but the changes are immediately updated in storage. delete_related $obj->delete_related('relname', $cond, $attrs); Delete any related item subject to the given conditions. add_to_$rel Currently only available for "has_many", "many-to-many" and 'multi' type relationships. Arguments: ($foreign_vals | $obj), $link_vals? my $role = $schema->resultset('Role')->find(1); $actor->add_to_roles($role); # creates a My::DBIC::Schema::ActorRoles linking table row object $actor->add_to_roles({ name => 'lead' }, { salary => 15_000_000 }); # creates a new My::DBIC::Schema::Role row object and the linking table # object with an extra column in the link Adds a linking table object for $obj or $foreign_vals. If the first argument is a hash reference, the related object is created first with the column values in the hash. If an object reference is given, just the linking table object is created. In either case, any additional column values for the linking table object can be specified in $link_vals. set_$rel Currently only available for "many-to-many" relationships. Arguments: (@hashrefs | @objs), $link_vals? my $actor = $schema->resultset('Actor')->find(1); my @roles = $schema->resultset('Role')->search({ role => { '-in' => ['Fred', 'Barney'] } } ); $actor->set_roles(@roles); # Replaces all of $actor's previous roles with the two named $actor->set_roles(@roles, { salary => 15_000_000 }); # Sets a column in the link table for all roles Replace all the related objects with the given reference to a list of objects. This does a "delete" on the link table resultset to remove the association between the current object and all related objects, then calls "add_to_$rel" repeatedly to link all the new objects. Note that this means that this method will not delete any objects in the table on the right side of the relation, merely that it will delete the link between them. Due to a mistake in the original implementation of this method, it will also accept a list of objects or hash references. This is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. remove_from_$rel Currently only available for "many-to-many" relationships. Arguments: $obj my $role = $schema->resultset('Role')->find(1); $actor->remove_from_roles($role); # removes $role's My::DBIC::Schema::ActorRoles linking table row object Removes the link between the current object and the related object. Note that the related object itself won't be deleted unless you call ->delete() on it. This method just removes the link between the two objects. AUTHORS
Matt S. Trout <> LICENSE
You may distribute this code under the same terms as Perl itself. perl v5.16.2 2012-10-18 DBIx::Class::Relationship::Base(3)
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