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class::method::modifiers(3) [osx man page]

Class::Method::Modifiers(3)				User Contributed Perl Documentation			       Class::Method::Modifiers(3)

Class::Method::Modifiers - provides Moose-like method modifiers SYNOPSIS
package Child; use parent 'Parent'; use Class::Method::Modifiers; sub new_method { } before 'old_method' => sub { carp "old_method is deprecated, use new_method"; }; around 'other_method' => sub { my $orig = shift; my $ret = $orig->(@_); return $ret =~ /d/ ? $ret : lc $ret; }; after 'private', 'protected' => sub { debug "finished calling a dangerous method"; }; DESCRIPTION
Method modifiers are a convenient feature from the CLOS (Common Lisp Object System) world. In its most basic form, a method modifier is just a method that calls "$self->SUPER::foo(@_)". I for one have trouble remembering that exact invocation, so my classes seldom re-dispatch to their base classes. Very bad! "Class::Method::Modifiers" provides three modifiers: "before", "around", and "after". "before" and "after" are run just before and after the method they modify, but can not really affect that original method. "around" is run in place of the original method, with a hook to easily call that original method. See the "MODIFIERS" section for more details on how the particular modifiers work. One clear benefit of using "Class::Method::Modifiers" is that you can define multiple modifiers in a single namespace. These separate modifiers don't need to know about each other. This makes top-down design easy. Have a base class that provides the skeleton methods of each operation, and have plugins modify those methods to flesh out the specifics. Parent classes need not know about "Class::Method::Modifiers". This means you should be able to modify methods in any subclass. See Term::VT102::ZeroBased for an example of subclassing with CMM. In short, "Class::Method::Modifiers" solves the problem of making sure you call "$self->SUPER::foo(@_)", and provides a cleaner interface for it. As of version 1.00, "Class::Method::Modifiers" is faster in some cases than Moose. See "benchmark/" in the Moose distribution. MODIFIERS
before method(s) => sub { ... } "before" is called before the method it is modifying. Its return value is totally ignored. It receives the same @_ as the the method it is modifying would have received. You can modify the @_ the original method will receive by changing $_[0] and friends (or by changing anything inside a reference). This is a feature! after method(s) => sub { ... } "after" is called after the method it is modifying. Its return value is totally ignored. It receives the same @_ as the the method it is modifying received, mostly. The original method can modify @_ (such as by changing $_[0] or references) and "after" will see the modified version. If you don't like this behavior, specify both a "before" and "after", and copy the @_ during "before" for "after" to use. around method(s) => sub { ... } "around" is called instead of the method it is modifying. The method you're overriding is passed in as the first argument (called $orig by convention). Watch out for contextual return values of $orig. You can use "around" to: Pass $orig a different @_ around 'method' => sub { my $orig = shift; my $self = shift; $orig->($self, reverse @_); }; Munge the return value of $orig around 'method' => sub { my $orig = shift; ucfirst $orig->(@_); }; Avoid calling $orig -- conditionally around 'method' => sub { my $orig = shift; return $orig->(@_) if time() % 2; return "no dice, captain"; }; install_modifier $package, $type, @names, sub { ... } "install_modifier" is like "before", "after", and "around" but it also lets you dynamically select the modifier type ('before', 'after', 'around') and package that the method modifiers are installed into. This expert-level function is exported only when you ask for it specifically, or for ":all". NOTES
All three normal modifiers; "before", "after", and "around"; are exported into your namespace by default. You may "use Class::Method::Modifiers ()" to avoid thrashing your namespace. I may steal more features from Moose, namely "super", "override", "inner", "augment", and whatever the Moose folks come up with next. Note that the syntax and semantics for these modifiers is directly borrowed from Moose (the implementations, however, are not). Class::Trigger shares a few similarities with "Class::Method::Modifiers", and they even have some overlap in purpose -- both can be used to implement highly pluggable applications. The difference is that Class::Trigger provides a mechanism for easily letting parent classes to invoke hooks defined by other code. "Class::Method::Modifiers" provides a way of overriding/augmenting methods safely, and the parent class need not know about it. CAVEATS
It is erroneous to modify a method that doesn't exist in your class's inheritance hierarchy. If this occurs, an exception will be thrown when the modifier is defined. It doesn't yet play well with "caller". There are some todo tests for this. Don't get your hopes up though! VERSION
This module was bumped to 1.00 following a complete reimplementation, to indicate breaking backwards compatibility. The "guard" modifier was removed, and the internals are completely different. The new version is a few times faster with half the code. It's now even faster than Moose. Any code that just used modifiers should not change in behavior, except to become more correct. And, of course, faster. :) SEE ALSO
Class::Method::Modifiers::Fast Moose, Class::Trigger, Class::MOP::Method::Wrapped, MRO::Compat, CLOS AUTHOR
Thanks to Stevan Little for Moose, I would never have known about method modifiers otherwise. Thanks to Matt Trout and Stevan Little for their advice. COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
Copyright 2007-2009 Shawn M Moore. This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. perl v5.16.2 2012-10-21 Class::Method::Modifiers(3)
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