symbols(1) BSD General Commands Manual symbols(1)
symbols -- display symbol information about a file or process
symbols [-help] [-w] [-uuid] [-arch arch_name] [-saveSignature path] [-lookup (0x1234 | symbol) ...] file... pid... process-name... signa-
The symbols command may be used to examine library, symbol, and source line information in files and running processes.
You may need root priviledges to examine running processes.
The symbols command can be used to determine symbol availability to tools such as Instruments, dtrace, and sample.
-help Print a more extensive list of options
-v Print version information
-w Print wide output, do not clip to terminal width
-uuid Print UUID info only.
-arch arch_name Specify the target architecture. The default value is any , which matches the first available architecture. The value all
may be used to iterate over all architectures in a target. The arch name may also be any of the commonly used architecture
mnemonics, for example i386, x86_64, or arm
-cpuTpe # Specify the target architecture cpu type as a numeric value
-cpuSubtype # Specify the target architecture cpu subtype as a numeric value
-noHeaders Do not print library level information. This also supresses printing of any lower level information, which implies
-noRegions, -noSymbols, and -noSources
-noRegions Do not print segment/section level information. This also supresses printing of any lower level information, which implies
-noSymbols and -noSources
-noSymbols Do not print symbol level information. This also supresses printing of any lower level information, which implies -noSources
-noSources Do not print source level information
-noDemangling Do not print the human readable form of symbol names, instead print the name used by the linker
-printSignature Print a "signature" for each target, which can later be used as input to the symbols command. This is a way to archive tar-
get data for later use. See also the -saveSignature flag
-deepSignature Causes all signatures to be "deep copies", containing complete copies of all available information
-fullSourcePath Print the entire source path for each source info
-printDsymPaths Print the path of the dSYM file (if found) used when creating symbol information
-lookup (0x1234 | symbol)
Find one or more addresses or symbols in the targets. Symbols may contain simple shell globbing style patterns.
Output from symbols has the following format:
target [arch_name, elapsed-time]:
UUID symbol-owner-path [FLAGS]
address (size) region-name
address (size) symbol-name [FLAGS]
address (size) sourcefile : line #
Symbol owner flags have the following meanings:
PROT A load command has the SG_PROTECTED_VERSION_1 flag set
AOUT This symbol owner is an executable
DYLIB This symbol owner is a dylib or framework
DYLIB-STUB This symbol owner is used only by the linker
DYLD This symbol owner is the runtime dynamic linker
BUNDLE This symbol owner is a loadable bundle
OBJECT This symbol owner is an unlinked object file
KEXT-BUNDLE This symbol owner is a kext
dSYM_v# This symbol owner is a dSYM, of version '#'
DYLDSHAREDCACHE This symbol owner was found in the dyld shared cache
ObjC-RR This symbol owner supports manual retain-release
ObjC-GC This symbol owner supports old-style garbage collection
SLID This symbol owner was relocated from its base address
PIE This symbol owner is compiled position independent
RESTRICTED This symbol owner has a restrict segment/section
STATIC-LIB This symbol-owner is from a static library (.a)
FaultedFromDisk The data for this symbol owner was found on disk
FaultedFromTask The data for this symbol owner was retrieved from a running task
The data for this symbol owner was found in the current processes dyld shared cache
Found-dSYM A dSYM was found for this symbol owner
The binary for this symbol owner was found by looking up the dSYM, and then looking next to the dSYM
The binary for this symbol owner was found by looking up the dSYM, and then reading its plist
MMap32 The symbol owner is using a mmap'd file cache for symbol information
MMap64 The symbol owner is using a mmap'd file cache for symbol information
Empty No data was found for this symbol owner
Symbol flags have the following meanings:
FUNC This symbol has executable code
DYLD-STUB This symbol is a stub used by the dynamic linker
OBJC This symbol is an Objective C method
THUMB This symbol uses thumb instruction encoding
OMIT-FP This symbol does not create a frame pointer.
EXT This symbol has external visibility
PEXT This symbol has private-external visibility
LENGTH The length of this symbol is known, not guessed
NameNList The name of this symbol comes from NList data
NameDwarf The name of this symbol comes from Dwarf data
NameDwarfMIPSLinkage The name of this symbol is from specialized Dwarf
MangledNameNList The mangled name of this symbol is from NList data
MangledNameDwarf The mangled name of this symbol is from Dwarf data
The mangled name of this symbol is from specialized Dwarf
Merged This symbol has multiple data sources
NList This symbol was found in NList data
Dwarf This symbol was found in Dwarf data
DebugMap This symbol was found in DebugMap data
FunctionStarts This symbol was found in function starts data
SOURCES OF SYMBOL INFORMATION
symbols uses multiple sources of symbol information. All sources are queried, and the resulting data is merged.
NLIST symbol information is found in the LINKEDIT segment. It is imprecise, and only contains a starting address, not a length or ending
address. Nlist data is not required to (and typically does not) reference all symbols. Usually only external symbol information is available.
Even that may be removed by use of strip(1)
DEBUG MAP symbol information is multi-part. A per-symbol reference in the original file points to an external file containing additional
debug information, usually DWARF.
FUNCTION STARTS symbol information is found in the LC_FUNCTION_STARTS load command of the target. It is imprecise, and only contains a start-
ing address, not a length or ending address. Furthermore, it contains no name or mangled name information. The LC_FUNCTION_STARTS load com-
mand is optional, it may not be found in all targets.
DWARF symbol information is true debug info. It is usually precise (but it is not required to be). When available, dwarf information is
treated as more reliable than any other information source, and conflicts are resolved in favor of dwarf data.
DSYM. A dSYM is an external file containing DWARF and NLIST symbol information.
Kernel symbols are available by using the special pid "-1". This includes loaded kexts.
A signature is the information needed to reconstruct symbol information at a later date. For example, a signature contains a list of
libraries, and for each library a UUID and the addresses the segments were loaded at. You can also ask for a "deep" signature, which contains
complete information about every piece of information symbols could find. This can be very useful for later diagnosis and exploration.
Print out all symbol and source line information in the default architecture of AppKit.
symbols -uuid /System/Library/Frameworks/AppKit.framework/AppKit
Print out summarized UUID information for each arch in AppKit.
symbols -arch i386 /System/Library/Frameworks/AppKit.framework/AppKit
Print out all symbol and source line information in the i386 architecture of AppKit.
Print out all symbol and source line information in pid 7085.
symbols 7085 -lookup 0x7fff5bf0008
Print the symbol and source line information in pid 7085 at address 0x7fff5bf0008.
Attempt to find a process named Safari, and print its symbol and source line information.
symbols -deepSignature -saveSignature /tmp/Safari.signature
Attempt to find a process named Safari, and save a copy of all discoverable information to a file in /tmp.
symbols /tmp/Safari.signature -lookup "*alloc*"
Using the cached information in /tmp/Safari.signature, find every method/function matching the wildcard name *alloc*
symbols -w -1
Print out in wide format all available information on kernel symbols"
Darwin May 31, 2019 Darwin