MHSHOW(1) [nmh-1.5] MHSHOW(1)
mhshow - display MIME messages
mhshow [+folder] [msgs] [-file file] [-part number] ... [-type content] ... [-serialonly | -noserialonly] [-pause | -nopause] [-form
formfile] [-rcache policy] [-wcache policy] [-check | -nocheck] [-version] [-help]
The mhshow command display contents of a MIME (multi-media) message or collection of messages.
mhshow manipulates multi-media messages as specified in RFC-2045 thru RFC-2049. Currently mhshow only supports encodings in message bod-
ies, and does not support the encoding of message headers as specified in RFC-2047.
By default mhshow will display all parts of a multipart message. By using the -part and -type switches, you may limit the scope of mhshow
to particular subparts (of a multipart content) and/or particular content types.
The option -file file directs mhshow to use the specified file as the source message, rather than a message from a folder. If you specify
this file as "-", then mhshow will accept the source message on the standard input. Note that the file, or input from standard input
should be a validly formatted message, just like any other nmh message. It should NOT be in mail drop format (to convert a file in mail
drop format to a folder of nmh messages, see inc(1)).
A part specification consists of a series of numbers separated by dots. For example, in a multipart content containing three parts, these
would be named as 1, 2, and 3, respectively. If part 2 was also a multipart content containing two parts, these would be named as 2.1 and
2.2, respectively. Note that the -part switch is effective for only messages containing a multipart content. If a message has some other
kind of content, or if the part is itself another multipart content, the -part switch will not prevent the content from being acted upon.
A content specification consists of a content type and a subtype. The initial list of "standard" content types and subtypes can be found
A list of commonly used contents is briefly reproduced here:
text plain, enriched
multipart mixed, alternative, digest, parallel
message rfc822, partial, external-body
application octet-stream, postscript
image jpeg, gif, png
A legal MIME message must contain a subtype specification.
To specify a content, regardless of its subtype, just use the name of the content, e.g., "audio". To specify a specific subtype, separate
the two with a slash, e.g., "audio/basic". Note that regardless of the values given to the `-type' switch, a multipart content (of any
subtype listed above) is always acted upon. Further note that if the `-type' switch is used, and it is desirable to act on a mes-
sage/external-body content, then the `-type' switch must be used twice: once for message/external-body and once for the content externally
If the profile entry "Unseen-Sequence" is present and non-empty, then mhshow will remove each of the messages shown from each sequence
named by the profile entry.
Checking the Contents
The -check switch tells mhshow to check each content for an integrity checksum. If a content has such a checksum (specified as a Content-
MD5 header field), then mhshow will attempt to verify the integrity of the content.
Showing the Contents
The headers of each message are displayed with the mhlproc (usually mhl), using the standard format file mhl.headers. You may specify an
alternate format file with the -form formfile switch. If the format file mhl.null is specified, then the display of the message headers is
Next, the contents are extracted from the message and are stored in a temporary file. Usually, the name of the temporary file is the word
"mhshow" followed by a string of characters. Occasionally, the method used to display a content (described next), requires that the file
end in a specific suffix. For example, the soffice command (part of the StarOffice package) can be used to display Microsoft Word content,
but it uses the suffix to determine how to display the file. If no suffix is present, the file is not correctly loaded. Similarily, older
versions of the gs command append a ".ps" suffix to the filename if one was missing. As a result, these cannot be used to read the default
To get around this, your profile can contain lines of the form:
to specify a suffix which can be automatically added to the temporary file created for a specific content type. For example, the following
lines might appear in your profile:
to automatically append a suffix to the temporary files.
The method used to display the different contents in the messages bodies will be determined by a "display string". To find the display
string, mhshow will first search your profile for an entry of the form:
to determine the display string. If this isn't found, mhshow will search for an entry of the form:
to determine the display string.
If a display string is found, any escapes (given below) will be expanded. The result will be executed under "/bin/sh", with the standard
input set to the content.
The display string may contain the following escapes:
%a Insert parameters from Content-Type field
%e exclusive execution
%f Insert filename containing content
%F %e, %f, and stdin is terminal not content
%l display listing prior to displaying content
%p %l, and ask for confirmation
%s Insert content subtype
%d Insert content description
%% Insert the character %
For those display strings containing the e- or F-escape, mhshow will execute at most one of these at any given time. Although the F-escape
expands to be the filename containing the content, the e-escape has no expansion as far as the shell is concerned.
When the p-escape prompts for confirmation, typing INTR (usually control-C) will tell mhshow not to display that content. The p-escape can
be disabled by specifying the switch -nopause. Further, when mhshow is display a content, typing QUIT (usually control-) will tell mhshow
to wrap things up immediately.
Note that if the content being displayed is multipart, but not one of the subtypes listed above, then the f- and F-escapes expand to multi-
ple filenames, one for each subordinate content. Further, stdin is not redirected from the terminal to the content.
If a display string is not found, mhshow has several default values:
mhshow-show-text/plain: %pmoreproc '%F'
mhshow-show-message/rfc822: %pshow -file '%F'
If a subtype of type text doesn't have a profile entry, it will be treated as text/plain.
mhshow has default methods for handling multipart messages of subtype mixed, alternative, parallel, and digest. Any unknown subtype of
type multipart (without a profile entry), will be treated as multipart/mixed.
If none of these apply, then mhshow will check to see if the message has an application/octet-stream content with parameter "type=tar". If
so, mhshow will use an appropriate command. If not, mhshow will complain.
Example entries might be:
mhshow-show-audio/basic: raw2audio 2>/dev/null | play
mhshow-show-image: xv '%f'
mhshow-show-application/PostScript: lpr -Pps
Note that when using the f- or F-escape, it's a good idea to use single-quotes around the escape. This prevents misinterpretation by the
shell of any funny characters that might be present in the filename.
Finally, mhshow will process each message serially -- it won't start showing the next message until all the commands executed to display
the current message have terminated. In the case of a multipart content (of any subtype listed above), the content contains advice indi-
cating if the parts should be displayed serially or in parallel. Because this may cause confusion, particularly on uni-window displays,
the -serialonly switch can be given to tell mhshow to never display parts in parallel.
Showing Alternate Character Sets
Because a content of type text might be in a non-ASCII character set, when mhshow encounters a "charset" parameter for this content, it
checks if your terminal can display this character set natively. mhn checks this by examining the the environment variable $MM_CHARSET.
If the value of this environment variable is equal to the value of the charset parameter, then mhshow assumes it can display this content
without any additional setup. If this environment variable is not set, mhshow will assume a value of "US-ASCII". If the character set
cannot be displayed natively, then mhshow will look for an entry of the form:
which should contain a command creating an environment to render the character set. This command string should containing a single "%s",
which will be filled-in with the command to display the content.
Example entries might be:
mhshow-charset-iso-8859-1: xterm -fn '-*-*-medium-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-c-*-iso8859-*' -e %s
The first example tells mhshow to start xterm and load the appropriate character set for that message content. The second example tells
mhshow that your pager (or other program handling that content type) can handle that character set, and that no special processing is
Note that many pagers strip off the high-order bit or have problems displaying text with the high-order bit set. However, the pager less
has support for single-octet character sets. The source to less is available on many ftp sites carrying free software. In order to view
messages sent in the ISO-8859-1 character set using less,
put these lines in your .login file:
setenv LESSCHARSET latin1
setenv LESS "-f"
The first line tells less to use the ISO-8859-1 definition for determining whether a character is "normal", "control", or "binary". The
second line tells less not to warn you if it encounters a file that has non-ASCII characters. Then, simply set the moreproc profile entry
to less, and it will get called automatically. (To handle other single-octet character sets, look at the less(1) manual entry for informa-
tion about the $LESSCHARDEF environment variable.)
Messages of Type message/partial
mhshow cannot directly display messages of type partial. You must reassemble them first into a normal message using mhstore. Check the
man page for mhstore(1) for details.
For contents of type message/external-body, mhshow supports these access-types:
For the "anon-ftp" and "ftp" access types, mhshow will look for the "nmh-access-ftp" profile entry, e.g.,
to determine the pathname of a program to perform the FTP retrieval.
This program is invoked with these arguments:
domain name of FTP-site
"ascii" or "binary"
The program should terminate with an exit status of zero if the retrieval is successful, and a non-zero exit status otherwise.
The Content Cache
When mhshow encounters an external content containing a "Content-ID:" field, and if the content allows caching, then depending on the
caching behavior of mhshow, the content might be read from or written to a cache.
The caching behavior of mhshow is controlled with the -rcache and -wcache switches, which define the policy for reading from, and writing
to, the cache, respectively. One of four policies may be specified: "public", indicating that mhshow should make use of a publically-
accessible content cache; "private", indicating that mhshow should make use of the user's private content cache; "never", indicating that
mhshow should never make use of caching; and, "ask", indicating that mhshow should ask the user.
There are two directories where contents may be cached: the profile entry "nmh-cache" names a directory containing world-readable contents,
and, the profile entry "nmh-private-cache" names a directory containing private contents. The former should be an absolute (rooted) direc-
might be used if you didn't care that the cache got wiped after each reboot of the system. The latter is interpreted relative to the
user's nmh directory, if not rooted, e.g.,
(which is the default value).
Because the display environment in which mhshow operates may vary for different machines, mhshow will look for the environment variable
$MHSHOW. If present, this specifies the name of an additional user profile which should be read. Hence, when a user logs in on a particu-
lar display device, this environment variable should be set to refer to a file containing definitions useful for the given display device.
Normally, only entries that deal with the methods to display different content type and subtypes
need be present in this additional profile. Finally, mhshow will attempt to consult one other additional user profile, e.g.,
which is created automatically during nmh installation.
$HOME/.mh_profile The user profile
$MHSHOW Additional profile entries
/etc/nmh/mhn.defaults System default MIME profile entries
/etc/nmh/mhl.headers The headers template
Path: To determine the user's nmh directory
Current-Folder: To find the default current folder
Unseen-Sequence: To name sequences denoting unseen messages
mhlproc: Default program to display message headers
nmh-access-ftp: Program to retrieve contents via FTP
nmh-cache Public directory to store cached external contents
nmh-private-cache Personal directory to store cached external contents
mhshow-charset-<charsTemplate for environment to render character sets
mhshow-show-<type>* Template for displaying contents
moreproc: Default program to display text/plain content
mhbuild(1), mhl(1), mhlist(1), mhstore(1), sendfiles(1)
`+folder' defaults to the current folder
`msgs' defaults to cur
If a folder is given, it will become the current folder. The last message selected will become the current message.
MH.6.8 11 June 2012 MHSHOW(1)