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imptrace(1) [osx man page]

IMPTRACE(1)						    BSD General Commands Manual 					       IMPTRACE(1)

imptrace -- report importance donation events in real time SYNOPSIS
imptrace [-i [-s]] [-p pid] [-d] DESCRIPTION
The imptrace utility displays a trace of importance donation events. Importance donation is used by adaptive jobs on the system to manage their priority on the system. See xpc_transaction_begin(3) and launchd.plist(5) for more information about the mechanism and its use. The options are as follows: -i Show internal kernel boosts -s Show stacks for internal boosts. -p pid Limit events to the process identified by pid. -d Display raw Dtrace output; do not reformat timestamps and sort output. The traced events are as follows: BOOSTED The specified process has received a boost and transitioned out of the background. UNBOOST The specified process has dropped its last remaining boost and transitioned back into the background. Recv Boost The specified process has received a boost and accepted ownership of that boost in userspace, usually by dequeuing the boost- ing message. Drop Boost The specified process has dropped a boost. ____ Int Boost Internal boost events are only emitted when tracking of kernel internal boosts is activated with the -i option. Their use and meaning is subject to change and dependent on the implementation details of importance donation. EXAMPLES
The imptrace script will output one line for each event, for example a typical boosting exchange might look as follows: 0000:00:00.000000000 EVENT PROCESS BOOSTS NOTES 0023:15:13.844332886 BOOSTED 22:configd 0023:15:13.844372519 Recv Boost 22:configd 1 from 275:SystemUIServer 0023:15:13.844497860 UNBOOST 22:configd Boosted for 0 ms 0023:15:13.844509452 Drop Boost 22:configd 0 In this case, SystemUIServer (PID 275) has sent a message to configd (PID 22) which caused it to be boosted. configd then dropped the boost causing it to be become unboosted and return to background state. Boosted and unboost events may appear before the triggering recv or drop boost. NOTES
imptrace is implemented using Dtrace. For information about the probes used, see comments in the imptrace source. When debugging an adap- tive service, it may be helpful to combine these probes with other Dtrace providers; however, they should be considered unstable. OS X
May 01, 2013 OS X

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xpc_main(3)						   BSD Library Functions Manual 					       xpc_main(3)

xpc_main -- XPC service runtime SYNOPSIS
#include <xpc/xpc.h> void xpc_main(xpc_connection_handler_t handler); void xpc_transaction_begin(void); void xpc_transaction_end(void); DESCRIPTION
The xpc_main() function is called by an XPC service to initialize the runtime and start listening for incoming connections. HANDLER
The handler provided to xpc_main() will be invoked when a new connection has been established with the service. For each new connection, an xpc_connection_t will be passed as the parameter to the handler. Each connection corresponds to a call to xpc_connection_create(3) made by a client of the service. The service is responsible for setting an event handler on the new connection and resuming it in the same fashion as new connections returned by xpc_connection_create(3). Important: The new connection passed to handler() must be retained using xpc_retain(3) if it will be stored in data structures that persist beyond the scope of that function. static void new_connection_handler(xpc_connection_t peer) { xpc_connection_set_event_handler(peer, ^(xpc_object_t event) { // Handle messages and errors. }); xpc_connection_resume(peer); } int main(void) { xpc_main(new_connection_handler); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } launchd jobs which advertise MachServices may not call xpc_main(). RUNTIME MANAGEMENT
The XPC runtime automatically keeps track of message activity to determine whether a service is busy or idle. If the service remains idle after a period of inactivity (defined by the system), xpc_main() will exit the process. This behavior is automatically enabled for XPC ser- vices, but launchd(8) jobs wishing to opt into the same behavior may do so by adding the EnablePressuredExit key to their launchd.plist(5). Activity is tracked with a transaction count maintained by the XPC runtime. A service is deemed idle when its transaction count is zero. The transaction count is incremented immediately before the receipt and delivery of a message to a peer connection's event handler. The transaction count is correspondingly decremented when the event handler returns. The transaction count is also incremented when a reply message is created with xpc_dictionary_create_reply(3), and decremented when the reply is sent. As a result, a service with outstanding reply messages is not considered idle. Services may extend the default behavior using xpc_transaction_begin() and xpc_transaction_end(), which increment and decrement the transac- tion count respectively. This may be necessary for services that send periodic messages to their clients, not in direct reply to a received message. If the service has a non-zero transaction count at a time when the system deems it necessary to terminate the service, peer connections in the service may receive the XPC_ERROR_TERMINATION_IMMINENT event. This event indicates that the service should unwind all outstanding work as quickly as possible and not begin any new work, as the system will terminate the process if it does not exit in a timely fashion. After this event is received, no further messages will be delivered to the peers, and the end of the service's last outstanding transaction will auto- matically terminate the process. The XPC runtime will also automatically manage the service's priority based on where a message came from. If an app sends a message to the service, the act of sending that message will boost the destination service's priority and resource limits so that it can more quickly fill the request. If, however, a service gets a message from a background process, the service stays at a lower priority so as not to interfere with work initiated as a direct result of user interaction. The lifetime of these boosts is tied to the lifetime of the message or reply object, just like transactions. So while the service maintains a reference to a message which boosted it, the boost will remain. If a reply message is created using xpc_dictionary_create_reply(3), the boost transfers to the reply object and will remain with the process until until the reply has been sent or deallocated. Note that boosts happen as a result of a message-send operation. So even if the service isn't running when a boosting message is sent, it will be launched on-demand at the elevated priority necessary to receive the message in a timely fashion. launchd jobs which use XPC for their IPC may opt into priority boosting by specifying their ProcessType as Adaptive. This will apply priority boosting behavior only to the MachServices that are in the launchd.plist. See launchd.plist(5) for more details. DEFAULT ENVIRONMENT
The execution environment for XPC services bundled with applications is tightly controlled. By default, services are executed in a new secu- rity audit session and therefore do not have access to the current user's keychain or the ability to draw UI. This behavior may be overrid- den with the JoinExistingSession key in the service's Info.plist. By default, the xpc_main() function will call the dispatch_main(3) function to manage the service's main event loop. This behavior may be overridden with the RunLoopType key in the service's Info.plist. See xpcservice.plist(5) for more information about these keys. SEE ALSO
xpc(3), xpc_connection_create(3) Darwin 1 July, 2011 Darwin
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