idraw(1) General Commands Manual idraw(1)
idraw - drawing editor
idraw [options] [file]
Idraw is a drawing editor that lets you create and edit drawings made up of graphics like text, lines, splines, rectangles, polygons, and
ellipses. Drawings are stored in files that can be printed on a PostScript printer. You can can open an existing drawing when starting up
idraw by typing a file name on the command line.
Idraw displays a portrait or landscape view of an 8.5 by 11 inch page in its drawing area. In a column along the drawing area's left side
is a set of drawing tool icons, and above the drawing area is a set of pull-down menus containing commands. A panner in the lower left
corner lets you pan and zoom the the drawing area. Along the top is a set of indicators that display editing information.
You must engage a tool before you can use it. You engage a tool by clicking on its icon or by typing the character below and to the right
of its icon. The icon of the drawing tool that's engaged appears in inverted colors. Once engaged, you use the tool by clicking the left
mouse button in the drawing area.
The Select, Move, Scale, Stretch, Rotate, and Alter tools manipulate existing graphics. Magnify makes a part of the view expand to fill
the entire view. Text, Line, Multiline, Open Spline, Ellipse, Rectangle, Polygon, and Closed Spline create new graphics. Each tool works
Select Select a graphic, unselecting all others. A graphic is selected if its handles are visible. Handles are small inverse-
video squares that either surround the graphic or demarcate its important points (such as the endpoints of a line). If you
hold down the shift key, Select extends the selection: it selects the unselected graphic (or unselects the selected graphic)
you clicked on but does not unselect other selections. Clicking anywhere other than on a graphic unselects everything; you
may also drag a rubberband rectangle around a group of graphics to select all of them at once. Shortcut: the right mouse
button invokes Select while the mouse is in the drawing area.
Move Move graphics from one spot to another. Shortcut: the middle mouse button invokes Move while the mouse is in the drawing
Scale Scale graphics about their centers.
Stretch Stretch graphics vertically or horizontally while tying down the opposite edge.
Rotate Rotate graphics about their centers according to the angle between two radii: the one defined by the original clicking point
and the one defined by the current dragging point.
Alter Modify a graphic's structure. This tool's effect is described below for each graphic.
Magnify Magnify a portion of the drawing specified by sweeping out a rectangular area. Idraw will magnify the area to occupy the
entire screen, if possible.
Text Create some text. Left-click to position the first line of text, and then type as much text as you want. You may use
emacs-style keystrokes to edit the text as well as enter it. You can leave text editing mode by typing ESC or by simply
clicking somewhere else. The Alter tool lets you edit the text in an existing text graphic.
Line Create a line. The shift key constrains the line to lie on either the vertical or the horizontal axis. You may left-click
with the Alter tool on either endpoint of a line to move the endpoint to a new location.
Multiline Create a set of connected lines. The shift key constrains each segment to lie on either the vertical or the horizontal
axis. Each left-click starts a new segment (i.e., adds a vertex); each right-click removes the last vertex added. The mid-
dle button finalizes the multiline. The Alter tool lets you move, add, and remove vertices from an existing multiline.
Open Spline Create an open B-spline. The shift key constrains each control point to lie on either the vertical or the horizontal axis
with the preceding point. Each left-click adds a control point; each right-click removes the last control point added. The
middle button finalizes the spline. The Alter tool lets you move, add, and remove control points from an existing open
Ellipse Create an ellipse. The shift key constrains the ellipse to the shape of a circle. The Alter tool does not affect ellipses.
Rectangle Create a rectangle. The shift key constrains the rectangle to the shape of a square. The Alter tool lets you move the rec-
tangle's corners independently to form a four-sided polygon.
Polygon Create a polygon. The shift key constrains each side to lie on either the vertical or the horizontal axis. Each left-click
starts a new segment (i.e., adds a vertex); each right-click removes the last vertex added. The middle button finalizes the
polygon. The Alter tool lets you move, add, and remove vertices from an existing polygon.
Closed Spline Create a closed B-spline. The shift key constrains each control point to lie on either the vertical or the horizontal axis
with the preceding point. Each left-click adds a control point; each right-click removes the last control point added. The
middle button finalizes the spline. The Alter tool lets you move, add, and remove control points from an existing closed
The pull-down menus File, Edit, Structure, Font, Brush, Pattern, FgColor, BgColor, Align, and View above the drawing area contain commands
for editing the drawing and for controlling idraw's execution. The File menu contains the following commands to operate on files:
New Destroy the current drawing and replace it with an unnamed blank drawing.
Revert Reread the current drawing, destroying any unsaved changes.
Open... Specify an existing drawing to edit through a FileChooser(3I), which lets you browse the file system easily.
Save As... Save the current drawing in a file with a specific name.
Save Save the current drawing in the file it came from.
Print... Send a PostScript version of the drawing to a printer or to a file. The bold rectangular outline (called the page boundary)
appearing in the drawing area indicates the portion of the drawing that will appear on the printed page.
Create a graphic from the information in a file and insert it into the current drawing. Idraw can import images from files
in the following formats: TIFF; PostScript generated by pgmtops, ppmtops, and idraw; X bitmap format; and Unidraw format.
Quit Quit idraw.
The Edit menu contains the following commands for editing graphics:
Undo Undo the last editing operation. Successive Undo commands undo earlier and earlier editing operations.
Redo Redo the last editing operation. Successive Redo commands redo later and later editing operations up to the first operation
undone by Undo. Undone operations that have not been redone are lost as soon as a new operation is performed.
Cut Remove the selected graphics from the drawing and place them in a temporary storage area called the clipboard.
Copy Copy the selected graphics into the clipboard.
Paste Paste copies of the graphics in the clipboard into the drawing. Together, Cut, Copy, and Paste let you transfer graphics
between drawings simply by cutting graphics out of one view and pasting them into another.
Duplicate Duplicate the selected graphics and add the copies to the drawing.
Delete Destroy the selected graphics.
Select All Select every graphic in the drawing.
Flip Horizontal, Flip Vertical
Flip the selected graphics into their mirror images along the horizontal or vertical axes.
90 Clockwise, 90 CounterCW
Rotate the selected graphics 90 degrees clockwise or counterclockwise.
Precise Move..., Precise Scale..., Precise Rotate...
Move, scale, or rotate graphics by exact amounts that you type in a dialog box. You can specify movements in pixels,
points, centimeters, or inches. Scalings are specified in terms of magnification factors in the horizontal and vertical
dimensions. Rotations are in degrees.
The Structure menu contains the following commands to modify the structure of the drawing, that is, the order in which graphics are drawn:
Group Nest the selected graphics in a newly created picture. A picture is just a graphic that contains other graphics. Group
allows you to build hierarchies of graphics.
Ungroup Dissolve any selected pictures.
Bring To Front Bring the selected graphics to the front of the drawing so that they are drawn on top of (after) other graphics.
Send To Back Send the selected graphics to the back of the drawing so that they are drawn behind (before) other graphics.
The Font menu contains a set of fonts in which to display text. When you set the current font from the menu, you will also set all the
selected graphics' fonts to that font. A font indicator in the upper right corner displays the current font.
The Brush menu contains a set of brushes with which to draw lines. When you set the current brush from the menu, you will also set all the
selected graphics' brushes to that brush. The nonexistent brush draws invisible lines and non-outlined graphics. The arrowhead brushes
add arrowheads to either or both ends of lines, multilines, and open splines. A brush indicator in the upper left corner displays the cur-
The Pattern menu contains a set of patterns with which to fill graphics but not text. Text always appears solid, but you can use a differ-
ent color than black to get a halftoned shade. When you set the current pattern from the menu, you will also set all the selected graph-
ics' patterns to that pattern. The nonexistent pattern draws unfilled graphics, while the other patterns draw graphics filled with a bit-
map or a halftoned shade.
The FgColor and BgColor menus contains a set of colors with which to draw graphics and text. When you set the current foreground or back-
ground color from the FgColor or BgColor menu, you will also set all the selected graphics' foreground or background colors. The ``on''
bits in the bitmaps for dashed lines and fill patterns appear in the foreground color while the ``off'' bits appear in the background
color. A black and white printer will print a halftoned shade of gray for any color other than black or white. The brush, pattern, and
font indicators all reflect the current colors.
The Align menu contains commands to align graphics with other graphics. The first graphic selected stays fixed while the other graphics
move in the order they were selected according to the type of alignment chosen. The last Align command, Align to Grid, aligns a key point
on each selected graphic to the nearest point on idraw's grid (see below).
The View menu contains the following commands:
New View Create a duplicate idraw window containing a second view of the current drawing. The second view may be panned, zoomed, and
edited independently of the first. Any number of additional views may be made in this manner. Changes made to a drawing
through one view appear synchronously in all other views of the same drawing. You may also view another drawing in any
idraw window via the Open command.
Close View Close the current idraw window. Closing the last idraw window is equivalent to issuing a Quit command.
Normal Size Set the magnification to unity so the drawing appears at actual size.
Reduce to Fit Reduce the magnification until the drawing fits entirely within the view.
Center Page Center the view over the center of the 8.5 by 11 inch page.
Orientation Toggle the drawing's orientation. If the editor was formerly showing a portrait view of the drawing, it will now show a
landscape view of the drawing and vice versa.
Grid on/off Toggle idraw's grid on or off. When the grid is on, idraw draws a grid of equally spaced points behind the drawing.
Change the grid spacing by specifying one or two values in the units desired (pixels, points, centimeters, or inches). If
two values are given (separated by a space), the first specifies the horizontal spacing and second the vertical spacing.
One value will specify equal horizontal and vertical spacing.
Gravity on/off Toggle gravity on or off. Gravity constrains tool operation to the grid, whether or not the grid is visible.
You can customize the number of undoable changes and the font, brush, pattern, or color menus by setting resources in your X defaults data-
base. Each string of the form ``idraw.resource:definition'' sets a resource. For example, to customize any of the paint menus, set a
resource given by the concatenation of the menu's name and the entry's number (e.g., ``idraw.pattern8'') for each entry that you want to
override. All menus use the number 1 for the first entry.
You must set resources only for the entries that you want to override, not all of them. If you want to add entries to the menus, simply
set resources for them. However, don't skip any numbers after the end of the menu, because the menu will end at the first undefined
resource. To shorten a menu instead of extending it, specify a blank string as the resource for the entry following the last.
Idraw understands the following resources:
history Set the maximum number of undoable changes (20 by default).
initialfont Specify the font that will be active on startup. Supply a number that identifies the font by its position in the Font menu
starting from 1 for the first entry.
fonti Define a custom font to use for the ith entry in the Font menu. Give three strings separated by whitespace. The first
string defines the font's name, the second string the corresponding print font, and the third string the print size. For
example, ``idraw.font3:8x13bold Courier-Bold 13'' defines the third font entry.
initialbrush Specify the brush that will be active on startup. Give a number that identifies the brush by its position in the Brush menu
starting from 1 for the first entry.
brushi Define a custom brush to use for the ith entry in the Brush menu. The definition requires two numbers: a 16-bit hexadecimal
number to define the brush's line style (each 1 bit draws a dash and each 0 bit produces a gap), and a decimal integer to
define the brush's width in pixels. For example, ``idraw.brush2:ffff 1'' defines a single pixel wide solid line. If the
definition specifies only the string ``none'', then it defines the nonexistent brush.
initialpattern Specify the pattern that will be active on startup. Give a number that identifies the pattern by its position in the Pat-
tern menu starting from 1 for the first entry.
patterni Define a custom pattern to use for the ith entry in the Pattern menu. You can specify the pattern from a 16x16 bitmap, a
8x8 bitmap, a 4x4 bitmap, a grayscale number, or the string ``none''. You specify the 16x16 bitmap with sixteen 16-bit
hexadecimal numbers, the 8x8 bitmap with eight 8-bit hexadecimal numbers, the 4x4 bitmap with a single 16-bit hexadecimal
number, and the grayscale number with a single floating point number. The floating point number must contain a period to
distinguish itself from the single hexadecimal number, and it must lie between 0.0 and 1.0, where 0.0 corresponds to a solid
pattern and 1.0 to a clear pattern. On the printer, the bitmap patterns appear as bitmaps, the grayscale patterns appear as
halftoned shades, and the ``none'' patterns never obscure any underlying graphics. For example, ``idraw.pattern8:8421''
defines a diagonally hatched pattern.
initialfgcolor Specify the foreground color that will be active on startup. Give a number that identifies the color by its position in the
FgColor menu starting from 1 for the first entry.
fgcolori Define a custom color to use for the ith entry in the FgColor menu. Give a string defining the name of the color and
optionally three decimal numbers between 0 and 65535 following the name to define the red, green, and blue components of the
color's intensity. The intensities override the name; that is, idraw will look the name up in a window system database of
common colors only if you omit the intensities. You can define shades of gray by using equal proportions of each primary
color. For example, ``idraw.fgcolor8:Indigo 48896 0 65280'' defines a color that is a mixture of red and blue.
initialbgcolor Specify the background color that will be active on startup. Give a number that identifies the color by its position in the
BgColor menu starting from 1 for the first entry.
bgcolori Define a custom color to use for the ith entry in the BgColor menu. The same rules apply to background colors as to fore-