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dvips(1) [osx man page]

DVIPS(1)						      General Commands Manual							  DVIPS(1)

       dvips - convert a TeX DVI file to PostScript

       dvips [ options ] file[.dvi]

       THIS  MAN  PAGE	IS  OBSOLETE!  See the Texinfo documentation instead.  You can read it either in Emacs or with the standalone info program
       which comes with the GNU texinfo distribution as*.tar.gz.

       The program dvips takes a DVI file file[.dvi] produced by TeX (or by some other processor such as GFtoDVI) and converts it  to  PostScript,
       normally  sending  the  result  directly  to the (laser)printer.  The DVI file may be specified without the .dvi extension.  Fonts used may
       either be resident in the printer or defined as bitmaps in PK files, or a `virtual'  combination  of  both.   If  the  mktexpk  program	is
       installed, dvips will automatically invoke METAFONT to generate fonts that don't already exist.

       For  more  information, see the Texinfo manual dvips.texi, which should be installed somewhere on your system, hopefully accessible through
       the standard Info tree.

       -a     Conserve memory by making three passes over the .dvi file instead of two and only loading those characters actually used.  Generally
	      only useful on machines with a very limited amount of memory, like some PCs.

       -A     Print only odd pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -b num Generate num copies of each page, but duplicating the page body rather than using the #numcopies option.	This can be useful in con-
	      junction with a header file setting op-hook to do color separations or other neat tricks.

       -B     Print only even pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -c num Generate num copies of every page.  Default is 1.  (For collated copies, see the -C option below.)

       -C num Create num copies, but collated (by replicating the data in the PostScript file).  Slower than the -c  option,  but  easier  on  the
	      hands, and faster than resubmitting the same PostScript file multiple times.

       -d num Set  the debug flags.  This is intended only for emergencies or for unusual fact-finding expeditions; it will work only if dvips has
	      been compiled with the DEBUG option.  If nonzero, prints additional information on standard error.  For maximum information, you can
	      use `-1'.  See the Dvips Texinfo manual for more details.

       -D num Set  the resolution in dpi (dots per inch) to num.  This affects the choice of bitmap fonts that are loaded and also the positioning
	      of letters in resident PostScript fonts. Must be between 10 and 10000.  This affects both the horizontal	and  vertical  resolution.
	      If a high resolution (something greater than 400 dpi, say) is selected, the -Z flag should probably also be used.

       -e num Make  sure  that	each character is placed at most this many pixels from its `true' resolution-independent position on the page. The
	      default value of this parameter is resolution dependent.	Allowing individual characters to `drift'  from  their	correctly  rounded
	      positions  by  a few pixels, while regaining the true position at the beginning of each new word, improves the spacing of letters in

       -E     makes dvips attempt to generate an EPSF file with a tight bounding box.  This only works on one-page files, and  it  only  looks	at
	      marks  made  by  characters  and	rules, not by any included graphics.  In addition, it gets the glyph metrics from the tfm file, so
	      characters that lie outside their enclosing tfm box may confuse it.  In addition, the bounding box might be a bit too loose  if  the
	      character  glyph has significant left or right side bearings.  Nonetheless, this option works well for creating small EPSF files for
	      equations or tables or the like.	(Note, of course, that dvips output is resolution dependent and thus does not make very good  EPSF
	      files, especially if the images are to be scaled; use these EPSF files with a great deal of care.)

       -f     Run  as  a  filter.  Read the .dvi file from standard input and write the PostScript to standard output.	The standard input must be
	      seekable, so it cannot be a pipe.  If you must use a pipe, write a shell script that copies the pipe output to a temporary file  and
	      then  points dvips at this file.	This option also disables the automatic reading of the PRINTER environment variable, and turns off
	      the automatic sending of control D if it was turned on with the -F option or in the configuration file; use -F after this option	if
	      you want both.

       -F     Causes  Control-D  (ASCII  code  4)  to be appended as the very last character of the PostScript file.  This is useful when dvips is
	      driving the printer directly instead of working through a spooler, as is common on extremely small systems.  NOTE! DO NOT  USE  THIS

       -G     Causes dvips to shift non-printing characters to higher-numbered positions.  This may be useful sometimes.

       -h name
	      Prepend  file  name  as  an  additional header file. (However, if the name is simply `-' suppress all header files from the output.)
	      This header file gets added to the PostScript userdict.

       -i     Make each section be a separate file.  Under certain circumstances, dvips will split the document up into `sections' to be processed
	      independently;  this  is	most  often  done for memory reasons.  Using this option tells dvips to place each section into a separate
	      file; the new file names are created replacing the suffix of the supplied output file name by a three-digit sequence  number.   This
	      option is most often used in conjunction with the -S option which sets the maximum section length in pages.  For instance, some pho-
	      totypesetters cannot print more than ten or so consecutive pages before running out of steam; these options can be used to automati-
	      cally split a book into ten-page sections, each to its own file.

       -j     Download	only  needed  characters  from	Type 1 fonts. This is the default in the current release.  Some debugging flags trace this
	      operation.  You can also control partial downloading on a per-font basis, via the file.

       -k     Print crop marks.  This option increases the paper size (which should be specified, either with a paper size special or with the	-T
	      option) by a half inch in each dimension.  It translates each page by a quarter inch and draws cross-style crop marks.  It is mostly
	      useful with typesetters that can set the page size automatically.

       -K     This option causes comments in included PostScript graphics, font files, and headers to be removed.  This is sometimes necessary	to
	      get  around  bugs  in spoolers or PostScript post-processing programs.  Specifically, the %%Page comments, when left in, often cause
	      difficulties.  Use of this flag can cause some included graphics to fail, since the PostScript  header  macros  from  some  software
	      packages	read  portions	of  the input stream line by line, searching for a particular comment.	This option has been turned off by
	      default because PostScript previewers and spoolers have been getting better.

       -l num The last page printed will be the first one numbered num Default is the last page in the document.  If the num  is  prefixed  by	an
	      equals  sign,  then  it  (and  any  argument  to the -p option) is treated as a sequence number, rather than a value to compare with
	      count0 values.  Thus, using -l =9 will end with the ninth page of the document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.

       -m     Specify manual feed for printer.

       -mode mode
	      Use mode as the Metafont device name for path searching and font generation.  This overrides any	value  from  configuration  files.
	      With the default paths, explicitly specifying the mode also makes the program assume the fonts are in a subdirectory named mode.

       -M     Turns off the automatic font generation facility.  If any fonts are missing, commands to generate the fonts are appended to the file
	      missfont.log in the current directory; this file can then be executed and deleted to create the missing fonts.

       -n num At most num pages will be printed. Default is 100000.

       -N     Turns off structured comments; this might be necessary on some systems that try to interpret PostScript comments in weird  ways,	or
	      on some PostScript printers.  Old versions of TranScript in particular cannot handle modern Encapsulated PostScript.

	      This  will disable the use of Omega extensions when interpreting DVI files.  By default, the additional opcodes 129 and 134 are rec-
	      ognized by dvips as Omega extensions and interpreted as requests to set 2-byte characters. The only drawback  is	that  the  virtual
	      font array will (at least temporarily) require 65536 positions instead of the default 256 positions, i.e. the memory requirements of
	      dvips will be slightly larger. If you find this unacceptable or encounter another problem with the Omega extensions, you can  switch
	      this extension off by using -noomega (but please do send a bug report if you find such problems - see the bug address in the AUTHORS
	      section below).

       -o name
	      The output will be sent to file name If no file name is given (i.e., -o is last on the command line), the default  name  is
	      where  the  .dvi	file was called file.dvi; if this option isn't given, any default in the configuration file is used.  If the first
	      character of the supplied output file name is an exclamation mark, then the remainder will be used as an argument  to  popen;  thus,
	      specifying  !lpr as the output file will automatically queue the file for printing.  This option also disables the automatic reading
	      of the PRINTER environment variable, and turns off the automatic sending of control D if it was turned on with the -F option  or	in
	      the configuration file; use -F after this option if you want both.

       -O offset
	      Move  the  origin  by  a certain amount.	The offset is a comma-separated pair of dimensions, such as .1in,-.3cm (in the same syntax
	      used in the papersize special).  The origin of the page is shifted from the default position (of one inch  down,	one  inch  to  the
	      right from the upper left corner of the paper) by this amount.

       -p num The first page printed will be the first one numbered num.  Default is the first page in the document.  If the num is prefixed by an
	      equals sign, then it (and any argument to the -l option) is treated as a sequence number,  rather  than  a  value  to  compare  with
	      count0 values.  Thus, using -p =3 will start with the third page of the document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.

       -pp pagelist
	      A  comma-separated  list	of  pages and ranges (a-b) may be given, which will be interpreted as count0 values.  Pages not specified
	      will not be printed.  Multiple -pp options may be specified or all pages and page ranges can be specified with one -pp option.

       -P printername
	      Sets up the output for the appropriate printer.  This is implemented by reading in config.printername , which can then set the  out-
	      put  pipe  (as  in,  !lpr -Pprintername as well as the font paths and any other defaults for that printer only.  Note that is read before config.printername In addition, another file called ~/.dvipsrc is searched for immediately after;
	      this  file is intended for user defaults.  If no -P command is given, the environment variable PRINTER is checked.  If that variable
	      exists, and a corresponding configuration file exists, that configuration file is read in.

       -q     Run in quiet mode.  Don't chatter about pages converted, etc.; report nothing but errors to standard error.

       -r     Stack pages in reverse order.  Normally, page 1 will be printed first.

	      Run securely.  -R2 disables both shell command execution in special'{} (via backticks ` ) and config files (via the E option),  and
	      opening  of  any absolute filenames.  -R1 , the default, forbids shell escapes but allows absolute filenames.  -R0 allows both.  The
	      config file option is z

       -s     Causes the entire global output to be enclosed in a save/restore pair.  This causes the file to not be truly conformant, and is thus
	      not recommended, but is useful if you are driving the printer directly and don't care too much about the portability of the output.

       -S num Set  the	maximum  number  of pages in each `section'.  This option is most commonly used with the -i option; see that documentation
	      above for more information.

       -t papertype
	      This sets the paper type to papertype.  The papertype should be defined in one of the configuration files, along with the  appropri-
	      ate  code  to  select  it.  (Currently known types include letter, legal, ledger, a4, a3).  You can also specify -t landscape, which
	      rotates a document by 90 degrees.  To rotate a document whose size is not letter, you can use the -t option twice, once for the page
	      size,  and  once for landscape.  You should not use any -t option when the DVI file already contains a papersize special, as is done
	      by some LaTeX packages, notably hyperref.sty.

	      The upper left corner of each page in the .dvi file is placed one inch from the left and one inch from the top.  Use of this  option
	      is  highly  dependent on the configuration file.	Note that executing the letter or a4 or other PostScript operators cause the docu-
	      ment to be nonconforming and can cause it not to print on certain printers, so the paper size should not execute such an operator if
	      at all possible.

       -T papersize
	      Set  the	paper  size  to  the given pair of dimensions.	This option takes its arguments in the same style as -O.  It overrides any
	      paper size special in the dvi file.

       -u psmapfile
	      Set psmapfile to be the file that dvips uses for looking up PostScript font aliases.  If psmapfile begins with a +  character,  then
	      the  rest of the name is used as the name of the map file, and the map file is appended to the list of map files (instead of replac-
	      ing the list).  In either case, if psmapfile has no extension, then .map is added at the end.

       -U     Disable a PostScript virtual memory saving optimization that stores the character metric information in the same string that is used
	      to  store the bitmap information.  This is only necessary when driving the Xerox 4045 PostScript interpreter.  It is caused by a bug
	      in that interpreter that results in `garbage' on the bottom of each character.  Not recommended unless you must drive this printer.

       -v     Print the dvips version number and exit.

       -V     Download non-resident PostScript fonts as bitmaps.  This requires use of `gsftopk' or `pstopk' or  some  other  such  program(s)	in
	      order to generate the required bitmap fonts; these programs are supplied with dvips.

       -x num Set  the	magnification  ratio to num/1000.  Overrides the magnification specified in the .dvi file.  Must be between 10 and 100000.
	      Instead of an integer, num may be a real number for increased precision.

       -X num Set the horizontal resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -y num Set the magnification ratio to num/1000 times the magnification specified in the .dvi file.  See -x above.

       -Y num Set the vertical resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -z     Pass html hyperdvi specials through to the output for eventual distillation into PDF.  This is  not  enabled  by	default  to  avoid
	      including the header files unnecessarily, and use of temporary files in creating the output.

       -Z     Causes  bitmapped  fonts	to  be compressed before they are downloaded, thereby reducing the size of the PostScript font-downloading
	      information.  Especially useful at high resolutions or when very large fonts are used.  Will slow down printing somewhat, especially
	      on early 68000-based PostScript printers.

       mf(1), afm2tfm(1), tex(1), latex(1), lpr(1), dvips.texi,

       Dvipsk  uses the same environment variables and algorithms for finding font files as TeX and its friends do.  See the documentation for the
       Kpathsea library for details.  (Repeating it here is too cumbersome.)

       KPATHSEA_DEBUG: Trace Kpathsea lookups; set to -1 for complete tracing.

       PRINTER: see above.

       PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

       Tomas Rokicki <>; extended to virtual fonts by Don Knuth.  Path searching and configuration  modifications  by  Karl

								  1 January 2010							  DVIPS(1)
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