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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for readdir (opensolaris section 3c)

readdir(3C)						   Standard C Library Functions 					       readdir(3C)

NAME
readdir, readdir_r - read directory
SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/types.h> #include <dirent.h> struct dirent *readdir(DIR *dirp); struct dirent *readdir_r(DIR *dirp, struct dirent *entry); Standard conforming cc [ flag... ] file... -D_POSIX_PTHREAD_SEMANTICS [ library... ] int readdir_r(DIR *restrict dirp, struct dirent *restrict entry, struct dirent **restrict result);
DESCRIPTION
The type DIR, which is defined in the header <dirent.h>, represents a directory stream, which is an ordered sequence of all the directory entries in a particular directory. Directory entries represent files. Files can be removed from a directory or added to a directory asyn- chronously to the operation of readdir() and readdir_r(). readdir() The readdir() function returns a pointer to a structure representing the directory entry at the current position in the directory stream specified by the argument dirp, and positions the directory stream at the next entry. It returns a null pointer upon reaching the end of the directory stream. The structure dirent defined by the <dirent.h> header describes a directory entry. The readdir() function will not return directory entries containing empty names. If entries for . (dot) or .. (dot-dot) exist, one entry will be returned for dot and one entry will be returned for dot-dot; otherwise they will not be returned. The pointer returned by readdir() points to data that can be overwritten by another call to readdir() on the same directory stream. These data are not overwritten by another call to readdir() on a different directory stream. If a file is removed from or added to the directory after the most recent call to opendir(3C) or rewinddir(3C), whether a subsequent call to readdir() returns an entry for that file is unspecified. The readdir() function can buffer several directory entries per actual read operation. It marks for update the st_atime field of the direc- tory each time the directory is actually read. After a call to fork(2), either the parent or child (but not both) can continue processing the directory stream using readdir(), rewind- dir() or seekdir(3C). If both the parent and child processes use these functions, the result is undefined. If the entry names a symbolic link, the value of the d_ino member is unspecified. readdir_r() Unless the end of the directory stream has been reached or an error occurred, the readdir_r() function initializes the dirent structure referenced by entry to represent the directory entry at the current position in the directory stream referred to by dirp, and positions the directory stream at the next entry. The caller must allocate storage pointed to by entry to be large enough for a dirent structure with an array of char d_name member contain- ing at least NAME_MAX (that is, pathconf(directory, _PC_NAME_MAX)) plus one elements. (_PC_NAME_MAX is defined in <unistd.h>.) The readdir_r() function will not return directory entries containing empty names. It is unspecified whether entries are returned for . (dot) or .. (dot-dot). If a file is removed from or added to the directory after the most recent call to opendir() or rewinddir(), whether a subsequent call to readdir_r() returns an entry for that file is unspecified. The readdir_r() function can buffer several directory entries per actual read operation. It marks for update the st_atime field of the directory each time the directory is actually read. The standard-conforming version (see standards(5)) of the readdir_r() function performs all of the actions described above and sets the pointer pointed to by result. If a directory entry is returned, the pointer will be set to the same value as the entry argument; otherwise, it will be set to NULL.
RETURN VALUES
Upon successful completion, readdir() and the default readdir_r() return a pointer to an object of type struct dirent. When an error is encountered, a null pointer is returned and errno is set to indicate the error. When the end of the directory is encountered, a null pointer is returned and errno is not changed. The standard-conforming readdir_r() returns 0 if the end of the directory is encountered or a directory entry is stored in the structure referenced by entry. Otherwise, an error number is returned to indicate the failure.
ERRORS
The readdir() and readdir_r() functions will fail if: EOVERFLOW One of the values in the structure to be returned cannot be represented correctly. The readdir() and readdir_r() functions may fail if: EBADF The dirp argument does not refer to an open directory stream. ENOENT The current position of the directory stream is invalid.
USAGE
The readdir() and readdir_r() functions should be used in conjunction with opendir(), closedir(), and rewinddir() to examine the contents of the directory. Since readdir() and the default readdir_r() return a null pointer both at the end of the directory and on error, an application wanting to check for error situations should set errno to 0 before calling either of these functions. If errno is set to non- zero on return, an error occurred. It is safe to use readdir() in a threaded application, so long as only one thread reads from the directory stream at any given time. The readdir() function is generally preferred over the readdir_r() function. The standard-conforming readdir_r() returns the error number if an error occurred. It returns 0 on success (including reaching the end of the directory stream). The readdir() and readdir_r() functions have transitional interfaces for 64-bit file offsets. See lf64(5).
EXAMPLES
Example 1 Search the current directory for the entry name. The following sample program will search the current directory for each of the arguments supplied on the command line: #include <sys/types.h> #include <dirent.h> #include <errno.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <strings.h> static void lookup(const char *arg) { DIR *dirp; struct dirent *dp; if ((dirp = opendir(".")) == NULL) { perror("couldn't open '.'"); return; } do { errno = 0; if ((dp = readdir(dirp)) != NULL) { if (strcmp(dp->d_name, arg) != 0) continue; (void) printf("found %s\n", arg); (void) closedir(dirp); return; } } while (dp != NULL); if (errno != 0) perror("error reading directory"); else (void) printf("failed to find %s\n", arg); (void) closedir(dirp); return; } int main(int argc, char *argv[]) { int i; for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) lookup(argv[i]); return(0); }
ATTRIBUTES
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes: +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ | ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |Interface Stability |Standard | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ |MT-Level |See below. | +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+ The readdir() function is Unsafe. The readdir_r() function is Safe.
SEE ALSO
fork(2), lstat(2), symlink(2), Intro(3), closedir(3C), opendir(3C), rewinddir(3C), scandir(3C), seekdir(3C), attributes(5), lf64(5), stan- dards(5)
NOTES
When compiling multithreaded programs, see the MULTITHREADED APPLICATIONS section of Intro(3). Solaris 2.4 and earlier releases provided a readdir_r() interface as specified in POSIX.1c Draft 6. The final POSIX.1c standard changed the interface as described above. Support for the Draft 6 interface is provided for compatibility only and might not be supported in future releases. New applications and libraries should use the standard-conforming interface. For POSIX.1c-conforming applications, the _POSIX_PTHREAD_SEMANTICS and _REENTRANT flags are automatically turned on by defining the _POSIX_C_SOURCE flag with a value >= 199506L. SunOS 5.11 26 Jun 2007 readdir(3C)

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