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OpenDarwin 7.2.1 - man page for dir (opendarwin section 5)

DIR(5)				     BSD File Formats Manual				   DIR(5)

NAME
     dir, dirent -- directory file format

SYNOPSIS
     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/dir.h>

DESCRIPTION
     Directories provide a convenient hierarchical method of grouping files while obscuring the
     underlying details of the storage medium.	A directory file is differentiated from a plain
     file by a flag in its inode(5) entry.  It consists of records (directory entries) each of
     which contains information about a file and a pointer to the file itself.	Directory entries
     may contain other directories as well as plain files; such nested directories are refered to
     as subdirectories.  A hierarchy of directories and files is formed in this manner and is
     called a file system (or referred to as a file system tree).

     Each directory file contains two special directory entries; one is a pointer to the direc-
     tory itself called dot '.' and the other a pointer to its parent directory called dot-dot
     '..'.  Dot and dot-dot are valid pathnames, however, the system root directory '/', has no
     parent and dot-dot points to itself like dot.

     File system nodes are ordinary directory files on which has been grafted a file system
     object, such as a physical disk or a partitioned area of such a disk.  (See mount(1) and
     mount(8).)

     The directory entry format is defined in the file <sys/dirent.h> and further in the file
     <dirent.h>:

     /*** Excerpt from <sys/dirent.h> ***/
     /*
      * The dirent structure defines the format of directory entries returned by
      * the getdirentries(2) system call.
      *
      * A directory entry has a struct dirent at the front of it, containing its
      * inode number, the length of the entry, and the length of the name
      * contained in the entry.  These are followed by the name padded to a 4
      * byte boundary with null bytes.	All names are guaranteed null terminated.
      * The maximum length of a name in a directory is MAXNAMLEN.
      * The dirent structure defines the format of directory entries returned by
      * the getdirentries(2) system call.
      */

     #ifndef _SYS_DIRENT_H
     #define _SYS_DIRENT_H

     struct dirent {
	     u_int32_t d_fileno;	     /* file number of entry */
	     u_int16_t d_reclen;	     /* length of this record */
	     u_int8_t  d_type;		     /* file type, see below */
	     u_int8_t  d_namlen;	     /* length of string in d_name */
     #ifdef _POSIX_SOURCE
	     char    d_name[255 + 1];	     /* name must be no longer than this */
     #else
     #define MAXNAMLEN	     255
	     char    d_name[MAXNAMLEN + 1];  /* name must be no longer than this */
     #endif
     };

     /*
      * File types
      */
     #define DT_UNKNOWN       0
     #define DT_FIFO	      1
     #define DT_CHR	      2
     #define DT_DIR	      4
     #define DT_BLK	      6
     #define DT_REG	      8
     #define DT_LNK	     10
     #define DT_SOCK	     12
     #define DT_WHT	     14

     #endif /* !_SYS_DIRENT_H_ */

     -----------------------------------------

     /*** Excerpt from <dirent.h> ***/

     #ifndef _DIRENT_H
     #define _DIRENT_H

     #ifdef _POSIX_SOURCE
     typedef void *  DIR;
     #else

     #define d_ino	     d_fileno	     /* backward compatibility */

     /* definitions for library routines operating on directories. */
     #define DIRBLKSIZ	     1024

     struct _telldir;		     /* see telldir.h */

     /* structure describing an open directory. */
     typedef struct _dirdesc {
	     int     dd_fd;	     /* file descriptor associated with directory */
	     long    dd_loc;	     /* offset in current buffer */
	     long    dd_size;	     /* amount of data returned by getdirentries */
	     char    *dd_buf;	     /* data buffer */
	     int     dd_len;	     /* size of data buffer */
	     long    dd_seek;	     /* magic cookie returned by getdirentries */
	     long    dd_rewind;      /* magic cookie for rewinding */
	     int     dd_flags;	     /* flags for readdir */
	     pthread_mutex_t dd_lock; /* for thread locking */
	     struct _telldir *dd_td; /* telldir position recording */
     } DIR;

     #define dirfd(dirp)     ((dirp)->dd_fd)

     /* flags for opendir2 */
     #define DTF_HIDEW	     0x0001  /* hide whiteout entries */
     #define DTF_NODUP	     0x0002  /* don't return duplicate names */
     /* structure describing an open directory. */
     typedef struct _dirdesc {
	     int     dd_fd;	     /* file descriptor associated with directory */
	     long    dd_loc;	     /* offset in current buffer */
	     long    dd_size;	     /* amount of data returned by getdirentries */
	     char    *dd_buf;	     /* data buffer */
	     int     dd_len;	     /* size of data buffer */
	     long    dd_seek;	     /* magic cookie returned by getdirentries */
	     long    dd_rewind;      /* magic cookie for rewinding */
	     int     dd_flags;	     /* flags for readdir */
	     pthread_mutex_t dd_lock; /* for thread locking */
	     struct _telldir *dd_td; /* telldir position recording */
     } DIR;

     #define dirfd(dirp)     ((dirp)->dd_fd)

     /* flags for opendir2 */
     #define DTF_HIDEW	     0x0001  /* hide whiteout entries */
     #define DTF_NODUP	     0x0002  /* don't return duplicate names */
     #define DTF_REWIND      0x0004  /* rewind after reading union stack */
     #define __DTF_READALL   0x0008  /* everything has been read */

     #ifndef NULL
     #define NULL    0
     #endif

     #endif /* _POSIX_SOURCE */

     #endif /* !_DIRENT_H_ */

SEE ALSO
     fs(5), inode(5)

HISTORY
     A dir file format appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

4.2 Berkeley Distribution		  April 19, 1994		4.2 Berkeley Distribution


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