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curses(3x) [opendarwin man page]

ncurses(3X)															       ncurses(3X)

ncurses - CRT screen handling and optimization package SYNOPSIS
#include <curses.h> DESCRIPTION
The ncurses library routines give the user a terminal-independent method of updating character screens with reasonable optimization. This implementation is ``new curses'' (ncurses) and is the approved replacement for 4.4BSD classic curses, which has been discontinued. The ncurses routines emulate the curses(3X) library of System V Release 4 UNIX, and the XPG4 curses standard (XSI curses) but the ncurses library is freely redistributable in source form. Differences from the SVr4 curses are summarized under the EXTENSIONS and BUGS sections below and described in detail in the EXTENSIONS and BUGS sections of individual man pages. A program using these routines must be linked with the -lncurses option, or (if it has been generated) with the debugging library -lncurses_g. (Your system integrator may also have installed these libraries under the names -lcurses and -lcurses_g.) The ncurses_g library generates trace logs (in a file called 'trace' in the current directory) that describe curses actions. The ncurses package supports: overall screen, window and pad manipulation; output to windows and pads; reading terminal input; control over terminal and curses input and output options; environment query routines; color manipulation; use of soft label keys; terminfo capabili- ties; and access to low-level terminal-manipulation routines. To initialize the routines, the routine initscr or newterm must be called before any of the other routines that deal with windows and screens are used. The routine endwin must be called before exiting. To get character-at-a-time input without echoing (most interactive, screen oriented programs want this), the following sequence should be used: initscr(); cbreak(); noecho(); Most programs would additionally use the sequence: nonl(); intrflush(stdscr, FALSE); keypad(stdscr, TRUE); Before a curses program is run, the tab stops of the terminal should be set and its initialization strings, if defined, must be output. This can be done by executing the tput init command after the shell environment variable TERM has been exported. tset(1) is usually responsible for doing this. [See terminfo(5) for further details.] The ncurses library permits manipulation of data structures, called windows, which can be thought of as two-dimensional arrays of charac- ters representing all or part of a CRT screen. A default window called stdscr, which is the size of the terminal screen, is supplied. Others may be created with newwin. Note that curses does not handle overlapping windows, that's done by the panel(3X) library. This means that you can either use stdscr or divide the screen into tiled windows and not using stdscr at all. Mixing the two will result in unpredictable, and undesired, effects. Windows are referred to by variables declared as WINDOW *. These data structures are manipulated with routines described here and else- where in the ncurses manual pages. Among which the most basic routines are move and addch. More general versions of these routines are included with names beginning with w, allowing the user to specify a window. The routines not beginning with w affect stdscr.) After using routines to manipulate a window, refresh is called, telling curses to make the user's CRT screen look like stdscr. The charac- ters in a window are actually of type chtype, (character and attribute data) so that other information about the character may also be stored with each character. Special windows called pads may also be manipulated. These are windows which are not constrained to the size of the screen and whose con- tents need not be completely displayed. See curs_pad(3X) for more information. In addition to drawing characters on the screen, video attributes and colors may be supported, causing the characters to show up in such modes as underlined, in reverse video, or in color on terminals that support such display enhancements. Line drawing characters may be specified to be output. On input, curses is also able to translate arrow and function keys that transmit escape sequences into single val- ues. The video attributes, line drawing characters, and input values use names, defined in <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE, ACS_HLINE, and KEY_LEFT. If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or if the program is executing in a window environment, line and column information in the environment will override information read by terminfo. This would effect a program running in an AT&T 630 layer, for example, where the size of a screen is changeable (see ENVIRONMENT). If the environment variable TERMINFO is defined, any program using curses checks for a local terminal definition before checking in the standard place. For example, if TERM is set to att4424, then the compiled terminal definition is found in /usr/share/terminfo/a/att4424. (The a is copied from the first letter of att4424 to avoid creation of huge directories.) However, if TERMINFO is set to $HOME/myterms, curses first checks $HOME/myterms/a/att4424, and if that fails, it then checks /usr/share/terminfo/a/att4424. This is useful for developing experimental definitions or when write permission in /usr/share/terminfo is not available. The integer variables LINES and COLS are defined in <curses.h> and will be filled in by initscr with the size of the screen. The constants TRUE and FALSE have the values 1 and 0, respectively. The curses routines also define the WINDOW * variable curscr which is used for certain low-level operations like clearing and redrawing a screen containing garbage. The curscr can be used in only a few routines. Routine and Argument Names Many curses routines have two or more versions. The routines prefixed with w require a window argument. The routines prefixed with p require a pad argument. Those without a prefix generally use stdscr. The routines prefixed with mv require a y and x coordinate to move to before performing the appropriate action. The mv routines imply a call to move before the call to the other routine. The coordinate y always refers to the row (of the window), and x always refers to the column. The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1). The routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument and x and y coordinates. The window argument is always specified before the coordinates. In each case, win is the window affected, and pad is the pad affected; win and pad are always pointers to type WINDOW. Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the value TRUE or FALSE; bf is always of type bool. The variables ch and attrs below are always of type chtype. The types WINDOW, SCREEN, bool, and chtype are defined in <curses.h>. The type TERMINAL is defined in <term.h>. All other arguments are integers. Routine Name Index The following table lists each curses routine and the name of the manual page on which it is described. Routines flagged with `*' are ncurses-specific, not described by XPG4 or present in SVr4. curses Routine Name Manual Page Name -------------------------------------------- COLOR_PAIR curs_color(3X) PAIR_NUMBER curs_attr(3X) _nc_tracebits curs_trace(3X)* _traceattr curs_trace(3X)* _traceattr2 curs_trace(3X)* _tracechar curs_trace(3X)* _tracechtype curs_trace(3X)* _tracechtype2 curs_trace(3X)* _tracedump curs_trace(3X)* _tracef curs_trace(3X)* _tracemouse curs_trace(3X)* add_wch curs_add_wch(3X) addch curs_addch(3X) addchnstr curs_addchstr(3X) addchstr curs_addchstr(3X) addnstr curs_addstr(3X) addstr curs_addstr(3X) assume_default_colors default_colors(3X)* attr_get curs_attr(3X) attr_off curs_attr(3X) attr_on curs_attr(3X) attr_set curs_attr(3X) attroff curs_attr(3X) attron curs_attr(3X) attrset curs_attr(3X) baudrate curs_termattrs(3X) beep curs_beep(3X) bkgd curs_bkgd(3X) bkgdset curs_bkgd(3X) border curs_border(3X) box curs_border(3X) can_change_color curs_color(3X) cbreak curs_inopts(3X) chgat curs_attr(3X) clear curs_clear(3X) clearok curs_outopts(3X) clrtobot curs_clear(3X) clrtoeol curs_clear(3X) color_content curs_color(3X) color_set curs_attr(3X) copywin curs_overlay(3X) curs_set curs_kernel(3X) curses_version curs_extend(3X)* def_prog_mode curs_kernel(3X) def_shell_mode curs_kernel(3X) define_key define_key(3X)* del_curterm curs_terminfo(3X) delay_output curs_util(3X) delch curs_delch(3X) deleteln curs_deleteln(3X) delscreen curs_initscr(3X) delwin curs_window(3X) derwin curs_window(3X) doupdate curs_refresh(3X) dupwin curs_window(3X) echo curs_inopts(3X) echo_wchar curs_add_wch(3X) echochar curs_addch(3X) endwin curs_initscr(3X) erase curs_clear(3X) erasechar curs_termattrs(3X) filter curs_util(3X) flash curs_beep(3X) flushinp curs_util(3X) getbegyx curs_getyx(3X) getbkgd curs_bkgd(3X) getcchar curs_getcchar(3X) getch curs_getch(3X) getmaxyx curs_getyx(3X) getmouse curs_mouse(3X)* getnstr curs_getstr(3X) getparyx curs_getyx(3X) getstr curs_getstr(3X) getsyx curs_kernel(3X) getwin curs_util(3X) getyx curs_getyx(3X) halfdelay curs_inopts(3X) has_colors curs_color(3X) has_ic curs_termattrs(3X) has_il curs_termattrs(3X) has_key curs_getch(3X)* hline curs_border(3X) idcok curs_outopts(3X) idlok curs_outopts(3X) immedok curs_outopts(3X) inch curs_inch(3X) inchnstr curs_inchstr(3X) inchstr curs_inchstr(3X) init_color curs_color(3X) init_pair curs_color(3X) initscr curs_initscr(3X) innstr curs_instr(3X) insch curs_insch(3X) insdelln curs_deleteln(3X) insertln curs_deleteln(3X) insnstr curs_insstr(3X) insstr curs_insstr(3X) instr curs_instr(3X) intrflush curs_inopts(3X) is_linetouched curs_touch(3X) is_wintouched curs_touch(3X) isendwin curs_initscr(3X) keybound keybound(3X)* keyname curs_util(3X) keyok keyok(3X)* keypad curs_inopts(3X) killchar curs_termattrs(3X) leaveok curs_outopts(3X) longname curs_termattrs(3X) mcprint curs_print(3X)* meta curs_inopts(3X) mouse_trafo curs_mouse(3X)* mouseinterval curs_mouse(3X)* mousemask curs_mouse(3X)* move curs_move(3X) mvadd_wch curs_add_wch(3X) mvaddch curs_addch(3X) mvaddchnstr curs_addchstr(3X) mvaddchstr curs_addchstr(3X) mvaddnstr curs_addstr(3X) mvaddstr curs_addstr(3X) mvchgat curs_attr(3X) mvcur curs_terminfo(3X) mvdelch curs_delch(3X) mvderwin curs_window(3X) mvgetch curs_getch(3X) mvgetnstr curs_getstr(3X) mvgetstr curs_getstr(3X) mvhline curs_border(3X) mvinch curs_inch(3X) mvinchnstr curs_inchstr(3X) mvinchstr curs_inchstr(3X) mvinnstr curs_instr(3X) mvinsch curs_insch(3X) mvinsnstr curs_insstr(3X) mvinsstr curs_insstr(3X) mvinstr curs_instr(3X) mvprintw curs_printw(3X) mvscanw curs_scanw(3X) mvvline curs_border(3X) mvwadd_wch curs_add_wch(3X) mvwaddch curs_addch(3X) mvwaddchnstr curs_addchstr(3X) mvwaddchstr curs_addchstr(3X) mvwaddnstr curs_addstr(3X) mvwaddstr curs_addstr(3X) mvwchgat curs_attr(3X) mvwdelch curs_delch(3X) mvwgetch curs_getch(3X) mvwgetnstr curs_getstr(3X) mvwgetstr curs_getstr(3X) mvwhline curs_border(3X) mvwin curs_window(3X) mvwinch curs_inch(3X) mvwinchnstr curs_inchstr(3X) mvwinchstr curs_inchstr(3X) mvwinnstr curs_instr(3X) mvwinsch curs_insch(3X) mvwinsnstr curs_insstr(3X) mvwinsstr curs_insstr(3X) mvwinstr curs_instr(3X) mvwprintw curs_printw(3X) mvwscanw curs_scanw(3X) mvwvline curs_border(3X) napms curs_kernel(3X) newpad curs_pad(3X) newterm curs_initscr(3X) newwin curs_window(3X) nl curs_outopts(3X) nocbreak curs_inopts(3X) nodelay curs_inopts(3X) noecho curs_inopts(3X) nonl curs_outopts(3X) noqiflush curs_inopts(3X) noraw curs_inopts(3X) notimeout curs_inopts(3X) overlay curs_overlay(3X) overwrite curs_overlay(3X) pair_content curs_color(3X) pechochar curs_pad(3X) pnoutrefresh curs_pad(3X) prefresh curs_pad(3X) printw curs_printw(3X) putp curs_terminfo(3X) putwin curs_util(3X) qiflush curs_inopts(3X) raw curs_inopts(3X) redrawwin curs_refresh(3X) refresh curs_refresh(3X) reset_prog_mode curs_kernel(3X) reset_shell_mode curs_kernel(3X) resetty curs_kernel(3X) resizeterm resizeterm(3X)* restartterm curs_terminfo(3X) ripoffline curs_kernel(3X) savetty curs_kernel(3X) scanw curs_scanw(3X) scr_dump curs_scr_dump(3X) scr_init curs_scr_dump(3X) scr_restore curs_scr_dump(3X) scr_set curs_scr_dump(3X) scrl curs_scroll(3X) scroll curs_scroll(3X) scrollok curs_outopts(3X) set_curterm curs_terminfo(3X) set_term curs_initscr(3X) setcchar curs_getcchar(3X) setscrreg curs_outopts(3X) setsyx curs_kernel(3X) setterm curs_terminfo(3X) setupterm curs_terminfo(3X) slk_attr curs_slk(3X)* slk_attr_off curs_slk(3X) slk_attr_on curs_slk(3X) slk_attr_set curs_slk(3X) slk_attroff curs_slk(3X) slk_attron curs_slk(3X) slk_attrset curs_slk(3X) slk_clear curs_slk(3X) slk_color curs_slk(3X) slk_init curs_slk(3X) slk_label curs_slk(3X) slk_noutrefresh curs_slk(3X) slk_refresh curs_slk(3X) slk_restore curs_slk(3X) slk_set curs_slk(3X) slk_touch curs_slk(3X) standend curs_attr(3X) standout curs_attr(3X) start_color curs_color(3X) subpad curs_pad(3X) subwin curs_window(3X) syncok curs_window(3X) termattrs curs_termattrs(3X) termname curs_termattrs(3X) tgetent curs_termcap(3X) tgetflag curs_termcap(3X) tgetnum curs_termcap(3X) tgetstr curs_termcap(3X) tgoto curs_termcap(3X) tigetflag curs_terminfo(3X) tigetnum curs_terminfo(3X) tigetstr curs_terminfo(3X) timeout curs_inopts(3X) touchline curs_touch(3X) touchwin curs_touch(3X) tparm curs_terminfo(3X) tputs curs_termcap(3X) tputs curs_terminfo(3X) trace curs_trace(3X)* typeahead curs_inopts(3X) unctrl curs_util(3X) ungetch curs_getch(3X) ungetmouse curs_mouse(3X)* untouchwin curs_touch(3X) use_default_colors default_colors(3X)* use_env curs_util(3X) use_extended_names curs_extend(3X)* vidattr curs_terminfo(3X) vidputs curs_terminfo(3X) vline curs_border(3X) vw_printw curs_printw(3X) vw_scanw curs_scanw(3X) vwprintw curs_printw(3X) vwscanw curs_scanw(3X) wadd_wch curs_add_wch(3X) waddch curs_addch(3X) waddchnstr curs_addchstr(3X) waddchstr curs_addchstr(3X) waddnstr curs_addstr(3X) waddstr curs_addstr(3X) wattr_get curs_attr(3X) wattr_off curs_attr(3X) wattr_on curs_attr(3X) wattr_set curs_attr(3X) wattroff curs_attr(3X) wattron curs_attr(3X) wattrset curs_attr(3X) wbkgd curs_bkgd(3X) wbkgdset curs_bkgd(3X) wborder curs_border(3X) wchgat curs_attr(3X) wclear curs_clear(3X) wclrtobot curs_clear(3X) wclrtoeol curs_clear(3X) wcolor_set curs_attr(3X) wcursyncup curs_window(3X) wdelch curs_delch(3X) wdeleteln curs_deleteln(3X) wecho_wchar curs_add_wch(3X) wechochar curs_addch(3X) wenclose curs_mouse(3X)* werase curs_clear(3X) wgetch curs_getch(3X) wgetnstr curs_getstr(3X) wgetstr curs_getstr(3X) whline curs_border(3X) winch curs_inch(3X) winchnstr curs_inchstr(3X) winchstr curs_inchstr(3X) winnstr curs_instr(3X) winsch curs_insch(3X) winsdelln curs_deleteln(3X) winsertln curs_deleteln(3X) winsnstr curs_insstr(3X) winsstr curs_insstr(3X) winstr curs_instr(3X) wmouse_trafo curs_mouse(3X)* wmove curs_move(3X) wnoutrefresh curs_refresh(3X) wprintw curs_printw(3X) wredrawln curs_refresh(3X) wrefresh curs_refresh(3X) wresize wresize(3X)* wscanw curs_scanw(3X) wscrl curs_scroll(3X) wsetscrreg curs_outopts(3X) wstandend curs_attr(3X) wstandout curs_attr(3X) wsyncdown curs_window(3X) wsyncup curs_window(3X) wtimeout curs_inopts(3X) wtouchln curs_touch(3X) wvline curs_border(3X) RETURN VALUE
Routines that return an integer return ERR upon failure and an integer value other than ERR upon successful completion, unless otherwise noted in the routine descriptions. All macros return the value of the w version, except setscrreg, wsetscrreg, getyx, getbegyx, getmaxyx. The return values of setscrreg, wsetscrreg, getyx, getbegyx, and getmaxyx are undefined (i.e., these should not be used as the right-hand side of assignment statements). Routines that return pointers return NULL on error. ENVIRONMENT
The following environment symbols are useful for customizing the runtime behavior of the ncurses library. The most important ones have been already discussed in detail. BAUDRATE The debugging library checks this environment symbol when the application has redirected output to a file. The symbol's numeric value is used for the baudrate. If no value is found ncurses uses 9600. This allows testers to construct repeatable test-cases that take into account costs that depend on baudrate. CC When set, change occurrences of the command_character (i.e., the cmdch capability) of the loaded terminfo entries to the value of this symbol. Very few terminfo entries provide this feature. COLUMNS Specify the width of the screen in characters. Applications running in a windowing environment usually are able to obtain the width of the window in which they are executing. If neither the $COLUMNS value nor the terminal's screen size is available, ncurses uses the size which may be specified in the terminfo database (i.e., the cols capability). It is important that your application use a correct size for the screen. However, this is not always possible because your applica- tion may be running on a host which does not honor NAWS (Negotiations About Window Size), or because you are temporarily running as another user. Either COLUMNS or LINES symbols may be specified independently. This is mainly useful to circumvent legacy misfeatures of terminal descriptions, e.g., xterm which commonly specifies a 65 line screen. For best results, lines and cols should not be specified in a terminal description for terminals which are run as emulations. Use the use_env function to disable this feature. ESCDELAY Specifies the total time, in milliseconds, for which ncurses will await a character sequence, e.g., a function key. The default value, 1000 milliseconds, is enough for most uses. However, it is made a variable to accommodate unusual applications. The most common instance where you may wish to change this value is to work with slow hosts, e.g., running on a network. If the host cannot read characters rapidly enough, it will have the same effect as if the terminal did not send characters rapidly enough. The library will still see a timeout. Note that xterm mouse events are built up from character sequences received from the xterm. If your application makes heavy use of multiple-clicking, you may wish to lengthen this default value because the timeout applies to the composed multi-click event as well as the individual clicks. HOME Tells ncurses where your home directory is. That is where it may read and write auxiliary terminal descriptions: $HOME/.termcap $HOME/.terminfo LINES Like COLUMNS, specify the height of the screen in characters. See COLUMNS for a detailed description. MOUSE_BUTTONS_123 This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port. It specifies the order of buttons on the mouse. OS/2 numbers a 3-button mouse inconsistently from other platforms: 1 = left 2 = right 3 = middle. This symbol lets you customize the mouse. The symbol must be three numeric digits 1-3 in any order, e.g., 123 or 321. If it is not specified, ncurses uses 132. NCURSES_NO_PADDING Most of the terminal descriptions in the terminfo database are written for real "hardware" terminals. Many people use terminal emula- tors which run in a windowing environment and use curses-based applications. Terminal emulators can duplicate all of the important aspects of a hardware terminal, but they do not have the same limitations. The chief limitation of a hardware terminal from the standpoint of your application is the management of dataflow, i.e., timing. Unless a hardware terminal is interfaced into a terminal concentrator (which does flow control), it (or your application) must manage dataflow, preventing overruns. The cheapest solution (no hardware cost) is for your program to do this by pausing after operations that the terminal does slowly, such as clearing the display. As a result, many terminal descriptions (including the vt100) have delay times embedded. You may wish to use these descriptions, but not want to pay the performance penalty. Set the NCURSES_NO_PADDING symbol to disable all but mandatory padding. Mandatory padding is used as a part of special control sequences such as flash. NCURSES_NO_SETBUF Normally ncurses enables buffered output during terminal initialization. This is done (as in SVr4 curses) for performance reasons. For testing purposes, both of ncurses and certain applications, this feature is made optional. Setting the NCURSES_NO_SETBUF variable disables output buffering, leaving the output in the original (usually line buffered) mode. NCURSES_TRACE During initialization, the ncurses debugging library checks the NCURSES_TRACE symbol. If it is defined, to a numeric value, ncurses calls the trace function, using that value as the argument. The argument values, which are defined in curses.h, provide several types of information. When running with traces enabled, your application will write the file trace to the current directory. TERM Denotes your terminal type. Each terminal type is distinct, though many are similar. TERMCAP If the ncurses library has been configured with termcap support, ncurses will check for a terminal's description in termcap form if it is not available in the terminfo database. The TERMCAP symbol contains either a terminal description (with newlines stripped out), or a file name telling where the information denoted by the TERM symbol exists. In either case, setting it directs ncurses to ignore the usual place for this information, e.g., /etc/termcap. TERMINFO Overrides the directory in which ncurses searches for your terminal description. This is the simplest, but not the only way to change the list of directories. The complete list of directories in order follows: - the last directory to which ncurses wrote, if any, is searched first. - the directory specified by the TERMINFO symbol - $HOME/.terminfo - directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS symbol - one or more directories whose names are configured and compiled into the ncurses library, e.g., /usr/share/terminfo TERMINFO_DIRS Specifies a list of directories to search for terminal descriptions. The list is separated by colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on OS/2 EMX. All of the terminal descriptions are in terminfo form, which makes a subdirectory named for the first letter of the ter- minal names therein. TERMPATH If TERMCAP does not hold a file name then ncurses checks the TERMPATH symbol. This is a list of filenames separated by spaces or colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on OS/2 EMX. If the TERMPATH symbol is not set, ncurses looks in the files /etc/termcap, /usr/share/misc/termcap and $HOME/.termcap, in that order. The library may be configured to disregard the following variables when the current user is the superuser (root), or if the application uses setuid or setgid permissions: $TERMINFO, $TERMINFO_DIRS, $TERMPATH, as well as $HOME. FILES
/usr/share/tabset directory containing initialization files for the terminal capability database /usr/share/terminfo terminal capability database SEE ALSO
terminfo(5) and related pages whose names begin "curs_" for detailed routine descriptions. EXTENSIONS
The ncurses library can be compiled with an option (-DUSE_GETCAP) that falls back to the old-style /etc/termcap file if the terminal setup code cannot find a terminfo entry corresponding to TERM. Use of this feature is not recommended, as it essentially includes an entire termcap compiler in the ncurses startup code, at significant cost in core and startup cycles. The ncurses library includes facilities for capturing mouse events on certain terminals (including xterm). See the curs_mouse(3X) manual page for details. The ncurses library includes facilities for responding to window resizing events, e.g., when running in an xterm. See the resizeterm(3X) and wresize(3X) manual pages for details. In addition, the library may be configured with a SIGWINCH handler. The ncurses library extends the fixed set of function key capabilities of terminals by allowing the application designer to define addi- tional key sequences at runtime. See the define_key(3X) and keyok(3X) manual pages for details. The ncurses library can exploit the capabilities of terminals which implement the ISO-6429 SGR 39 and SGR 49 controls, which allow an application to reset the terminal to its original foreground and background colors. From the users' perspective, the application is able to draw colored text on a background whose color is set independently, providing better control over color contrasts. See the default_col- ors(3X) manual page for details. The ncurses library includes a function for directing application output to a printer attached to the terminal device. See the curs_print(3X) manual page for details. PORTABILITY
The ncurses library is intended to be BASE-level conformant with the XSI Curses standard. Certain portions of the EXTENDED XSI Curses functionality (including color support) are supported. The following EXTENDED XSI Curses calls in support of wide (multibyte) characters are not yet implemented: add_wchnstr, add_wchstr, addnwstr, addwstr, bkgrnd, bkgrndset, border_set, box_set, erasewchar, get_wch, get_wstr, getbkgrnd, getn_wstr, getwchtype, hline_set, in_wch, in_wchnstr, in_wchstr, innwstr, ins_nwstr, ins_wch, ins_wstr, inwchnstr, inwchstr, inwstr, key_name, killwchar, mvadd_wchnstr, mvadd_wchstr, mvaddnwstr, mvaddwstr, mvget_wch, mvget_wstr, mvgetn_wstr, mvhline_set, mvin_wch, mvinnwstr, mvins_nwstr, mvins_wch, mvins_wstr, mvinwchnstr, mvinwchstr, mvinwchstr, mvinwstr, mvvline_set, mvwadd_wchnstr, mvwadd_wchstr, mvwaddnwstr, mvwaddwstr, mvwget_ch, mvwget_wch, mvwget_wstr, mvwgetn_wstr, mvwhline_set, mvwin_wch, mvwin_wchnstr, mvwin_wchstr, mvwinnw- str, mvwins_nwstr, mvwins_wch, mvwins_wstr, mvwinwchnstr. mvwinwstr, mvwvline_set, pecho_wchar, slk_wset, term_attrs, unget_wch, vhline_set, vid_attr, vid_puts, vline_set, wadd_wchnstr, wadd_wchstr, waddnwstr, waddwstr, waddwstr, wbkgrnd, wbkgrndset, wbkgrndset, wbor- der_set, wget_wch, wget_wstr, wgetbkgrnd, wgetn_wstr, whline_set, win_wch, win_wchnstr, win_wchstr, winnwstr, wins_nwstr, wins_wch, wins_wstr, winwchnstr, winwchstr, winwstr, wunctrl, wvline_set, A small number of local differences (that is, individual differences between the XSI Curses and ncurses calls) are described in PORTABILITY sections of the library man pages. The routine has_key is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4. See the curs_getch(3X) manual page for details. The routine slk_attr is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4. See the curs_slk(3X) manual page for details. The routines getmouse, mousemask, ungetmouse, mouseinterval, and wenclose relating to mouse interfacing are not part of XPG4, nor are they present in SVr4. See the curs_mouse(3X) manual page for details. The routine mcprint was not present in any previous curses implementation. See the curs_print(3X) manual page for details. The routine wresize is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4. See the wresize(3X) manual page for details. In historic curses versions, delays embedded in the capabilities cr, ind, cub1, ff and tab activated corresponding delay bits in the UNIX tty driver. In this implementation, all padding is done by NUL sends. This method is slightly more expensive, but narrows the interface to the UNIX kernel significantly and increases the package's portability correspondingly. In the XSI standard and SVr4 manual pages, many entry points have prototype arguments of the for char *const (or cchar_t *const, or wchar_t *const, or void *const). Depending on one's interpretation of the ANSI C standard (see section, these declarations are either (a) meaningless, or (b) meaningless and illegal. The declaration const char *x is a modifiable pointer to unmodifiable data, but char *const x' is an unmodifiable pointer to modifiable data. Given that C passes arguments by value, <type> *const as a formal type is at best dubi- ous. Some compilers choke on the prototypes. Therefore, in this implementation, they have been changed to const <type> * globally. NOTES
The header file <curses.h> automatically includes the header files <stdio.h> and <unctrl.h>. If standard output from a ncurses program is re-directed to something which is not a tty, screen updates will be directed to standard error. This was an undocumented feature of AT&T System V Release 3 curses. AUTHORS
Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey. Based on pcurses by Pavel Curtis. ncurses(3X)
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