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OpenDarwin 7.2.1 - man page for tcl_getencodingnames (opendarwin section 3)

Tcl_GetEncoding(3)		      Tcl Library Procedures		       Tcl_GetEncoding(3)

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

NAME
       Tcl_GetEncoding,     Tcl_FreeEncoding,	  Tcl_ExternalToUtfDString,    Tcl_ExternalToUtf,
       Tcl_UtfToExternalDString,   Tcl_UtfToExternal,	 Tcl_WinTCharToUtf,    Tcl_WinUtfToTChar,
       Tcl_GetEncodingName,   Tcl_SetSystemEncoding,   Tcl_GetEncodingNames,  Tcl_CreateEncoding,
       Tcl_GetDefaultEncodingDir, Tcl_SetDefaultEncodingDir - procedures for creating  and  using
       encodings.

SYNOPSIS
       #include <tcl.h>

       Tcl_Encoding
       Tcl_GetEncoding(interp, name)

       void
       Tcl_FreeEncoding(encoding)

       char *
       Tcl_ExternalToUtfDString(encoding, src, srcLen, dstPtr)

       int
       Tcl_ExternalToUtf(interp, encoding, src, srcLen, flags, statePtr, dst, dstLen, srcReadPtr, dstWrotePtr,
	    dstCharsPtr)

       char *
       Tcl_UtfToExternalDString(encoding, src, srcLen, dstPtr)

       int
       Tcl_UtfToExternal(interp, encoding, src, srcLen, flags, statePtr, dst, dstLen, srcReadPtr, dstWrotePtr,
	    dstCharsPtr)

       char *
       Tcl_WinTCharToUtf(tsrc, srcLen, dstPtr)

       TCHAR *
       Tcl_WinUtfToTChar(src, srcLen, dstPtr)

       CONST char *
       Tcl_GetEncodingName(encoding)

       int
       Tcl_SetSystemEncoding(interp, name)

       void
       Tcl_GetEncodingNames(interp)

       Tcl_Encoding
       Tcl_CreateEncoding(typePtr)

       CONST char *
       Tcl_GetDefaultEncodingDir(void)

       void
       Tcl_SetDefaultEncodingDir(path)

ARGUMENTS
       Tcl_Interp	   *interp	  (in)	    Interpreter  to  use  for error reporting, or
						    NULL if no error reporting is desired.

       CONST char	   *name	  (in)	    Name of encoding to load.

       Tcl_Encoding	   encoding	  (in)	    The encoding to query, free, or use for  con-
						    verting  text.  If encoding is NULL, the cur-
						    rent system encoding is used.

       CONST char	   *src 	  (in)	    For the Tcl_ExternalToUtf functions, an array
						    of	bytes  in the specified encoding that are
						    to	be   converted	 to   UTF-8.	For   the
						    Tcl_UtfToExternal and Tcl_WinUtfToTChar func-
						    tions, an array of	UTF-8  characters  to  be
						    converted to the specified encoding.

       CONST TCHAR	   *tsrc	  (in)	    An	array of Windows TCHAR characters to con-
						    vert to UTF-8.

       int		   srcLen	  (in)	    Length of src  or  tsrc  in  bytes.   If  the
						    length  is	negative,  the	encoding-specific
						    length of the string is used.

       Tcl_DString	   *dstPtr	  (out)     Pointer   to   an	uninitialized	or   free
						    Tcl_DString  in  which  the  converted result
						    will be stored.

       int		   flags	  (in)	    Various flag bits OR-ed together.  TCL_ENCOD-
						    ING_START signifies that the source buffer is
						    the first  block  in  a  (potentially  multi-
						    block)  input  stream, telling the conversion
						    routine to reset to an initial state and per-
						    form  any  initialization that needs to occur
						    before   the   first   byte   is   converted.
						    TCL_ENCODING_END  signifies  that  the source
						    buffer is the last block  in  a  (potentially
						    multi-block)  input  stream, telling the con-
						    version routine to perform	any  finalization
						    that  needs  to  occur after the last byte is
						    converted and then to  reset  to  an  initial
						    state.    TCL_ENCODING_STOPONERROR	signifies
						    that the  conversion  routine  should  return
						    immediately  upon  reading a source character
						    that doesn't exist in  the	target	encoding;
						    otherwise  a  default fallback character will
						    automatically be substituted.

       Tcl_EncodingState   *statePtr	  (in/out)  Used when converting  a  (generally  long  or
						    indefinite	length) byte stream in a piece by
						    piece fashion.  The conversion routine stores
						    its current state in *statePtr after src (the
						    buffer containing the current piece) has been
						    converted;	that  state  information  must be
						    passed back when converting the next piece of
						    the  stream  so  the conversion routine knows
						    what state it was in when it left off at  the
						    end of the last piece.  May be NULL, in which
						    case the value specified for flags is ignored
						    and  the  source buffer is assumed to contain
						    the complete string to convert.

       char		   *dst 	  (out)     Buffer in which the converted result will  be
						    stored.   No  more	than dstLen bytes will be
						    stored in dst.

       int		   dstLen	  (in)	    The maximum length of the output  buffer  dst
						    in bytes.

       int		   *srcReadPtr	  (out)     Filled with the number of bytes from src that
						    were actually converted.  This  may  be  less
						    than  the original source length if there was
						    a problem converting some source  characters.
						    May be NULL.

       int		   *dstWrotePtr   (out)     Filled  with  the  number  of bytes that were
						    actually stored in the  output  buffer  as	a
						    result of the conversion.  May be NULL.

       int		   *dstCharsPtr   (out)     Filled  with  the  number  of characters that
						    correspond to the number of bytes  stored  in
						    the output buffer.	May be NULL.

       Tcl_EncodingType    *typePtr	  (in)	    Structure  that  defines a new type of encod-
						    ing.

       CONST char	   *path	  (in)	    A path to the location of the encoding file.
_________________________________________________________________

INTRODUCTION
       These routines convert between Tcl's internal character representation, UTF-8, and charac-
       ter  representations  used  by various operating systems or file systems, such as Unicode,
       ASCII, or Shift-JIS.  When operating on strings, such as such as obtaining  the	names  of
       files  or  displaying characters using international fonts, the strings must be translated
       into one or possibly multiple  formats  that  the  various  system  calls  can  use.   For
       instance,  on  a  Japanese Unix workstation, a user might obtain a filename represented in
       the EUC-JP file encoding and then translate the characters to the jisx0208  font  encoding
       in  order  to display the filename in a Tk widget.  The purpose of the encoding package is
       to help bridge the translation gap.  UTF-8 provides an intermediate staging ground for all
       the  various  encodings.   In  the example above, text would be translated into UTF-8 from
       whatever file encoding the operating system is using.  Then it would  be  translated  from
       UTF-8 into whatever font encoding the display routines require.

       Some  basic encodings are compiled into Tcl.  Others can be defined by the user or dynami-
       cally loaded from encoding files in a platform-independent manner.

DESCRIPTION
       Tcl_GetEncoding finds an encoding given its name.  The name may refer  to  a  builtin  Tcl
       encoding,  a  user-defined encoding registered by calling Tcl_CreateEncoding, or a dynami-
       cally-loadable encoding file.  The return value is a token that	represents  the  encoding
       and can be used in subsequent calls to procedures such as Tcl_GetEncodingName, Tcl_FreeEn-
       coding, and Tcl_UtfToExternal.  If the name did not refer to any known or loadable  encod-
       ing, NULL is returned and an error message is returned in interp.

       The  encoding  package  maintains a database of all encodings currently in use.	The first
       time name is seen, Tcl_GetEncoding returns an encoding with a reference count  of  1.   If
       the  same  name	is requested further times, then the reference count for that encoding is
       incremented without the overhead of allocating a new encoding and all its associated  data
       structures.

       When  an  encoding  is  no longer needed, Tcl_FreeEncoding should be called to release it.
       When an encoding is no longer in use anywhere (i.e., it has been freed as many times as it
       has  been  gotten)  Tcl_FreeEncoding  will  release all storage the encoding was using and
       delete it from the database.

       Tcl_ExternalToUtfDString converts a source buffer src from  the	specified  encoding  into
       UTF-8.	The  converted	bytes  are  stored in dstPtr, which is then null-terminated.  The
       caller should eventually call Tcl_DStringFree to free any information  stored  in  dstPtr.
       When  converting,  if  any of the characters in the source buffer cannot be represented in
       the target encoding, a default fallback character will be used.	The  return  value  is	a
       pointer to the value stored in the DString.

       Tcl_ExternalToUtf converts a source buffer src from the specified encoding into UTF-8.  Up
       to srcLen bytes are converted from the source buffer and up to dstLen converted bytes  are
       stored  in  dst.   In  all cases, *srcReadPtr is filled with the number of bytes that were
       successfully converted from src and *dstWrotePtr is filled with the  corresponding  number
       of bytes that were stored in dst.  The return value is one of the following:

	      TCL_OK			   All bytes of src were converted.

	      TCL_CONVERT_NOSPACE	   The destination buffer was not large enough for all of
					   the converted data; as many characters  as  could  fit
					   were converted though.

	      TCL_CONVERT_MULTIBYTE	   The	last  fews  bytes  in  the source buffer were the
					   beginning of a multibyte sequence, but more bytes were
					   needed  to  complete this sequence.	A subsequent call
					   to the conversion routine should pass  a  buffer  con-
					   taining  the  unconverted  bytes  that remained in src
					   plus some further bytes  from  the  source  stream  to
					   properly   convert  the  formerly  split-up	multibyte
					   sequence.

	      TCL_CONVERT_SYNTAX	   The	source	buffer	contained  an  invalid	character
					   sequence.  This may occur if the input stream has been
					   damaged or if the input encoding method was misidenti-
					   fied.

	      TCL_CONVERT_UNKNOWN	   The source buffer contained a character that could not
					   be represented in the target encoding  and  TCL_ENCOD-
					   ING_STOPONERROR was specified.

       Tcl_UtfToExternalDString converts a source buffer src from UTF-8 into the specified encod-
       ing.  The converted bytes are stored in dstPtr, which is then terminated with  the  appro-
       priate  encoding-specific null.	The caller should eventually call Tcl_DStringFree to free
       any information stored in dstPtr.  When converting, if any of the characters in the source
       buffer  cannot be represented in the target encoding, a default fallback character will be
       used.  The return value is a pointer to the value stored in the DString.

       Tcl_UtfToExternal converts a source buffer src from UTF-8 into the specified encoding.  Up
       to  srcLen bytes are converted from the source buffer and up to dstLen converted bytes are
       stored in dst.  In all cases, *srcReadPtr is filled with the number  of	bytes  that  were
       successfully  converted	from src and *dstWrotePtr is filled with the corresponding number
       of bytes that were stored in dst.  The return values are the same as the return values for
       Tcl_ExternalToUtf.

       Tcl_WinUtfToTChar  and  Tcl_WinTCharToUtf  are Windows-only convenience functions for con-
       verting between UTF-8 and Windows strings.  On Windows 95 (as with the Macintosh and  Unix
       operating  systems), all strings exchanged between Tcl and the operating system are "char"
       based.  On Windows NT, some strings exchanged between Tcl and  the  operating  system  are
       "char" oriented while others are in Unicode.  By convention, in Windows a TCHAR is a char-
       acter in the ANSI code page on Windows 95 and a Unicode character on Windows NT.

       If you planned to use the same "char" based interfaces on both Windows 95 and Windows  NT,
       you  could  use Tcl_UtfToExternal and Tcl_ExternalToUtf (or their Tcl_DString equivalents)
       with an encoding of NULL (the current system encoding).	On the other hand, if you planned
       to  use	the  Unicode  interface when running on Windows NT and the "char" interfaces when
       running on Windows 95, you would have to perform the following type of test over and  over
       in your program (as represented in pseudo-code):
	      if (running NT) {
		  encoding <- Tcl_GetEncoding("unicode");
		  nativeBuffer <- Tcl_UtfToExternal(encoding, utfBuffer);
		  Tcl_FreeEncoding(encoding);
	      } else {
		  nativeBuffer <- Tcl_UtfToExternal(NULL, utfBuffer);
       Tcl_WinUtfToTChar  and Tcl_WinTCharToUtf automatically handle this test and use the proper
       encoding based on the current operating system.	Tcl_WinUtfToTChar returns a pointer to	a
       TCHAR  string,  and  Tcl_WinTCharToUtf  expects	a TCHAR string pointer as the src string.
       Otherwise,  these   functions   behave	identically   to   Tcl_UtfToExternalDString   and
       Tcl_ExternalToUtfDString.

       Tcl_GetEncodingName  is	roughly  the  inverse of Tcl_GetEncoding.  Given an encoding, the
       return value is the name argument that was  used  to  create  the  encoding.   The  string
       returned  by  Tcl_GetEncodingName  is  only  guaranteed	to  persist until the encoding is
       deleted.  The caller must not modify this string.

       Tcl_SetSystemEncoding sets the default encoding that should  be	used  whenever	the  user
       passes  a NULL value for the encoding argument to any of the other encoding functions.  If
       name is NULL, the system encoding is reset to the default system encoding, binary.  If the
       name  did  not refer to any known or loadable encoding, TCL_ERROR is returned and an error
       message is left in interp.  Otherwise, this procedure increments the  reference	count  of
       the  new  system  encoding, decrements the reference count of the old system encoding, and
       returns TCL_OK.

       Tcl_GetEncodingNames sets the interp result to a list consisting of the names of  all  the
       encodings  that are currently defined or can be dynamically loaded, searching the encoding
       path specified by Tcl_SetDefaultEncodingDir.  This procedure  does  not	ensure	that  the
       dynamically-loadable encoding files contain valid data, but merely that they exist.

       Tcl_CreateEncoding  defines  a new encoding and registers the C procedures that are called
       back to convert between the encoding and UTF-8.	Encodings created  by  Tcl_CreateEncoding
       are  thereafter	visible  in  the  database  used  by  Tcl_GetEncoding.	 Just as with the
       Tcl_GetEncoding procedure, the return value is a token that represents  the  encoding  and
       can  be	used in subsequent calls to other encoding functions.  Tcl_CreateEncoding returns
       an encoding with a reference count of 1. If an encoding with the  specified  name  already
       exists,	then  its  entry in the database is replaced with the new encoding; the token for
       the old encoding will remain valid and continue to behave as before, but users of the  new
       token will now call the new encoding procedures.

       The  typePtr  argument  to  Tcl_CreateEncoding  contains information about the name of the
       encoding and the procedures that will be called	to  convert  between  this  encoding  and
       UTF-8.  It is defined as follows:

	      typedef struct Tcl_EncodingType {
		CONST char *encodingName;
		Tcl_EncodingConvertProc *toUtfProc;
		Tcl_EncodingConvertProc *fromUtfProc;
		Tcl_EncodingFreeProc *freeProc;
		ClientData clientData;
		int nullSize;
	      } Tcl_EncodingType;

       The  encodingName  provides a string name for the encoding, by which it can be referred in
       other procedures such as Tcl_GetEncoding.  The toUtfProc refers to a callback procedure to
       invoke  to  convert text from this encoding into UTF-8.	The fromUtfProc refers to a call-
       back procedure to invoke to convert text from UTF-8  into  this	encoding.   The  freeProc
       refers  to  a  callback	procedure  to invoke when this encoding is deleted.  The freeProc
       field may be NULL.  The clientData contains an arbitrary one-word value passed  to  toUtf-
       Proc, fromUtfProc, and freeProc whenever they are called.  Typically, this is a pointer to
       a data structure containing encoding-specific information that can be used by the callback
       procedures.   For  instance, two very similar encodings such as ascii and macRoman may use
       the same callback procedure, but use different values of clientData to control its  behav-
       ior.   The  nullSize specifies the number of zero bytes that signify end-of-string in this
       encoding.  It must be 1 (for single-byte or multi-byte encodings like ASCII or  Shift-JIS)
       or  2  (for  double-byte encodings like Unicode).  Constant-sized encodings with 3 or more
       bytes per character (such as CNS11643) are not accepted.

       The callback procedures toUtfProc and fromUtfProc should match the  type  Tcl_EncodingCon-
       vertProc:

	      typedef int Tcl_EncodingConvertProc(
		ClientData clientData,
		CONST char *src,
		int srcLen,
		int flags,
		Tcl_Encoding *statePtr,
		char *dst,
		int dstLen,
		int *srcReadPtr,
		int *dstWrotePtr,
		int *dstCharsPtr);

       The   toUtfProc	and  fromUtfProc  procedures  are  called  by  the  Tcl_ExternalToUtf  or
       Tcl_UtfToExternal family of functions to perform the actual  conversion.   The  clientData
       parameter  to  these  procedures is the same as the clientData field specified to Tcl_Cre-
       ateEncoding when the encoding was created.  The remaining arguments to the callback proce-
       dures  are  the	same  as  the  arguments,  documented at the top, to Tcl_ExternalToUtf or
       Tcl_UtfToExternal, with the following exceptions.  If the srcLen argument to one of  those
       high-level  functions  is negative, the value passed to the callback procedure will be the
       appropriate encoding-specific string length of  src.   If  any  of  the	srcReadPtr,  dst-
       WrotePtr,  or dstCharsPtr arguments to one of the high-level functions is NULL, the corre-
       sponding value passed to the callback procedure will be a non-NULL location.

       The callback procedure freeProc, if non-NULL, should match the type Tcl_EncodingFreeProc:
	      typedef void Tcl_EncodingFreeProc(
		ClientData clientData);

       This freeProc function is called when the encoding is deleted.  The  clientData	parameter
       is  the same as the clientData field specified to Tcl_CreateEncoding when the encoding was
       created.

       Tcl_GetDefaultEncodingDir and Tcl_SetDefaultEncodingDir access and set  the  directory  to
       use  when locating the default encoding files.  If this value is not NULL, the TclpInitLi-
       braryPath routine appends the path to the head of the search path, and uses this  path  as
       the first place to look into when trying to locate the encoding file.

ENCODING FILES
       Space  would  prohibit  precompiling  into  Tcl every possible encoding algorithm, so many
       encodings are stored on disk as dynamically-loadable encoding files.  This  behavior  also
       allows  the  user  to  create  additional encoding files that can be loaded using the same
       mechanism.  These encoding files  contain  information  about  the  tables  and/or  escape
       sequences used to map between an external encoding and Unicode.	The external encoding may
       consist of single-byte, multi-byte, or double-byte characters.

       Each dynamically-loadable encoding is represented as a text file.  The initial line of the
       file,  beginning with a ``#'' symbol, is a comment that provides a human-readable descrip-
       tion of the file.  The next line identifies the type of encoding file.  It can be  one  of
       the following letters:

       [1]   S
	      A  single-byte  encoding, where one character is always one byte long in the encod-
	      ing.  An example is iso8859-1, used by many European languages.

       [2]   D
	      A double-byte encoding, where one character is always two bytes long in the  encod-
	      ing.  An example is big5, used for Chinese text.

       [3]   M
	      A  multi-byte  encoding,	where  one character may be either one or two bytes long.
	      Certain bytes are a lead bytes, indicating that another byte must follow	and  that
	      together the two bytes represent one character.  Other bytes are not lead bytes and
	      represent themselves.  An example is shiftjis, used by many Japanese computers.

       [4]   E
	      An escape-sequence encoding, specifying that certain sequences of bytes do not rep-
	      resent  characters, but commands that describe how following bytes should be inter-
	      preted.

       The rest of the lines in the file depend on the type.

       Cases [1], [2], and [3] are collectively referred to as table-based encoding  files.   The
       lines in a table-based encoding file are in the same format as this example taken from the
       shiftjis encoding (this is not the complete file):
	      # Encoding file: shiftjis, multi-byte
	      M
	      003F 0 40
	      00
	      0000000100020003000400050006000700080009000A000B000C000D000E000F
	      0010001100120013001400150016001700180019001A001B001C001D001E001F
	      0020002100220023002400250026002700280029002A002B002C002D002E002F
	      0030003100320033003400350036003700380039003A003B003C003D003E003F
	      0040004100420043004400450046004700480049004A004B004C004D004E004F
	      0050005100520053005400550056005700580059005A005B005C005D005E005F
	      0060006100620063006400650066006700680069006A006B006C006D006E006F
	      0070007100720073007400750076007700780079007A007B007C007D203E007F
	      0080000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
	      0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
	      0000FF61FF62FF63FF64FF65FF66FF67FF68FF69FF6AFF6BFF6CFF6DFF6EFF6F
	      FF70FF71FF72FF73FF74FF75FF76FF77FF78FF79FF7AFF7BFF7CFF7DFF7EFF7F
	      FF80FF81FF82FF83FF84FF85FF86FF87FF88FF89FF8AFF8BFF8CFF8DFF8EFF8F
	      FF90FF91FF92FF93FF94FF95FF96FF97FF98FF99FF9AFF9BFF9CFF9DFF9EFF9F
	      0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
	      0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
	      81
	      0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
	      0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
	      0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
	      0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
	      300030013002FF0CFF0E30FBFF1AFF1BFF1FFF01309B309C00B4FF4000A8FF3E
	      FFE3FF3F30FD30FE309D309E30034EDD30053006300730FC20152010FF0F005C
	      301C2016FF5C2026202520182019201C201DFF08FF0930143015FF3BFF3DFF5B
	      FF5D30083009300A300B300C300D300E300F30103011FF0B221200B100D70000
	      00F7FF1D2260FF1CFF1E22662267221E22342642264000B0203220332103FFE5
	      FF0400A200A3FF05FF03FF06FF0AFF2000A72606260525CB25CF25CE25C725C6
	      25A125A025B325B225BD25BC203B301221922190219121933013000000000000
	      000000000000000000000000000000002208220B2286228722822283222A2229
	      000000000000000000000000000000002227222800AC21D221D4220022030000
	      0000000000000000000000000000000000000000222022A52312220222072261
	      2252226A226B221A223D221D2235222B222C0000000000000000000000000000
	      212B2030266F266D266A2020202100B6000000000000000025EF000000000000

       The third line of the file is three numbers.  The first number is the  fallback	character
       (in base 16) to use when converting from UTF-8 to this encoding.  The second number is a 1
       if this file represents the encoding for a symbol font, or 0 otherwise.	The  last  number
       (in base 10) is how many pages of data follow.

       Subsequent lines in the example above are pages that describe how to map from the encoding
       into 2-byte Unicode.  The first line in a page identifies the page number.   Following  it
       are  256 double-byte numbers, arranged as 16 rows of 16 numbers.  Given a character in the
       encoding, the high byte of that character is used to select which page, and the	low  byte
       of  that  character  is	used as an index to select one of the double-byte numbers in that
       page - the value obtained being the corresponding Unicode character.   By  examination  of
       the example above, one can see that the characters 0x7E and 0x8163 in shiftjis map to 203E
       and 2026 in Unicode, respectively.

       Following the first page will be all the other pages, each  in  the  same  format  as  the
       first: one number identifying the page followed by 256 double-byte Unicode characters.  If
       a character in the encoding maps to the Unicode character 0000, it means that the  charac-
       ter  doesn't actually exist.  If all characters on a page would map to 0000, that page can
       be omitted.

       Case [4] is the escape-sequence encoding file.  The lines in an this type of file  are  in
       the same format as this example taken from the iso2022-jp encoding:
	      # Encoding file: iso2022-jp, escape-driven
	      E
	      init	     {}
	      final	     {}
	      iso8859-1      \x1b(B
	      jis0201	     \x1b(J
	      jis0208	     \x1b$@
	      jis0208	     \x1b$B
	      jis0212	     \x1b$(D
	      gb2312	     \x1b$A
	      ksc5601	     \x1b$(C

       In the file, the first column represents an option and the second column is the associated
       value.  init is a string to emit or expect before the first character is converted,  while
       final is a string to emit or expect after the last character.  All other options are names
       of table-based encodings; the associated value is  the  escape-sequence	that  marks  that
       encoding.   Tcl	syntax is used for the values; in the above example, for instance, ``{}''
       represents the empty string and ``\x1b'' represents character 27.

       When Tcl_GetEncoding encounters an encoding name that has not been loaded, it attempts  to
       load  an  encoding  file  called name.enc from the encoding subdirectory of each directory
       specified in the library path $tcl_libPath.  If the encoding  file  exists,  but  is  mal-
       formed, an error message will be left in interp.

KEYWORDS
       utf, encoding, convert

Tcl					       8.1			       Tcl_GetEncoding(3)


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