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vis(1) [opendarwin man page]

VIS(1)							    BSD General Commands Manual 						    VIS(1)

NAME
vis -- display non-printable characters in a visual format SYNOPSIS
vis [-cbflnostw] [-F foldwidth] [file ...] DESCRIPTION
The vis utility is a filter for converting non-printable characters into a visual representation. It differs from 'cat -v' in that the form is unique and invertible. By default, all non-graphic characters except space, tab, and newline are encoded. A detailed description of the various visual formats is given in vis(3). The options are as follows: -b Turns off prepending of backslash before up-arrow control sequences and meta characters, and disables the doubling of backslashes. This produces output which is neither invertible or precise, but does represent a minimum of change to the input. It is similar to ``cat -v''. -c Request a format which displays a small subset of the non-printable characters using C-style backslash sequences. -F Causes vis to fold output lines to foldwidth columns (default 80), like fold(1), except that a hidden newline sequence is used, (which is removed when inverting the file back to its original form with unvis(1)). If the last character in the encoded file does not end in a newline, a hidden newline sequence is appended to the output. This makes the output usable with various editors and other utilities which typically don't work with partial lines. -f Same as -F. -l Mark newlines with the visible sequence '$', followed by the newline. -n Turns off any encoding, except for the fact that backslashes are still doubled and hidden newline sequences inserted if -f or -F is selected. When combined with the -f flag, vis becomes like an invertible version of the fold(1) utility. That is, the output can be unfolded by running the output through unvis(1). -o Request a format which displays non-printable characters as an octal number, ddd. -s Only characters considered unsafe to send to a terminal are encoded. This flag allows backspace, bell, and carriage return in addi- tion to the default space, tab and newline. -t Tabs are also encoded. -w White space (space-tab-newline) is also encoded. SEE ALSO
unvis(1), vis(3) HISTORY
The vis command appeared in 4.4BSD. BSD
April 19, 1994 BSD

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VIS(3)							   BSD Library Functions Manual 						    VIS(3)

NAME
vis -- visually encode characters LIBRARY
Standard C Library (libc, -lc) SYNOPSIS
#include <vis.h> char * vis(char *dst, int c, int flag, int nextc); int strvis(char *dst, const char *src, int flag); int strvisx(char *dst, const char *src, size_t len, int flag); DESCRIPTION
The vis() function copies into dst a string which represents the character c. If c needs no encoding, it is copied in unaltered. The string is null terminated, and a pointer to the end of the string is returned. The maximum length of any encoding is four characters (not including the trailing NUL); thus, when encoding a set of characters into a buffer, the size of the buffer should be four times the number of charac- ters encoded, plus one for the trailing NUL. The flag argument is used for altering the default range of characters considered for encoding and for altering the visual representation. The additional character, nextc, is only used when selecting the VIS_CSTYLE encoding format (explained below). The strvis() and strvisx() functions copy into dst a visual representation of the string src. The strvis() function encodes characters from src up to the first NUL. The strvisx() function encodes exactly len characters from src (this is useful for encoding a block of data that may contain NUL's). Both forms NUL terminate dst. The size of dst must be four times the number of characters encoded from src (plus one for the NUL). Both forms return the number of characters in dst (not including the trailing NUL). The encoding is a unique, invertible representation composed entirely of graphic characters; it can be decoded back into the original form using the unvis(3) or strunvis(3) functions. There are two parameters that can be controlled: the range of characters that are encoded, and the type of representation used. By default, all non-graphic characters except space, tab, and newline are encoded. (See isgraph(3).) The following flags alter this: VIS_GLOB Also encode magic characters ('*', '?', '[' and '#') recognized by glob(3). VIS_SP Also encode space. VIS_TAB Also encode tab. VIS_NL Also encode newline. VIS_WHITE Synonym for VIS_SP | VIS_TAB | VIS_NL. VIS_SAFE Only encode "unsafe" characters. Unsafe means control characters which may cause common terminals to perform unexpected func- tions. Currently this form allows space, tab, newline, backspace, bell, and return - in addition to all graphic characters - unencoded. There are four forms of encoding. Most forms use the backslash character '' to introduce a special sequence; two backslashes are used to represent a real backslash. These are the visual formats: (default) Use an 'M' to represent meta characters (characters with the 8th bit set), and use caret '^' to represent control characters see (iscntrl(3)). The following formats are used: ^C Represents the control character 'C'. Spans characters '00' through '37', and '177' (as '^?'). M-C Represents character 'C' with the 8th bit set. Spans characters '241' through '376'. M^C Represents control character 'C' with the 8th bit set. Spans characters '200' through '237', and '377' (as 'M^?'). 40 Represents ASCII space. 240 Represents Meta-space. VIS_CSTYLE Use C-style backslash sequences to represent standard non-printable characters. The following sequences are used to represent the indicated characters: a BEL (007)  BS (010) f NP (014) NL (012) CR (015) s SP (040) HT (011) v VT (013) NUL (000) When using this format, the nextc argument is looked at to determine if a NUL character can be encoded as '' instead of '00'. If nextc is an octal digit, the latter representation is used to avoid ambiguity. VIS_HTTPSTYLE Use URI encoding as described in RFC 1808. The form is '%dd' where d represents a hexadecimal digit. VIS_OCTAL Use a three digit octal sequence. The form is 'ddd' where d represents an octal digit. There is one additional flag, VIS_NOSLASH, which inhibits the doubling of backslashes and the backslash before the default format (that is, control characters are represented by '^C' and meta characters as 'M-C'). With this flag set, the encoding is ambiguous and non-invertible. SEE ALSO
unvis(1), unvis(3) R. Fielding, Relative Uniform Resource Locators, RFC1808. HISTORY
These functions first appeared in 4.4BSD. BUGS
The vis family of functions do not recognize multibyte characters, and thus may consider them to be non-printable when they are in fact printable (and vice versa.) BSD
April 9, 2006 BSD

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