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OpenDarwin 7.2.1 - man page for python (opendarwin section 1)

PYTHON(1)			     General Commands Manual				PYTHON(1)

NAME
       python - an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language

SYNOPSIS
       python [ -d ] [ -E ] [ -h ] [ -i ] [ -O ]
	      [ -Q argument ] [ -S ] [ -t ] [ -u ]
	      [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -W argument ] [ -x ]
	      [ -c command | script | - ] [ arguments ]

DESCRIPTION
       Python  is an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language that combines
       remarkable power with very clear syntax.  For an introduction to programming in Python you
       are  referred to the Python Tutorial.  The Python Library Reference documents built-in and
       standard types, constants, functions and modules.  Finally, the	Python	Reference  Manual
       describes  the  syntax  and  semantics  of the core language in (perhaps too) much detail.
       (These documents may be located via the INTERNET RESOURCES below; they may be installed on
       your system as well.)

       Python's  basic	power can be extended with your own modules written in C or C++.  On most
       systems such modules may be dynamically loaded.	Python is also adaptable as an	extension
       language for existing applications.  See the internal documentation for hints.

       Documentation for installed Python modules and packages can be viewed by running the pydoc
       program.

COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
       -c command
	      Specify the command to execute (see next section).  This terminates the option list
	      (following options are passed as arguments to the command).

       -d     Turn  on	parser	debugging  output  (for  wizards  only,  depending on compilation
	      options).

       -E     Ignore environment variables like PYTHONPATH and PYTHONHOME that modify the  behav-
	      ior of the interpreter.

       -h     Prints the usage for the interpreter executable and exits.

       -i     When  a script is passed as first argument or the -c option is used, enter interac-
	      tive mode after executing the script or the command.  It does not read the $PYTHON-
	      STARTUP file.  This can be useful to inspect global variables or a stack trace when
	      a script raises an exception.

       -O     Turn on basic optimizations.  This changes  the  filename  extension  for  compiled
	      (bytecode)  files  from  .pyc  to  .pyo.	Given twice, causes docstrings to be dis-
	      carded.

       -Q argument
	      Division control; see PEP 238.  The argument must be one	of  "old"  (the  default,
	      int/int  and  long/long return an int or long), "new" (new division semantics, i.e.
	      int/int and long/long returns a float), "warn" (old division semantics with a warn-
	      ing for int/int and long/long), or "warnall" (old division semantics with a warning
	      for all  use  of	the  division  operator).   For  a  use  of  "warnall",  see  the
	      Tools/scripts/fixdiv.py script.

       -S     Disable  the  import  of	the  module  site and the site-dependent manipulations of
	      sys.path that it entails.

       -t     Issue a warning when a source file mixes tabs and spaces for indentation in  a  way
	      that  makes  it  depend  on the worth of a tab expressed in spaces.  Issue an error
	      when the option is given twice.

       -u     Force stdin, stdout and stderr to be totally unbuffered.	On systems where it  mat-
	      ters,  also put stdin, stdout and stderr in binary mode.	Note that there is inter-
	      nal buffering in xreadlines(), readlines() and file-object iterators ("for line  in
	      sys.stdin")  which is not influenced by this option.  To work around this, you will
	      want to use "sys.stdin.readline()" inside a "while 1:" loop.

       -v     Print a message each time a module is initialized, showing the place  (filename  or
	      built-in	module)  from  which it is loaded.  When given twice, print a message for
	      each file that is checked for when searching for a module.  Also provides  informa-
	      tion on module cleanup at exit.

       -V     Prints the Python version number of the executable and exits.

       -W argument
	      Warning control.	Python sometimes prints warning message to sys.stderr.	A typical
	      warning message has the following form: file:line: category: message.  By  default,
	      each  warning  is  printed  once for each source line where it occurs.  This option
	      controls how often warnings are printed.	Multiple -W options may be given; when	a
	      warning  matches	more  than one option, the action for the last matching option is
	      performed.  Invalid -W options are ignored (a  warning  message  is  printed  about
	      invalid options when the first warning is issued).  Warnings can also be controlled
	      from within a Python program using the warnings module.

	      The simplest form of argument is one of the following action strings (or	a  unique
	      abbreviation):  ignore  to  ignore  all warnings; default to explicitly request the
	      default behavior (printing each warning once per source line); all to print a warn-
	      ing  each time it occurs (this may generate many messages if a warning is triggered
	      repeatedly for the same source line, such as inside a loop); module to  print  each
	      warning only only the first time it occurs in each module; once to print each warn-
	      ing only the first time it occurs in the program; or error to  raise  an	exception
	      instead of printing a warning message.

	      The  full form of argument is action:message:category:module:line.  Here, action is
	      as explained above but only applies to messages that match  the  remaining  fields.
	      Empty  fields  match all values; trailing empty fields may be omitted.  The message
	      field matches the start of the warning message printed; this match is case-insensi-
	      tive.  The category field matches the warning category.  This must be a class name;
	      the match test whether the actual warning category of the message is a subclass  of
	      the  specified  warning  category.   The full class name must be given.  The module
	      field matches the (fully-qualified) module name; this match is case-sensitive.  The
	      line field matches the line number, where zero matches all line numbers and is thus
	      equivalent to an omitted line number.

       -x     Skip the first line of the source.  This is intended for a DOS specific hack  only.
	      Warning: the line numbers in error messages will be off by one!

INTERPRETER INTERFACE
       The  interpreter  interface  resembles  that  of the UNIX shell: when called with standard
       input connected to a tty device, it prompts for commands and executes them until an EOF is
       read; when called with a file name argument or with a file as standard input, it reads and
       executes a script from that file; when called with -c  command,	it  executes  the  Python
       statement(s)  given as command.	Here command may contain multiple statements separated by
       newlines.  Leading whitespace is significant in	Python	statements!   In  non-interactive
       mode, the entire input is parsed befored it is executed.

       If available, the script name and additional arguments thereafter are passed to the script
       in the Python variable sys.argv , which is a list of strings (you must first import sys to
       be  able to access it).	If no script name is given, sys.argv[0] is an empty string; if -c
       is used, sys.argv[0] contains the string '-c'.	Note  that  options  interpreted  by  the
       Python interpreter itself are not placed in sys.argv.

       In  interactive mode, the primary prompt is `>>>'; the second prompt (which appears when a
       command is not complete) is `...'.  The prompts can be changed by assignment to sys.ps1 or
       sys.ps2.   The  interpreter  quits  when  it  reads an EOF at a prompt.	When an unhandled
       exception occurs, a stack trace is printed and control returns to the primary  prompt;  in
       non-interactive mode, the interpreter exits after printing the stack trace.  The interrupt
       signal raises the KeyboardInterrupt exception; other UNIX signals are not  caught  (except
       that SIGPIPE is sometimes ignored, in favor of the IOError exception).  Error messages are
       written to stderr.

FILES AND DIRECTORIES
       These are subject to difference depending on local installation conventions; ${prefix} and
       ${exec_prefix}  are  installation-dependent and should be interpreted as for GNU software;
       they may be the same.  The default for both is /usr/local.

       ${exec_prefix}/bin/python
	      Recommended location of the interpreter.

       ${prefix}/lib/python<version>
       ${exec_prefix}/lib/python<version>
	      Recommended locations of the directories containing the standard modules.

       ${prefix}/include/python<version>
       ${exec_prefix}/include/python<version>
	      Recommended locations of the directories containing the include  files  needed  for
	      developing Python extensions and embedding the interpreter.

       ~/.pythonrc.py
	      User-specific initialization file loaded by the user module; not used by default or
	      by most applications.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       PYTHONHOME
	      Change the location of the standard Python libraries.  By  default,  the	libraries
	      are  searched  in  ${prefix}/lib/python<version> and ${exec_prefix}/lib/python<ver-
	      sion>, where ${prefix} and ${exec_prefix} are  installation-dependent  directories,
	      both  defaulting to /usr/local.  When $PYTHONHOME is set to a single directory, its
	      value replaces both ${prefix} and ${exec_prefix}.  To specify different values  for
	      these, set $PYTHONHOME to ${prefix}:${exec_prefix}.

       PYTHONPATH
	      Augments	the  default search path for module files.  The format is the same as the
	      shell's $PATH: one or more directory pathnames separated by  colons.   Non-existant
	      directories  are	silently ignored.  The default search path is installation depen-
	      dent, but  generally  begins  with  ${prefix}/lib/python<version>  (see  PYTHONHOME
	      above).	The  default  search path is always appended to $PYTHONPATH.  If a script
	      argument is given, the directory containing the script is inserted in the  path  in
	      front of $PYTHONPATH.  The search path can be manipulated from within a Python pro-
	      gram as the variable sys.path .

       PYTHONSTARTUP
	      If this is the name of a readable file, the Python commands in that file	are  exe-
	      cuted  before  the first prompt is displayed in interactive mode.  The file is exe-
	      cuted in the same name space  where  interactive	commands  are  executed  so  that
	      objects defined or imported in it can be used without qualification in the interac-
	      tive session.  You can also change the prompts sys.ps1 and sys.ps2 in this file.

       PYTHONY2K
	      Set this to a non-empty string to cause the time module to require dates	specified
	      as strings to include 4-digit years, otherwise 2-digit years are converted based on
	      rules described in the time module documentation.

       PYTHONOPTIMIZE
	      If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -O  option.
	      If set to an integer, it is equivalent to specifying -O multiple times.

       PYTHONDEBUG
	      If  this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -d option.
	      If set to an integer, it is equivalent to specifying -d multiple times.

       PYTHONINSPECT
	      If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -i option.

       PYTHONUNBUFFERED
	      If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -u option.

       PYTHONVERBOSE
	      If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -v  option.
	      If set to an integer, it is equivalent to specifying -v multiple times.

AUTHOR
       Guido van Rossum

       E-mail: guido@python.org

       And a cast of thousands.

INTERNET RESOURCES
       Main website:  http://www.python.org/
       Documentation:  http://www.python.org/doc/
       Community website:  http://starship.python.net/
       Developer resources:  http://sourceforge.net/project/python/
       FTP:  ftp://ftp.python.org/pub/python/
       Module repository:  http://www.vex.net/parnassus/
       Newsgroups:  comp.lang.python, comp.lang.python.announce

LICENSING
       Python  is distributed under an Open Source license.  See the file "LICENSE" in the Python
       source distribution for information on terms &  conditions  for	accessing  and	otherwise
       using Python and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.

				   $Date: 2003/05/26 05:15:35 $ 			PYTHON(1)


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