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GPROF(1)										 GPROF(1)

       gprof - display call graph profile data

       gprof [ options ] [ a.out [ gmon.out ... ] ]

       gprof  produces	an execution profile of a C, Pascal, or Fortran77 program.  The effect of
       called routines is incorporated in the profile of each caller.  The profile data is  taken
       from  the call graph profile file (gmon.out by default), which is created by programs com-
       piled with the -pg option of cc, pc, and f77.  The symbol table in the named  object  file
       (a.out  by default) is read and correlated with the call graph profile file.  If more than
       one profile file is specified, the gprof output shows the sum of the  profile  information
       in the given profile files.

       First,  a  flat	profile  is given.  This listing gives the total execution times and call
       counts for each of the functions in the program, sorted by decreasing time.

       Next, these times are propagated along the edges of the call graph.   Cycles  are  discov-
       ered,  and  calls  into a cycle are made to share the time of the cycle.  A second listing
       shows the functions sorted according to the time they  represent  including  the  time  of
       their  call graph descendents.  Below each function entry is shown its (direct) call graph
       children, and how their times are propagated to this function.  A  similar  display  above
       the  function shows how this function's time and the time of its descendents is propagated
       to its (direct) call graph parents.

       Cycles are also shown, with an entry for the cycle as a whole as well as a listing of  the
       members of the cycle and their contributions to the time and call counts of the cycle.

       gprof  accepts  a  ``fat''  file  for the a.out file, using the host architecture from the
       file.  (It is an error if the ``fat'' file does not contain the host architecture.)

       The following options are available:

       -a     suppresses the displaying of statically declared	functions.   If  this  option  is
	      given,  all  relevant  information about the static function (such as time samples,
	      calls to other functions, calls from  other  functions)  belongs	to  the  function
	      loaded just before the static function in the a.out file.

       -b     suppresses the displaying of a description of each field in the profile.

       -c     the  static  call  graph of the program is discovered by a heuristic which examines
	      the text space of the object file.  Static-only parents or children  are	indicated
	      with call counts of 0.  (The -c option is currently not supported.)

       -e name
	      suppresses  the  displaying of the graph profile entry for routine name and all its
	      descendants (unless they have other ancestors that aren't suppressed).   More  than
	      one -e option may be given.  Only one name may be given with each -e option.

       -E name
	      suppresses  the  displaying  of  the  graph profile entry for routine name (and its
	      descendants) as -e, above, and also excludes  the  time  spent  in  name	(and  its
	      descendants)  from  the  total  and percentage time computations.  (For example, -E
	      mcount and all of the other monitor(3) routines are excluded by default.)

       -f name
	      displays the graph profile entry of only the specified routine name and its descen-
	      dants.  More than one -f option may be given.  Only one name may be given with each
	      -f option.

       -F name
	      displays the graph profile entry of only the routine name and its  descendants  (as
	      -f, above) and also uses only the times of the displayed routines in total time and
	      percentage computations.	More than one -F option may be given.  Only one name  may
	      be given with each -F option.  The -F option overrides the -E option.

       -s     a  profile file gmon.sum is produced which represents the sum of the profile infor-
	      mation in all the specified profile files.  This summary profile file may be  given
	      to  subsequent  executions of gprof (probably also with a -s) to accumulate profile
	      data across several runs of an a.out file.

       -S     produces four order files suitable as input to ld(1):  gmon.order  is  an  ordering
	      based  on  a  closest  is  best  algorithm, callf.order is based on call frequency,
	      callo.order is based on call order and time.order is  based  on  time.   The  order
	      files  contain only those functions which were called or sampled (including sponta-
	      neous functions). For library functions to appear correctly in the  order  file,	a
	      whatsloaded file produced by ld(1) should exist in the working directory. Filenames
	      in the order file will be missing for: files compiled without the -g option, assem-
	      bly  files,  and	stripped executables.  This option does not work with executables
	      that have already been scattered.  The gmon.order file can take a long time to pro-
	      duce and can be suppressed with the -x option.

       -z     displays	routines  which  have zero usage (as indicated by call counts and accumu-
	      lated time).  This is useful in conjunction with	the  -c  option  for  discovering
	      which routines were never called.

       a.out	       the namelist and text space.
       gmon.out        dynamic call graph and profile.
       gmon.sum        summarized dynamic call graph and profile.
       gmon.order      ordering based on closest is best algorithm.
       callf.order     ordering based on call frequency.
       callo.order     ordering based on call order.
       time.order      ordering based on time.

       monitor(3), profil(2), cc(1)
       dyld(1) and the DYLD_IMAGE_SUFFIX environment variable
       ``gprof:  A  Call  Graph  Execution  Profiler'', by Graham, S.L., Kessler, P.B., McKusick,
       M.K.; Proceedings of the SIGPLAN '82 Symposium on Compiler Construction, SIGPLAN  Notices,
       Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 120-126, June 1982.

       Beware of quantization errors.  The granularity of the sampling is shown, but remains sta-
       tistical at best.  We assume that the time  for	each  execution  of  a	function  can  be
       expressed  by  the total time for the function divided by the number of times the function
       is called.  Thus the time propagated along the call graph arcs to parents of that function
       is directly proportional to the number of times that arc is traversed.

       Parents	which  are  not themselves profiled will have the time of their profiled children
       propagated to them, but they will appear to be spontaneously invoked  in  the  call  graph
       listing,  and  will  not  have their time propagated further.  Similarly, signal catchers,
       even though profiled, will appear to be spontaneous (although for more  obscure	reasons).
       Any  profiled  children	of  signal  catchers should have their times propagated properly,
       unless the signal catcher was invoked during the execution of the  profiling  routine,  in
       which case all is lost.

       The profiled program must call exit(2) or return normally for the profiling information to
       be saved in the gmon.out file.

Apple Computer, Inc.			November 25, 2002				 GPROF(1)
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