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ED(1)				   BSD General Commands Manual				    ED(1)

NAME
     ed, red -- text editor

SYNOPSIS
     ed [-] [-sx] [-p string] [file]
     red [-] [-sx] [-p string] [file]

DESCRIPTION
     The ed utility is a line-oriented text editor.  It is used to create, display, modify and
     otherwise manipulate text files.  When invoked as red, the editor runs in "restricted" mode,
     in which the only difference is that the editor restricts the use of filenames which start
     with '!' (interpreted as shell commands by ed) or contain a '/'.  Note that editing outside
     of the current directory is only prohibited if the user does not have write access to the
     current directory.  If a user has write access to the current directory, then symbolic links
     can be created in the current directory, in which case red will not stop the user from edit-
     ing the file that the symbolic link points to.

     If invoked with a file argument, then a copy of file is read into the editor's buffer.
     Changes are made to this copy and not directly to file itself.  Upon quitting ed, any
     changes not explicitly saved with a w command are lost.

     Editing is done in two distinct modes: command and input.	When first invoked, ed is in com-
     mand mode.  In this mode commands are read from the standard input and executed to manipu-
     late the contents of the editor buffer.  A typical command might look like:

     ,s/old/new/g

     which replaces all occurrences of the string old with new.

     When an input command, such as a (append), i (insert) or c (change), is given, ed enters
     input mode.  This is the primary means of adding text to a file.  In this mode, no commands
     are available; instead, the standard input is written directly to the editor buffer.  Lines
     consist of text up to and including a newline character.  Input mode is terminated by enter-
     ing a single period (.) on a line.

     All ed commands operate on whole lines or ranges of lines; e.g., the d command deletes
     lines; the m command moves lines, and so on.  It is possible to modify only a portion of a
     line by means of replacement, as in the example above.  However even here, the s command is
     applied to whole lines at a time.

     In general, ed commands consist of zero or more line addresses, followed by a single charac-
     ter command and possibly additional parameters; i.e., commands have the structure:

     [address[,address]]command[parameters]

     The address(es) indicate the line or range of lines to be affected by the command.  If fewer
     addresses are given than the command accepts, then default addresses are supplied.

OPTIONS
     The following options are available:

     -s      Suppress diagnostics.  This should be used if ed's standard input is from a script.

     -x      Prompt for an encryption key to be used in subsequent reads and writes (see the x
	     command).

     -p string
	     Specify a command prompt.	This may be toggled on and off with the P command.

     file    Specify the name of a file to read.  If file is prefixed with a bang (!), then it is
	     interpreted as a shell command.  In this case, what is read is the standard output
	     of file executed via sh(1).  To read a file whose name begins with a bang, prefix
	     the name with a backslash (\).  The default filename is set to file only if it is
	     not prefixed with a bang.

LINE ADDRESSING
     An address represents the number of a line in the buffer.	The ed utility maintains a
     current address which is typically supplied to commands as the default address when none is
     specified.  When a file is first read, the current address is set to the last line of the
     file.  In general, the current address is set to the last line affected by a command.

     A line address is constructed from one of the bases in the list below, optionally followed
     by a numeric offset.  The offset may include any combination of digits, operators (i.e., +,
     - and ^) and whitespace.  Addresses are read from left to right, and their values are com-
     puted relative to the current address.

     One exception to the rule that addresses represent line numbers is the address 0 (zero).
     This means "before the first line," and is legal wherever it makes sense.

     An address range is two addresses separated either by a comma or semi-colon.  The value of
     the first address in a range cannot exceed the value of the second.  If only one address is
     given in a range, then the second address is set to the given address.  If an n-tuple of
     addresses is given where n > 2, then the corresponding range is determined by the last two
     addresses in the n-tuple.	If only one address is expected, then the last address is used.

     Each address in a comma-delimited range is interpreted relative to the current address.  In
     a semi-colon-delimited range, the first address is used to set the current address, and the
     second address is interpreted relative to the first.

     The following address symbols are recognized:

     .	     The current line (address) in the buffer.

     $	     The last line in the buffer.

     n	     The nth, line in the buffer where n is a number in the range [0,$].

     - or ^  The previous line.  This is equivalent to -1 and may be repeated with cumulative
	     effect.

     -n or ^n
	     The nth previous line, where n is a non-negative number.

     +	     The next line.  This is equivalent to +1 and may be repeated with cumulative effect.

     +n      The nth next line, where n is a non-negative number.

     , or %  The first through last lines in the buffer.  This is equivalent to the address range
	     1,$.

     ;	     The current through last lines in the buffer.  This is equivalent to the address
	     range .,$.

     /re/    The next line containing the regular expression re.  The search wraps to the begin-
	     ning of the buffer and continues down to the current line, if necessary.  // repeats
	     the last search.

     ?re?    The previous line containing the regular expression re.  The search wraps to the end
	     of the buffer and continues up to the current line, if necessary.	?? repeats the
	     last search.

     'lc     The line previously marked by a k (mark) command, where lc is a lower case letter.

REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
     Regular expressions are patterns used in selecting text.  For example, the command:

     g/string/

     prints all lines containing string.  Regular expressions are also used by the s command for
     selecting old text to be replaced with new.

     In addition to a specifying string literals, regular expressions can represent classes of
     strings.  Strings thus represented are said to be matched by the corresponding regular
     expression.  If it is possible for a regular expression to match several strings in a line,
     then the left-most longest match is the one selected.

     The following symbols are used in constructing regular expressions:

     c	     Any character c not listed below, including '{', '}', '(', ')', '<' and '>', matches
	     itself.

     \c      Any backslash-escaped character c, except for '{', '}', '(', ')', '<' and '>',
	     matches itself.

     .	     Match any single character.

     [char-class]
	     Match any single character in char-class.	To include a ']' in char-class, it must
	     be the first character.  A range of characters may be specified by separating the
	     end characters of the range with a '-', e.g., 'a-z' specifies the lower case charac-
	     ters.  The following literal expressions can also be used in char-class to specify
	     sets of characters:

	     [:alnum:]	  [:cntrl:]    [:lower:]    [:space:]
	     [:alpha:]	  [:digit:]    [:print:]    [:upper:]
	     [:blank:]	  [:graph:]    [:punct:]    [:xdigit:]

	     If '-' appears as the first or last character of char-class, then it matches itself.
	     All other characters in char-class match themselves.

	     Patterns in char-class of the form:

	       [.col-elm.] or,
	       [=col-elm=]

	     where col-elm is a collating element are interpreted according to locale(5) (not
	     currently supported).  See regex(3) for an explanation of these constructs.

     [^char-class]
	     Match any single character, other than newline, not in char-class.  Char-class is
	     defined as above.

     ^	     If ^ is the first character of a regular expression, then it anchors the regular
	     expression to the beginning of a line.  Otherwise, it matches itself.

     $	     If $ is the last character of a regular expression, it anchors the regular expres-
	     sion to the end of a line.  Otherwise, it matches itself.

     \<      Anchor the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately follow-
	     ing it to the beginning of a word.  (This may not be available)

     \>      Anchor the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately follow-
	     ing it to the end of a word.  (This may not be available)

     \(re\)  Define a subexpression re.  Subexpressions may be nested.	A subsequent backrefer-
	     ence of the form \n, where n is a number in the range [1,9], expands to the text
	     matched by the nth subexpression.	For example, the regular expression '\(.*\)\1'
	     matches any string consisting of identical adjacent substrings.  Subexpressions are
	     ordered relative to their left delimiter.

     *	     Match the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately preceding
	     it zero or more times.  If * is the first character of a regular expression or sub-
	     expression, then it matches itself.  The * operator sometimes yields unexpected
	     results.  For example, the regular expression 'b*' matches the beginning of the
	     string 'abbb' (as opposed to the substring 'bbb'), since a null match is the only
	     left-most match.

     \{n,m\} or \{n,\} or \{n\}
	     Match the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately preceding
	     it at least n and at most m times.  If m is omitted, then it matches at least n
	     times.  If the comma is also omitted, then it matches exactly n times.

     Additional regular expression operators may be defined depending on the particular regex(3)
     implementation.

COMMANDS
     All ed commands are single characters, though some require additional parameters.	If a com-
     mand's parameters extend over several lines, then each line except for the last must be ter-
     minated with a backslash (\).

     In general, at most one command is allowed per line.  However, most commands accept a print
     suffix, which is any of p (print), l (list), or n (enumerate), to print the last line
     affected by the command.

     An interrupt (typically ^C) has the effect of aborting the current command and returning the
     editor to command mode.

     The ed utility recognizes the following commands.	The commands are shown together with the
     default address or address range supplied if none is specified (in parenthesis).

     (.)a    Append text to the buffer after the addressed line.  Text is entered in input mode.
	     The current address is set to last line entered.

     (.,.)c  Change lines in the buffer.  The addressed lines are deleted from the buffer, and
	     text is appended in their place.  Text is entered in input mode.  The current
	     address is set to last line entered.

     (.,.)d  Delete the addressed lines from the buffer.  If there is a line after the deleted
	     range, then the current address is set to this line.  Otherwise the current address
	     is set to the line before the deleted range.

     e file  Edit file, and sets the default filename.	If file is not specified, then the
	     default filename is used.	Any lines in the buffer are deleted before the new file
	     is read.  The current address is set to the last line read.

     e !command
	     Edit the standard output of !command, (see !command below).  The default filename is
	     unchanged.  Any lines in the buffer are deleted before the output of command is
	     read.  The current address is set to the last line read.

     E file  Edit file unconditionally.  This is similar to the e command, except that unwritten
	     changes are discarded without warning.  The current address is set to the last line
	     read.

     f file  Set the default filename to file.	If file is not specified, then the default
	     unescaped filename is printed.

     (1,$)g/re/command-list
	     Apply command-list to each of the addressed lines matching a regular expression re.
	     The current address is set to the line currently matched before command-list is exe-
	     cuted.  At the end of the g command, the current address is set to the last line
	     affected by command-list.

	     Each command in command-list must be on a separate line, and every line except for
	     the last must be terminated by a backslash (\).  Any commands are allowed, except
	     for g, G, v, and V.  A newline alone in command-list is equivalent to a p command.

     (1,$)G/re/
	     Interactively edit the addressed lines matching a regular expression re.  For each
	     matching line, the line is printed, the current address is set, and the user is
	     prompted to enter a command-list.	At the end of the G command, the current address
	     is set to the last line affected by (the last) command-list.

	     The format of command-list is the same as that of the g command.  A newline alone
	     acts as a null command list.  A single '&' repeats the last non-null command list.

     H	     Toggle the printing of error explanations.  By default, explanations are not
	     printed.  It is recommended that ed scripts begin with this command to aid in debug-
	     ging.

     h	     Print an explanation of the last error.

     (.)i    Insert text in the buffer before the current line.  Text is entered in input mode.
	     The current address is set to the last line entered.

     (.,.+1)j
	     Join the addressed lines.	The addressed lines are deleted from the buffer and
	     replaced by a single line containing their joined text.  The current address is set
	     to the resultant line.

     (.)klc  Mark a line with a lower case letter lc.  The line can then be addressed as 'lc
	     (i.e., a single quote followed by lc) in subsequent commands.  The mark is not
	     cleared until the line is deleted or otherwise modified.

     (.,.)l  Print the addressed lines unambiguously.  If a single line fills for than one screen
	     (as might be the case when viewing a binary file, for instance), a ``--More--''
	     prompt is printed on the last line.  The ed utility waits until the RETURN key is
	     pressed before displaying the next screen.  The current address is set to the last
	     line printed.

     (.,.)m(.)
	     Move lines in the buffer.	The addressed lines are moved to after the right-hand
	     destination address, which may be the address 0 (zero).  The current address is set
	     to the last line moved.

     (.,.)n  Print the addressed lines along with their line numbers.  The current address is set
	     to the last line printed.

     (.,.)p  Print the addressed lines.  The current address is set to the last line printed.

     P	     Toggle the command prompt on and off.  Unless a prompt was specified by with com-
	     mand-line option -p string, the command prompt is by default turned off.

     q	     Quit ed.

     Q	     Quit ed unconditionally.  This is similar to the q command, except that unwritten
	     changes are discarded without warning.

     ($)r file
	     Read file to after the addressed line.  If file is not specified, then the default
	     filename is used.	If there was no default filename prior to the command, then the
	     default filename is set to file.  Otherwise, the default filename is unchanged.  The
	     current address is set to the last line read.

     ($)r !command
	     Read to after the addressed line the standard output of !command, (see the !command
	     below).  The default filename is unchanged.  The current address is set to the last
	     line read.

     (.,.)s/re/replacement/

     (.,.)s/re/replacement/g

     (.,.)s/re/replacement/n
	     Replace text in the addressed lines matching a regular expression re with
	     replacement.  By default, only the first match in each line is replaced.  If the g
	     (global) suffix is given, then every match to be replaced.  The n suffix, where n is
	     a positive number, causes only the nth match to be replaced.  It is an error if no
	     substitutions are performed on any of the addressed lines.  The current address is
	     set the last line affected.

	     Re and replacement may be delimited by any character other than space and newline
	     (see the s command below).  If one or two of the last delimiters is omitted, then
	     the last line affected is printed as though the print suffix p were specified.

	     An unescaped '&' in replacement is replaced by the currently matched text.  The
	     character sequence \m, where m is a number in the range [1,9], is replaced by the m
	     th backreference expression of the matched text.  If replacement consists of a sin-
	     gle '%', then replacement from the last substitution is used.  Newlines may be
	     embedded in replacement if they are escaped with a backslash (\).

     (.,.)s  Repeat the last substitution.  This form of the s command accepts a count suffix n,
	     or any combination of the characters r, g, and p.	If a count suffix n is given,
	     then only the nth match is replaced.  The r suffix causes the regular expression of
	     the last search to be used instead of the that of the last substitution.  The g suf-
	     fix toggles the global suffix of the last substitution.  The p suffix toggles the
	     print suffix of the last substitution The current address is set to the last line
	     affected.

     (.,.)t(.)
	     Copy (i.e., transfer) the addressed lines to after the right-hand destination
	     address, which may be the address 0 (zero).  The current address is set to the last
	     line copied.

     u	     Undo the last command and restores the current address to what it was before the
	     command.  The global commands g, G, v, and V.  are treated as a single command by
	     undo.  u is its own inverse.

     (1,$)v/re/command-list
	     Apply command-list to each of the addressed lines not matching a regular expression
	     re.  This is similar to the g command.

     (1,$)V/re/
	     Interactively edit the addressed lines not matching a regular expression re.  This
	     is similar to the G command.

     (1,$)w file
	     Write the addressed lines to file.  Any previous contents of file is lost without
	     warning.  If there is no default filename, then the default filename is set to file,
	     otherwise it is unchanged.  If no filename is specified, then the default filename
	     is used.  The current address is unchanged.

     (1,$)wq file
	     Write the addressed lines to file, and then executes a q command.

     (1,$)w !command
	     Write the addressed lines to the standard input of !command, (see the !command
	     below).  The default filename and current address are unchanged.

     (1,$)W file
	     Append the addressed lines to the end of file.  This is similar to the w command,
	     expect that the previous contents of file is not clobbered.  The current address is
	     unchanged.

     x	     Prompt for an encryption key which is used in subsequent reads and writes.  If a
	     newline alone is entered as the key, then encryption is turned off.  Otherwise,
	     echoing is disabled while a key is read.  Encryption/decryption is done using the
	     bdes(1) algorithm.

     (.+1)zn
	     Scroll n lines at a time starting at addressed line.  If n is not specified, then
	     the current window size is used.  The current address is set to the last line
	     printed.

     !command
	     Execute command via sh(1).  If the first character of command is '!', then it is
	     replaced by text of the previous !command.  The ed utility does not process command
	     for backslash (\) escapes.  However, an unescaped % is replaced by the default file-
	     name.  When the shell returns from execution, a '!' is printed to the standard out-
	     put.  The current line is unchanged.

     ($)=    Print the line number of the addressed line.

     (.+1)newline
	     Print the addressed line, and sets the current address to that line.

FILES
     /tmp/ed.*	buffer file
     ed.hup	the file to which ed attempts to write the buffer if the terminal hangs up

SEE ALSO
     bdes(1), sed(1), sh(1), vi(1), regex(3)

     USD:12-13

     B. W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger, Software Tools in Pascal, 1981, Addison-Wesley.

LIMITATIONS
     The ed utility processes file arguments for backslash escapes, i.e., in a filename, any
     characters preceded by a backslash (\) are interpreted literally.

     If a text (non-binary) file is not terminated by a newline character, then ed appends one on
     reading/writing it.  In the case of a binary file, ed does not append a newline on read-
     ing/writing.

     per line overhead: 4 ints

DIAGNOSTICS
     When an error occurs, ed prints a '?' and either returns to command mode or exits if its
     input is from a script.  An explanation of the last error can be printed with the h (help)
     command.

     Since the g (global) command masks any errors from failed searches and substitutions, it can
     be used to perform conditional operations in scripts; e.g.,

     g/old/s//new/

     replaces any occurrences of old with new.	If the u (undo) command occurs in a global com-
     mand list, then the command list is executed only once.

     If diagnostics are not disabled, attempting to quit ed or edit another file before writing a
     modified buffer results in an error.  If the command is entered a second time, it succeeds,
     but any changes to the buffer are lost.

HISTORY
     An ed command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

BSD					   May 21, 1993 				      BSD
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