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CSCOPE(1)										CSCOPE(1)

NAME
       cscope - interactively examine a C program

SYNOPSIS
       cscope  [  -bCcdehkLlqRTUuV  ] [-Fsymfile] [-freffile] [-Iincdir] [-inamefile] [-numpattern] [-pn]
       [-sdir]

DESCRIPTION
       cscope is an interactive, screen-oriented tool that allows the user to  browse  through	C  source
       files for specified elements of code.

       By default, cscope examines the C (.c and .h), lex (.l), and yacc (.y) source files in the current
       directory.  cscope may also be invoked for source files named on the command line. In either case,
       cscope  searches  the standard directories for #include files that it does not find in the current
       directory.  cscope uses a symbol cross-reference, cscope.out  by  default,  to  locate  functions,
       function calls, macros, variables, and preprocessor symbols in the files.

       cscope  builds  the  symbol  cross-reference the first time it is used on the source files for the
       program being browsed. On a subsequent invocation, cscope rebuilds the cross-reference only  if	a
       source  file  has  changed  or  the list of source files is different. When the cross-reference is
       rebuilt, the data for the unchanged files are copied from the  old  cross-reference,  which  makes
       rebuilding faster than the initial build.

OPTIONS
       The following options can appear in any combination:

       -b     Build the cross-reference only.

       -C     Ignore letter case when searching.

       -c     Use only ASCII characters in the cross-reference file, that is, do not compress the data.

       -d     Do not update the cross-reference.

       -e     Suppress the <Ctrl>-e command prompt between files.

       -F symfile
	      Read  symbol reference lines from symfile. (A symbol reference file is created by > and >>,
	      and can also be read using the < command, described under ``Issuing Subsequent  Requests,''
	      below.)

       -f reffile
	      Use reffile as the cross-reference file name instead of the default cscope.out.

       -h     View the long usage help display.

       -I incdir
	      Look  in	incdir	(before  looking in INCDIR, the standard place for header files, normally
	      /usr/include) for any #include files whose names do not begin with ``/'' and that  are  not
	      specified  on  the  command line or in namefile below. (The #include files may be specified
	      with either double quotes or angle brackets.)  The incdir directory is searched in addition
	      to the current directory (which is searched first) and the standard list (which is searched
	      last). If more than one occurrence of -I appears, the directories are searched in the order
	      they appear on the command line.

       -i namefile
	      Browse through all source files whose names are listed in namefile (file names separated by
	      spaces, tabs, or new-lines) instead of the default (cscope.files). If this option is speci-
	      fied,  cscope ignores any files appearing on the command line. The argument namefile can be
	      set to ``-'' to accept a list of files from stdio.

       -k     ``Kernel Mode'', turns off the use of the default include dir (usually  /usr/include)  when
	      building the database, since kernel source trees generally do not use it.

       -L     Do a single search with line-oriented output when used with the -num pattern option.

       -l     Line-oriented interface (see ``Line-Oriented Interface'' below).

       -num pattern
	      Go to input field num (counting from 0) and find pattern.

       -P path
	      Prepend  path to relative file names in a pre-built cross-reference file so you do not have
	      to change to the directory where the cross-reference file was built. This  option  is  only
	      valid with the -d option.

       -p n   Display  the  last  n file path components instead of the default (1). Use 0 to not display
	      the file name at all.

       -q     Enable fast symbol lookup via an inverted index. This option causes cscope to create 2 more
	      files  (default  names  ``cscope.in.out''  and ``cscope.po.out'') in addition to the normal
	      database. This allows a faster symbol search  algorithm  that  provides  noticeably  faster
	      lookup performance for large projects.

       -R     Recurse subdirectories for source files.

       -s dir Look  in	dir for additional source files. This option is ignored if source files are given
	      on the command line.

       -T     Use only the first eight characters to match against C symbols.  A regular expression  con-
	      taining special characters other than a period (.) will not match any symbol if its minimum
	      length is greater than eight characters.

       -U     Check file time stamps. This option will update the time stamp on the database even  if  no
	      files have changed.

       -u     Unconditionally build the cross-reference file (assume that all files have changed).

       -V     Print on the first line of screen the version number of cscope.

       The -I, -c, -k, -p, -q, and -T options can also be in the cscope.files file.

       Requesting the initial search

       After the cross-reference is ready, cscope will display this menu:

       Find this C symbol:
       Find this function definition:
       Find functions called by this function:
       Find functions calling this function:
       Find this text string:
       Change this text string:
       Find this egrep pattern:
       Find this file:
       Find files #including this file:

       Press  the  <Up>  or  <Down>  keys repeatedly to move to the desired input field, type the text to
       search for, and then press the <Return> key.

Issuing subsequent requests
       If the search is successful, any of these single-character commands can be used:

       0-9a-zA-Z
	      Edit the file referenced by the given line number.

       <Space>
	      Display next set of matching lines.

       <Tab>  Alternate between the menu and the list of matching lines

       <Up>   Move to the previous menu item (if the cursor is in the  menu)  or  move	to  the  previous
	      matching line (if the cursor is in the matching line list.)

       <Down> Move to the next menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or move to the next matching line
	      (if the cursor is in the matching line list.)

       +      Display next set of matching lines.

       -      Display previous set of matching lines.

       ^e     Edit displayed files in order.

       >      Write the displayed list of lines to a file.

       >>     Append the displayed list of lines to a file.

       <      Read lines from a file that is in symbol reference format (created by > or >>),  just  like
	      the -F option.

       ^      Filter  all  lines  through  a shell command and display the resulting lines, replacing the
	      lines that were already there.

       |      Pipe all lines to a shell command and display them without changing them.

       At any time these single-character commands can also be used:

       <Return>
	      Move to next input field.

       ^n     Move to next input field.

       ^p     Move to previous input field.

       ^y     Search with the last text typed.

       ^b     Move to previous input field and search pattern.

       ^f     Move to next input field and search pattern.

       ^c     Toggle ignore/use letter case when  searching.  (When  ignoring  letter  case,  search  for
	      ``FILE'' will match ``File'' and ``file''.)

       ^r     Rebuild the cross-reference.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       ^d     Exit cscope.

       NOTE:  If  the  first  character of the text to be searched for matches one of the above commands,
       escape it by typing a (backslash) first.

       Substituting new text for old text

       After the text to be changed has been typed, cscope will prompt for the new text, and then it will
       display	the lines containing the old text. Select the lines to be changed with these single-char-
       acter commands:

       0-9a-zA-Z
	      Mark or unmark the line to be changed.

       *      Mark or unmark all displayed lines to be changed.

       <Space>
	      Display next set of lines.

       +      Display next set of lines.

       -      Display previous set of lines.

       a      Mark or unmark all lines to be changed.

       ^d     Change the marked lines and exit.

       <Esc>  Exit without changing the marked lines.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       Special keys

       If your terminal has arrow keys that work in vi, you can use them to move around the input fields.
       The  up-arrow  key  is  useful  to move to the previous input field instead of using the <Tab> key
       repeatedly. If you have <CLEAR>, <NEXT>, or <PREV> keys they will act as the ^l,  +,  and  -  com-
       mands, respectively.

       Line-Oriented interface

       The -l option lets you use cscope where a screen-oriented interface would not be useful, for exam-
       ple, from another screen-oriented program.

       cscope will prompt with >> when it is ready for an input  line  starting  with  the  field  number
       (counting  from	0)  immediately  followed by the search pattern, for example, ``lmain'' finds the
       definition of the main function.

       If you just want a single search, instead of the -l option use the -L and  -num	pattern  options,
       and you won't get the >> prompt.

       For -l, cscope outputs the number of reference lines cscope: 2 lines

       For  each  reference found, cscope outputs a line consisting of the file name, function name, line
       number, and line text, separated by spaces, for example, main.c main 161 main(argc, argv)

       Note that the editor is not called to display  a  single  reference,  unlike  the  screen-oriented
       interface.

       You  can  use the c command to toggle ignore/use letter case when searching. (When ignoring letter
       case, search for ``FILE'' will match ``File'' and ``file''.)

       You can use the r command to rebuild the database.

       cscope will quit when it detects end-of-file, or when the first character  of  an  input  line  is
       ``^d'' or ``q''.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       CSCOPE_EDITOR
	      Overrides  the  EDITOR and VIEWER variables. Use this if you wish to use a different editor
	      with cscope than that specified by your EDITOR/VIEWER variables.

       CSCOPE_LINEFLAG
	      Format of the line number flag for your editor. By default, cscope invokes your editor  via
	      the equivalent of ``editor +N file'', where ``N'' is the line number that the editor should
	      jump to. This format is used by both emacs and vi. If your editor needs  something  differ-
	      ent, specify it in this variable, with ``%s'' as a placeholder for the line number.  Ex: if
	      your editor needs to be invoked as ``editor -#103 file'' to go to line 103, set this  vari-
	      able to ``-#%s''.

       CSCOPE_LINEFLAG_AFTER_FILE
	      Set this variable to ``yes'' if your editor needs to be invoked with the line number option
	      after the filename to be edited. To continue the example from  CSCOPE_LINEFLAG,  above:  if
	      your  editor needs to see ``editor file -#number'', set this environment variable. Users of
	      most standard editors (vi, emacs) do not need to set this variable.

       EDITOR Preferred editor, which defaults to vi.

       HOME   Home directory, which is automatically set at login.

       INCLUDEDIRS
	      Colon-separated list of directories to search for #include files.

       SHELL  Preferred shell, which defaults to sh.

       SOURCEDIRS
	      Colon-separated list of directories to search for additional source files.

       TERM   Terminal type, which must be a screen terminal.

       TERMINFO
	      Terminal information directory full path name. If your terminal is not in the standard ter-
	      minfo directory, see curses and terminfo for how to make your own terminal description.

       TMPDIR Temporary file directory, which defaults to /var/tmp.

       VIEWER Preferred file display program (such as less), which overrides EDITOR (see above).

       VPATH  A colon-separated list of directories, each of which has the same directory structure below
	      it. If VPATH is set, cscope searches for source files in the directories specified;  if  it
	      is not set, cscope searches only in the current directory.

FILES
       cscope.files
	      Default  files containing -I, -p, -q, and -T options and the list of source files (overrid-
	      den by the -i option).

       cscope.out
	      Symbol cross-reference file (overridden by the -f option), which is put in the home  direc-
	      tory if it cannot be created in the current directory.

       cscope.in.out
       cscope.po.out
	      Default files containing the inverted index used for quick symbol searching (-q option). If
	      you use the -f option to rename the cross-reference file	(so  it's  not	cscope.out),  the
	      names for these inverted index files will be created by adding
	       .in  and  .po  to  the name you supply with -f. For example, if you indicated -f xyz, then
	      these files would be named xyz.in and xyz.po.

       INCDIR Standard directory for #include files (usually /usr/include).

Notices
       cscope recognizes function definitions of the form:
       fname blank ( args ) white arg_decs white {

       where: fname is the function name

       blank  is zero or more spaces or tabs, not including newlines

       args   is any string that does not contain a ``"'' or a newline

       white  is zero or more spaces, tabs, or newlines

       arg_decs
	      are zero or more argument declarations (arg_decs may include comments and white space)

       It is not necessary for a function declaration to start at the beginning of  a  line.  The  return
       type  may precede the function name; cscope will still recognize the declaration. Function defini-
       tions that deviate from this form will not be recognized by cscope.

       The ``Function'' column of the search output for the menu option Find  functions  called  by  this
       function:  input  field will only display the first function called in the line, that is, for this
       function

	e()
	{
		return (f() + g());
	}

       the display would be

	  Functions called by this function: e
	  File Function Line
	  a.c f 3 return(f() + g());

       Occasionally, a function definition or call may not be recognized because  of  braces  inside  #if
       statements. Similarly, the use of a variable may be incorrectly recognized as a definition.

       A typedef name preceding a preprocessor statement will be incorrectly recognized as a global defi-
       nition, for example,

	LDFILE	*
	#if AR16WR

       Preprocessor statements can also prevent the recognition of a global definition, for example,

	char flag
	#ifdef ALLOCATE_STORAGE
	     = -1
	#endif
	;

       A function declaration inside a function is incorrectly recognized as a function call,  for  exam-
       ple,

	f()
	{
		void g();
	}

       is incorrectly recognized as a call to g.

       cscope  recognizes  C++	classes  by  looking  for the class keyword, but doesn't recognize that a
       struct is also a class, so it doesn't recognize inline member function definitions in a structure.
       It  also doesn't expect the class keyword in a typedef , so it incorrectly recognizes X as a defi-
       nition in

	typedef class X  *  Y;

       It also doesn't recognize operator function definitions

	Bool Feature::operator==(const Feature & other)
	{
	  ...
	}

       Nor does it recognize function definitions with a function pointer argument

	ParseTable::Recognize(int startState, char *pattern,
	  int finishState, void (*FinalAction)(char *))
	{
	  ...
	}

The Santa Cruz Operation		  November 2000 				CSCOPE(1)
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