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CIPHERS(1)				     OpenSSL				       CIPHERS(1)

NAME
       ciphers - SSL cipher display and cipher list tool.

SYNOPSIS
       openssl ciphers [-v] [-ssl2] [-ssl3] [-tls1] [cipherlist]

DESCRIPTION
       The cipherlist command converts OpenSSL cipher lists into ordered SSL cipher preference
       lists. It can be used as a test tool to determine the appropriate cipherlist.

COMMAND OPTIONS
       -v  verbose option. List ciphers with a complete description of protocol version (SSLv2 or
	   SSLv3; the latter includes TLS), key exchange, authentication, encryption and mac
	   algorithms used along with any key size restrictions and whether the algorithm is
	   classed as an "export" cipher.  Note that without the -v option, ciphers may seem to
	   appear twice in a cipher list; this is when similar ciphers are available for SSL v2
	   and for SSL v3/TLS v1.

       -ssl3
	   only include SSL v3 ciphers.

       -ssl2
	   only include SSL v2 ciphers.

       -tls1
	   only include TLS v1 ciphers.

       -h, -?
	   print a brief usage message.

       cipherlist
	   a cipher list to convert to a cipher preference list. If it is not included then the
	   default cipher list will be used. The format is described below.

CIPHER LIST FORMAT
       The cipher list consists of one or more cipher strings separated by colons.  Commas or
       spaces are also acceptable separators but colons are normally used.

       The actual cipher string can take several different forms.

       It can consist of a single cipher suite such as RC4-SHA.

       It can represent a list of cipher suites containing a certain algorithm, or cipher suites
       of a certain type. For example SHA1 represents all ciphers suites using the digest algo-
       rithm SHA1 and SSLv3 represents all SSL v3 algorithms.

       Lists of cipher suites can be combined in a single cipher string using the + character.
       This is used as a logical and operation. For example SHA1+DES represents all cipher suites
       containing the SHA1 and the DES algorithms.

       Each cipher string can be optionally preceded by the characters !, - or +.

       If ! is used then the ciphers are permanently deleted from the list.  The ciphers deleted
       can never reappear in the list even if they are explicitly stated.

       If - is used then the ciphers are deleted from the list, but some or all of the ciphers
       can be added again by later options.

       If + is used then the ciphers are moved to the end of the list. This option doesn't add
       any new ciphers it just moves matching existing ones.

       If none of these characters is present then the string is just interpreted as a list of
       ciphers to be appended to the current preference list. If the list includes any ciphers
       already present they will be ignored: that is they will not moved to the end of the list.

       Additionally the cipher string @STRENGTH can be used at any point to sort the current
       cipher list in order of encryption algorithm key length.

CIPHER STRINGS
       The following is a list of all permitted cipher strings and their meanings.

       DEFAULT
	   the default cipher list. This is determined at compile time and is normally
	   ALL:!ADH:RC4+RSA:+SSLv2:@STRENGTH. This must be the first cipher string specified.

       COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT
	   the ciphers included in ALL, but not enabled by default. Currently this is ADH. Note
	   that this rule does not cover eNULL, which is not included by ALL (use COMPLEMENTOFALL
	   if necessary).

       ALL all ciphers suites except the eNULL ciphers which must be explicitly enabled.

       COMPLEMENTOFALL
	   the cipher suites not enabled by ALL, currently being eNULL.

       HIGH
	   "high" encryption cipher suites. This currently means those with key lengths larger
	   than 128 bits.

       MEDIUM
	   "medium" encryption cipher suites, currently those using 128 bit encryption.

       LOW "low" encryption cipher suites, currently those using 64 or 56 bit encryption algo-
	   rithms but excluding export cipher suites.

       EXP, EXPORT
	   export encryption algorithms. Including 40 and 56 bits algorithms.

       EXPORT40
	   40 bit export encryption algorithms

       EXPORT56
	   56 bit export encryption algorithms.

       eNULL, NULL
	   the "NULL" ciphers that is those offering no encryption. Because these offer no
	   encryption at all and are a security risk they are disabled unless explicitly
	   included.

       aNULL
	   the cipher suites offering no authentication. This is currently the anonymous DH algo-
	   rithms. These cipher suites are vulnerable to a "man in the middle" attack and so
	   their use is normally discouraged.

       kRSA, RSA
	   cipher suites using RSA key exchange.

       kEDH
	   cipher suites using ephemeral DH key agreement.

       kDHr, kDHd
	   cipher suites using DH key agreement and DH certificates signed by CAs with RSA and
	   DSS keys respectively. Not implemented.

       aRSA
	   cipher suites using RSA authentication, i.e. the certificates carry RSA keys.

       aDSS, DSS
	   cipher suites using DSS authentication, i.e. the certificates carry DSS keys.

       aDH cipher suites effectively using DH authentication, i.e. the certificates carry DH
	   keys.  Not implemented.

       kFZA, aFZA, eFZA, FZA
	   ciphers suites using FORTEZZA key exchange, authentication, encryption or all FORTEZZA
	   algorithms. Not implemented.

       TLSv1, SSLv3, SSLv2
	   TLS v1.0, SSL v3.0 or SSL v2.0 cipher suites respectively.

       DH  cipher suites using DH, including anonymous DH.

       ADH anonymous DH cipher suites.

       AES cipher suites using AES.

       3DES
	   cipher suites using triple DES.

       DES cipher suites using DES (not triple DES).

       RC4 cipher suites using RC4.

       RC2 cipher suites using RC2.

       IDEA
	   cipher suites using IDEA.

       MD5 cipher suites using MD5.

       SHA1, SHA
	   cipher suites using SHA1.

CIPHER SUITE NAMES
       The following lists give the SSL or TLS cipher suites names from the relevant specifica-
       tion and their OpenSSL equivalents. It should be noted, that several cipher suite names do
       not include the authentication used, e.g. DES-CBC3-SHA. In these cases, RSA authentication
       is used.

       SSL v3.0 cipher suites.

	SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5			NULL-MD5
	SSL_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA			NULL-SHA
	SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5		EXP-RC4-MD5
	SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5		RC4-MD5
	SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA		RC4-SHA
	SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC2_CBC_40_MD5	EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5
	SSL_RSA_WITH_IDEA_CBC_SHA		IDEA-CBC-SHA
	SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA	EXP-DES-CBC-SHA
	SSL_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA		DES-CBC-SHA
	SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA		DES-CBC3-SHA

	SSL_DH_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA	Not implemented.
	SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA		Not implemented.
	SSL_DH_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA	Not implemented.
	SSL_DH_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA	Not implemented.
	SSL_DH_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA		Not implemented.
	SSL_DH_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA	Not implemented.
	SSL_DHE_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA	EXP-EDH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA
	SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA		EDH-DSS-CBC-SHA
	SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA	EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA
	SSL_DHE_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA	EXP-EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA
	SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA		EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA
	SSL_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA	EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA

	SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5	EXP-ADH-RC4-MD5
	SSL_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5		ADH-RC4-MD5
	SSL_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA	EXP-ADH-DES-CBC-SHA
	SSL_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA		ADH-DES-CBC-SHA
	SSL_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA	ADH-DES-CBC3-SHA

	SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_NULL_SHA		Not implemented.
	SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_FORTEZZA_CBC_SHA	Not implemented.
	SSL_FORTEZZA_KEA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA	Not implemented.

       TLS v1.0 cipher suites.

	TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_MD5			NULL-MD5
	TLS_RSA_WITH_NULL_SHA			NULL-SHA
	TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5		EXP-RC4-MD5
	TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5		RC4-MD5
	TLS_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA		RC4-SHA
	TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC2_CBC_40_MD5	EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5
	TLS_RSA_WITH_IDEA_CBC_SHA		IDEA-CBC-SHA
	TLS_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA	EXP-DES-CBC-SHA
	TLS_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA		DES-CBC-SHA
	TLS_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA		DES-CBC3-SHA

	TLS_DH_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA	Not implemented.
	TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA		Not implemented.
	TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA	Not implemented.
	TLS_DH_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA	Not implemented.
	TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA		Not implemented.
	TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA	Not implemented.
	TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA	EXP-EDH-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA
	TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA		EDH-DSS-CBC-SHA
	TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA	EDH-DSS-DES-CBC3-SHA
	TLS_DHE_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA	EXP-EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA
	TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA		EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA
	TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA	EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA

	TLS_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5	EXP-ADH-RC4-MD5
	TLS_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5		ADH-RC4-MD5
	TLS_DH_anon_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA	EXP-ADH-DES-CBC-SHA
	TLS_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA		ADH-DES-CBC-SHA
	TLS_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA	ADH-DES-CBC3-SHA

       AES ciphersuites from RFC3268, extending TLS v1.0

	TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA		AES128-SHA
	TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA		AES256-SHA

	TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA 	DH-DSS-AES128-SHA
	TLS_DH_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA 	DH-DSS-AES256-SHA
	TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA 	DH-RSA-AES128-SHA
	TLS_DH_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA 	DH-RSA-AES256-SHA

	TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA	DHE-DSS-AES128-SHA
	TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA	DHE-DSS-AES256-SHA
	TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA	DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA
	TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA	DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA

	TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA	ADH-AES128-SHA
	TLS_DH_anon_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA	ADH-AES256-SHA

       Additional Export 1024 and other cipher suites

       Note: these ciphers can also be used in SSL v3.

	TLS_RSA_EXPORT1024_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA	EXP1024-DES-CBC-SHA
	TLS_RSA_EXPORT1024_WITH_RC4_56_SHA	EXP1024-RC4-SHA
	TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT1024_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA EXP1024-DHE-DSS-DES-CBC-SHA
	TLS_DHE_DSS_EXPORT1024_WITH_RC4_56_SHA	EXP1024-DHE-DSS-RC4-SHA
	TLS_DHE_DSS_WITH_RC4_128_SHA		DHE-DSS-RC4-SHA

       SSL v2.0 cipher suites.

	SSL_CK_RC4_128_WITH_MD5 		RC4-MD5
	SSL_CK_RC4_128_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5	EXP-RC4-MD5
	SSL_CK_RC2_128_CBC_WITH_MD5		RC2-MD5
	SSL_CK_RC2_128_CBC_EXPORT40_WITH_MD5	EXP-RC2-MD5
	SSL_CK_IDEA_128_CBC_WITH_MD5		IDEA-CBC-MD5
	SSL_CK_DES_64_CBC_WITH_MD5		DES-CBC-MD5
	SSL_CK_DES_192_EDE3_CBC_WITH_MD5	DES-CBC3-MD5

NOTES
       The non-ephemeral DH modes are currently unimplemented in OpenSSL because there is no sup-
       port for DH certificates.

       Some compiled versions of OpenSSL may not include all the ciphers listed here because some
       ciphers were excluded at compile time.

EXAMPLES
       Verbose listing of all OpenSSL ciphers including NULL ciphers:

	openssl ciphers -v 'ALL:eNULL'

       Include all ciphers except NULL and anonymous DH then sort by strength:

	openssl ciphers -v 'ALL:!ADH:@STRENGTH'

       Include only 3DES ciphers and then place RSA ciphers last:

	openssl ciphers -v '3DES:+RSA'

       Include all RC4 ciphers but leave out those without authentication:

	openssl ciphers -v 'RC4:!COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT'

       Include all chiphers with RSA authentication but leave out ciphers without encryption.

	openssl ciphers -v 'RSA:!COMPLEMENTOFALL'

SEE ALSO
       s_client(1), s_server(1), ssl(3)

HISTORY
       The COMPLENTOFALL and COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT selection options were added in version 0.9.7.

0.9.7d					    2003-11-20				       CIPHERS(1)
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