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AR(1)				   BSD General Commands Manual				    AR(1)

NAME
     ar -- create and maintain library archives

SYNOPSIS
     ar -d [-TLsv] archive file ...
     ar -m [-TLsv] archive file ...
     ar -m [-abiTLsv] position archive file ...
     ar -p [-TLsv] archive [file ...]
     ar -q [-cTLsv] archive file ...
     ar -r [-cuTLsv] archive file ...
     ar -r [-abciuTLsv] position archive file ...
     ar -t [-TLsv] archive [file ...]
     ar -x [-ouTLsv] archive [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
     The ar utility creates and maintains groups of files combined into an archive.  Once an ar-
     chive has been created, new files can be added and existing files can be extracted, deleted,
     or replaced.

     Files are named in the archive by a single component, i.e., if a file referenced by a path
     containing a slash (``/'') is archived it will be named by the last component of that path.
     When matching paths listed on the command line against file names stored in the archive,
     only the last component of the path will be compared.

     All informational and error messages use the path listed on the command line, if any was
     specified, otherwise the name in the archive is used.  If multiple files in the archive have
     the same name, and paths are listed on the command line to ``select'' archive files for an
     operation, only the first file with a matching name will be selected.

     The normal use of ar is for the creation and maintenance of libraries suitable for use with
     the loader (see ld(1)) although it is not restricted to this purpose.  The options are as
     follows:

     -a      A positioning modifier used with the options -r and -m.  The files are entered or
	     moved after the archive member position, which must be specified.

     -b      A positioning modifier used with the options -r and -m.  The files are entered or
	     moved before the archive member position, which must be specified.

     -c      Whenever an archive is created, an informational message to that effect is written
	     to standard error.  If the -c option is specified, ar creates the archive silently.

     -d      Delete the specified archive files.

     -i      Identical to the -b option.

     -m      Move the specified archive files within the archive.  If one of the options -a, -b
	     or -i are specified, the files are moved before or after the position file in the
	     archive.  If none of those options are specified, the files are moved to the end of
	     the archive.

     -o      Set the access and modification times of extracted files to the modification time of
	     the file when it was entered into the archive.  This will fail if the user is not
	     the owner of the extracted file or the super-user.

     -p      Write the contents of the specified archive files to the standard output.	If no
	     files are specified, the contents of all the files in the archive are written in the
	     order they appear in the archive.

     -q      (Quickly) append the specified files to the archive.  If the archive does not exist
	     a new archive file is created.  Much faster than the -r option, when creating a
	     large archive piece-by-piece, as no checking is done to see if the files already
	     exist in the archive.

     -r      Replace or add the specified files to the archive.  If the archive does not exist a
	     new archive file is created.  Files that replace existing files do not change the
	     order of the files within the archive.  New files are appended to the archive unless
	     one of the options -a, -b or -i is specified.

     -T      Select and/or name archive members using only the first fifteen characters of the
	     archive member or command line file name.	The historic archive format had sixteen
	     bytes for the name, but some historic archiver and loader implementations were
	     unable to handle names that used the entire space.  This means that file names that
	     are not unique in their first fifteen characters can subsequently be confused.  A
	     warning message is printed to the standard error output if any file names are trun-
	     cated.  (See ar(5) for more information.)

     -L      Used the extended format to allow long archive member names.  This is the default.

     -s      Write an object-file index into the archive, or update an existing one, even if no
	     other change is made to the archive.  You may use this modifier flag either with any
	     operation, or alone.  Running `ar s' on an archive is equivalent to running `ranlib'
	     on it.

     -t      List the specified files in the order in which they appear in the archive, each on a
	     separate line.  If no files are specified, all files in the archive are listed.

     -u      Update files.  When used with the -r option, files in the archive will be replaced
	     only if the disk file has a newer modification time than the file in the archive.
	     When used with the -x option, files in the archive will be extracted only if the ar-
	     chive file has a newer modification time than the file on disk.

     -v      Provide verbose output.  When used with the -d, -m, -q or -x options, ar gives a
	     file-by-file description of the archive modification.  This description consists of
	     three, white-space separated fields: the option letter, a dash (``-'') and the file
	     name.  When used with the -r option, ar displays the description as above, but the
	     initial letter is an ``a'' if the file is added to the archive and an ``r'' if the
	     file replaces a file already in the archive.

	     When used with the -p option, the name of each printed file is written to the stan-
	     dard output before the contents of the file, preceded by a single newline character,
	     and followed by two newline characters, enclosed in less-than (``<'') and greater-
	     than (``>'') characters.

	     When used with the -t option, ar displays an ``ls -l'' style listing of information
	     about the members of the archive.	This listing consists of eight, white-space sepa-
	     rated fields: the file permissions (see strmode(3) ), the decimal user and group
	     ID's, separated by a single slash (``/''), the file size (in bytes), the file modi-
	     fication time (in the date(1) format ``%b %e %H:%M %Y''), and the name of the file.

     -x      Extract the specified archive members into the files named by the command line argu-
	     ments.  If no members are specified, all the members of the archive are extracted
	     into the current directory.

	     If the file does not exist, it is created; if it does exist, the owner and group
	     will be unchanged.  The file access and modification times are the time of the
	     extraction (but see the -o option).  The file permissions will be set to those of
	     the file when it was entered into the archive; this will fail if the user is not the
	     owner of the extracted file or the super-user.

     The ar utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

ENVIRONMENT
     TMPDIR  The pathname of the directory to use when creating temporary files.

FILES
     /tmp    default temporary file directory
     ar.XXXXXX
	     temporary file names

COMPATIBILITY
     By default, ar writes archives that may be incompatible with historic archives, as the for-
     mat used for storing archive members with names longer than fifteen characters has changed.
     This implementation of ar is backward compatible with previous versions of ar in that it can
     read and write (using the -T option) historic archives.  The -T option is provided for com-
     patibility only, and will be deleted in a future release.	See ar(5) for more information.

STANDARDS
     The ar utility is expected to offer a superset of the IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'') func-
     tionality.

SEE ALSO
     ld(1), ranlib(1), strmode(3), ar(5)

Darwin					November 28, 2001				   Darwin
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