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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for dnssec-keygen (netbsd section 8)


       dnssec-keygen - DNSSEC key generation tool

       dnssec-keygen [-a algorithm] [-b keysize] [-n nametype] [-3] [-A date/offset] [-C]
		     [-c class] [-D date/offset] [-E engine] [-f flag] [-G] [-g generator] [-h]
		     [-I date/offset] [-i interval] [-K directory] [-L ttl] [-k] [-P date/offset]
		     [-p protocol] [-q] [-R date/offset] [-r randomdev] [-S key] [-s strength]
		     [-t type] [-v level] [-z] {name}

       dnssec-keygen generates keys for DNSSEC (Secure DNS), as defined in RFC 2535 and RFC 4034.
       It can also generate keys for use with TSIG (Transaction Signatures) as defined in RFC
       2845, or TKEY (Transaction Key) as defined in RFC 2930.

       The name of the key is specified on the command line. For DNSSEC keys, this must match the
       name of the zone for which the key is being generated.

       -a algorithm
	   Selects the cryptographic algorithm. For DNSSEC keys, the value of algorithm must be
	   ECDSAP256SHA256 or ECDSAP384SHA384. For TSIG/TKEY, the value must be DH (Diffie
	   Hellman), HMAC-MD5, HMAC-SHA1, HMAC-SHA224, HMAC-SHA256, HMAC-SHA384, or HMAC-SHA512.
	   These values are case insensitive.

	   If no algorithm is specified, then RSASHA1 will be used by default, unless the -3
	   option is specified, in which case NSEC3RSASHA1 will be used instead. (If -3 is used
	   and an algorithm is specified, that algorithm will be checked for compatibility with

	   Note 1: that for DNSSEC, RSASHA1 is a mandatory to implement algorithm, and DSA is
	   recommended. For TSIG, HMAC-MD5 is mandatory.

	   Note 2: DH, HMAC-MD5, and HMAC-SHA1 through HMAC-SHA512 automatically set the -T KEY

       -b keysize
	   Specifies the number of bits in the key. The choice of key size depends on the
	   algorithm used. RSA keys must be between 512 and 2048 bits. Diffie Hellman keys must
	   be between 128 and 4096 bits. DSA keys must be between 512 and 1024 bits and an exact
	   multiple of 64. HMAC keys must be between 1 and 512 bits. Elliptic curve algorithms
	   don't need this parameter.

	   The key size does not need to be specified if using a default algorithm. The default
	   key size is 1024 bits for zone signing keys (ZSK's) and 2048 bits for key signing keys
	   (KSK's, generated with -f KSK). However, if an algorithm is explicitly specified with
	   the -a, then there is no default key size, and the -b must be used.

       -n nametype
	   Specifies the owner type of the key. The value of nametype must either be ZONE (for a
	   DNSSEC zone key (KEY/DNSKEY)), HOST or ENTITY (for a key associated with a host
	   (KEY)), USER (for a key associated with a user(KEY)) or OTHER (DNSKEY). These values
	   are case insensitive. Defaults to ZONE for DNSKEY generation.

	   Use an NSEC3-capable algorithm to generate a DNSSEC key. If this option is used and no
	   algorithm is explicitly set on the command line, NSEC3RSASHA1 will be used by default.
	   Note that RSASHA256, RSASHA512, ECCGOST, ECDSAP256SHA256 and ECDSAP384SHA384
	   algorithms are NSEC3-capable.

	   Compatibility mode: generates an old-style key, without any metadata. By default,
	   dnssec-keygen will include the key's creation date in the metadata stored with the
	   private key, and other dates may be set there as well (publication date, activation
	   date, etc). Keys that include this data may be incompatible with older versions of
	   BIND; the -C option suppresses them.

       -c class
	   Indicates that the DNS record containing the key should have the specified class. If
	   not specified, class IN is used.

       -E engine
	   Uses a crypto hardware (OpenSSL engine) for random number and, when supported, key
	   generation. When compiled with PKCS#11 support it defaults to pkcs11; the empty name
	   resets it to no engine.

       -f flag
	   Set the specified flag in the flag field of the KEY/DNSKEY record. The only recognized
	   flags are KSK (Key Signing Key) and REVOKE.

	   Generate a key, but do not publish it or sign with it. This option is incompatible
	   with -P and -A.

       -g generator
	   If generating a Diffie Hellman key, use this generator. Allowed values are 2 and 5. If
	   no generator is specified, a known prime from RFC 2539 will be used if possible;
	   otherwise the default is 2.

	   Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to dnssec-keygen.

       -K directory
	   Sets the directory in which the key files are to be written.

	   Deprecated in favor of -T KEY.

       -L ttl
	   Sets the default TTL to use for this key when it is converted into a DNSKEY RR. If the
	   key is imported into a zone, this is the TTL that will be used for it, unless there
	   was already a DNSKEY RRset in place, in which case the existing TTL would take
	   precedence. Setting the default TTL to 0 or none removes it.

       -p protocol
	   Sets the protocol value for the generated key. The protocol is a number between 0 and
	   255. The default is 3 (DNSSEC). Other possible values for this argument are listed in
	   RFC 2535 and its successors.

	   Quiet mode: Suppresses unnecessary output, including progress indication. Without this
	   option, when dnssec-keygen is run interactively to generate an RSA or DSA key pair, it
	   will print a string of symbols to stderr indicating the progress of the key
	   generation. A '.' indicates that a random number has been found which passed an
	   initial sieve test; '+' means a number has passed a single round of the Miller-Rabin
	   primality test; a space means that the number has passed all the tests and is a
	   satisfactory key.

       -r randomdev
	   Specifies the source of randomness. If the operating system does not provide a
	   /dev/random or equivalent device, the default source of randomness is keyboard input.
	   randomdev specifies the name of a character device or file containing random data to
	   be used instead of the default. The special value keyboard indicates that keyboard
	   input should be used.

       -S key
	   Create a new key which is an explicit successor to an existing key. The name,
	   algorithm, size, and type of the key will be set to match the existing key. The
	   activation date of the new key will be set to the inactivation date of the existing
	   one. The publication date will be set to the activation date minus the prepublication
	   interval, which defaults to 30 days.

       -s strength
	   Specifies the strength value of the key. The strength is a number between 0 and 15,
	   and currently has no defined purpose in DNSSEC.

       -T rrtype
	   Specifies the resource record type to use for the key.  rrtype must be either DNSKEY
	   or KEY. The default is DNSKEY when using a DNSSEC algorithm, but it can be overridden
	   to KEY for use with SIG(0).	Using any TSIG algorithm (HMAC-* or DH) forces this
	   option to KEY.

       -t type
	   Indicates the use of the key.  type must be one of AUTHCONF, NOAUTHCONF, NOAUTH, or
	   NOCONF. The default is AUTHCONF. AUTH refers to the ability to authenticate data, and
	   CONF the ability to encrypt data.

       -v level
	   Sets the debugging level.

       Dates can be expressed in the format YYYYMMDD or YYYYMMDDHHMMSS. If the argument begins
       with a '+' or '-', it is interpreted as an offset from the present time. For convenience,
       if such an offset is followed by one of the suffixes 'y', 'mo', 'w', 'd', 'h', or 'mi',
       then the offset is computed in years (defined as 365 24-hour days, ignoring leap years),
       months (defined as 30 24-hour days), weeks, days, hours, or minutes, respectively. Without
       a suffix, the offset is computed in seconds.

       -P date/offset
	   Sets the date on which a key is to be published to the zone. After that date, the key
	   will be included in the zone but will not be used to sign it. If not set, and if the
	   -G option has not been used, the default is "now".

       -A date/offset
	   Sets the date on which the key is to be activated. After that date, the key will be
	   included in the zone and used to sign it. If not set, and if the -G option has not
	   been used, the default is "now".

       -R date/offset
	   Sets the date on which the key is to be revoked. After that date, the key will be
	   flagged as revoked. It will be included in the zone and will be used to sign it.

       -I date/offset
	   Sets the date on which the key is to be retired. After that date, the key will still
	   be included in the zone, but it will not be used to sign it.

       -D date/offset
	   Sets the date on which the key is to be deleted. After that date, the key will no
	   longer be included in the zone. (It may remain in the key repository, however.)

       -i interval
	   Sets the prepublication interval for a key. If set, then the publication and
	   activation dates must be separated by at least this much time. If the activation date
	   is specified but the publication date isn't, then the publication date will default to
	   this much time before the activation date; conversely, if the publication date is
	   specified but activation date isn't, then activation will be set to this much time
	   after publication.

	   If the key is being created as an explicit successor to another key, then the default
	   prepublication interval is 30 days; otherwise it is zero.

	   As with date offsets, if the argument is followed by one of the suffixes 'y', 'mo',
	   'w', 'd', 'h', or 'mi', then the interval is measured in years, months, weeks, days,
	   hours, or minutes, respectively. Without a suffix, the interval is measured in

       When dnssec-keygen completes successfully, it prints a string of the form Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii
       to the standard output. This is an identification string for the key it has generated.

       o   nnnn is the key name.

       o   aaa is the numeric representation of the algorithm.

       o   iiiii is the key identifier (or footprint).

       dnssec-keygen creates two files, with names based on the printed string.
       Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.key contains the public key, and Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.private contains the
       private key.

       The .key file contains a DNS KEY record that can be inserted into a zone file (directly or
       with a $INCLUDE statement).

       The .private file contains algorithm-specific fields. For obvious security reasons, this
       file does not have general read permission.

       Both .key and .private files are generated for symmetric encryption algorithms such as
       HMAC-MD5, even though the public and private key are equivalent.

       To generate a 768-bit DSA key for the domain example.com, the following command would be

       dnssec-keygen -a DSA -b 768 -n ZONE example.com

       The command would print a string of the form:


       In this example, dnssec-keygen creates the files Kexample.com.+003+26160.key and

       dnssec-signzone(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual, RFC 2539, RFC 2845, RFC 4034.

       Internet Systems Consortium

       Copyright (C) 2004, 2005, 2007-2012 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
       Copyright (C) 2000-2003 Internet Software Consortium.

BIND9					  June 30, 2000 			 DNSSEC-KEYGEN(8)

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