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BOOTPTAB(5)									      BOOTPTAB(5)

NAME
       bootptab - Internet Bootstrap Protocol server database

DESCRIPTION
       The  bootptab  file  is the configuration database file for bootpd, the Internet Bootstrap
       Protocol server.  Its format is similar to that of termcap(5) in which two-character case-
       sensitive tag symbols are used to represent host parameters.  These parameter declarations
       are separated by colons (:), with a general format of:

	    hostname:tg=value:tg=value:tg=value:

       where hostname is the actual name of a bootp client (or a "dummy entry"), and tg is a two-
       character  tag symbol.  Replies are returned to clients only if an entry with the client's
       Ethernet or IP address exists in the booptab file.  Dummy entries have an invalid hostname
       (one  with  a  "."  as the first character) and are used to provide default values used by
       other entries via the tc=.dummy-entry mechanism.  Most tags must be followed by	an  equal
       sign  and  a  value  as above.  Some may also appear in a boolean form with no value (i.e.
       :tg:).  The currently recognized tags are:

	    bf	 Bootfile
	    bs	 Bootfile size in 512-octet blocks
	    cs	 Cookie server address list
	    df	 Merit dump file
	    dn	 Domain name
	    ds	 Domain name server address list
	    ef	 Extension file
	    gw	 Gateway address list
	    ha	 Host hardware address
	    hd	 Bootfile home directory
	    hn	 Send client's hostname to client
	    ht	 Host hardware type (see Assigned Numbers RFC)
	    im	 Impress server address list
	    ip	 Host IP address
	    lg	 Log server address list
	    lp	 LPR server address list
	    ns	 IEN-116 name server address list
	    nt	 NTP (time) Server (RFC 1129)
	    ra	 Reply address override
	    rl	 Resource location protocol server address list
	    rp	 Root path to mount as root
	    sa	 TFTP server address client should use
	    sm	 Host subnet mask
	    sw	 Swap server address
	    tc	 Table continuation (points to similar "template" host entry)
	    td	 TFTP root directory used by "secure" TFTP servers
	    to	 Time offset in seconds from UTC
	    ts	 Time server address list
	    vm	 Vendor magic cookie selector
	    yd	 YP (NIS) domain name
	    ys	 YP (NIS) server address

       There is also a generic tag, Tn, where n is an RFC1084 vendor field tag number.	 Thus  it
       is  possible  to  immediately take advantage of future extensions to RFC1084 without being
       forced to modify bootpd first.  Generic data may be represented	as  either  a  stream  of
       hexadecimal  numbers or as a quoted string of ASCII characters.	The length of the generic
       data  is  automatically	determined  and  inserted  into  the  proper  field(s)	 of   the
       RFC1084-style bootp reply.

       The  following  tags take a whitespace-separated list of IP addresses: cs, ds, gw, im, lg,
       lp, ns, nt, ra, rl, and ts.  The ip, sa, sw, sm,  and  ys  tags	each  take  a  single  IP
       address.   All  IP addresses are specified in standard Internet "dot" notation and may use
       decimal, octal, or hexadecimal numbers (octal numbers begin with  0,  hexadecimal  numbers
       begin  with '0x' or '0X').  Any IP addresses may alternatively be specified as a hostname,
       causing bootpd to lookup the IP address for that host name using gethostbyname(3).  If the
       ip  tag is not specified, bootpd will determine the IP address using the entry name as the
       host name.  (Dummy entries use an invalid host name to avoid automatic IP lookup.)

       The ht tag specifies the hardware type code as either an unsigned decimal, octal, or hexa-
       decimal	integer or one of the following symbolic names: ethernet or ether for 10Mb Ether-
       net, ethernet3 or ether3 for 3Mb experimental Ethernet, ieee802,  tr,  or  token-ring  for
       IEEE  802  networks,  pronet for Proteon ProNET Token Ring, or chaos, arcnet, or ax.25 for
       Chaos, ARCNET, and AX.25 Amateur Radio networks, respectively.  The ha tag takes  a  hard-
       ware  address  which  may  be  specified as a host name or in numeric form.  Note that the
       numeric form must be specified in hexadecimal; optional periods and/or a leading '0x'  may
       be included for readability.  The ha tag must be preceded by the ht tag (either explicitly
       or implicitly; see tc below).  If the hardware address is not specified and  the  type  is
       specified  as  either "ethernet" or "ieee802", then bootpd will try to determine the hard-
       ware address using ether_hostton(3).

       The hostname, home directory, and bootfile are ASCII strings which may be optionally  sur-
       rounded	by  double quotes (").	The client's request and the values of the hd and bf sym-
       bols determine how the server fills in the bootfile field of the bootp reply packet.

       If the bf option is specified, its value is copied into the reply packet.  Otherwise,  the
       name  supplied in the client request is used.  If the hd option is specified, its value is
       prepended to the boot file in the reply packet, otherwise the path supplied in the  client
       request	is  used.   The  existence of the boot file is NOT verified by bootpd because the
       boot file may be on some other machine.

       The bs option specified the size of the boot file.  It can be  written  as  bs=auto  which
       causes bootpd to determine the boot file size automatically.

       Some  newer  versions  of  tftpd provide a security feature to change their root directory
       using the chroot(2) system call.  The td tag may be used to inform bootpd of this  special
       root  directory	used by tftpd.	(One may alternatively use the bootpd "-c chdir" option.)
       The hd tag is actually relative to the root directory specified by the td tag.  For  exam-
       ple,  if  the  real  absolute  path  to	your  BOOTP  client  bootfile  is /tftpboot/boot-
       files/bootimage, and tftpd uses /tftpboot as its "secure" directory, then specify the fol-
       lowing in bootptab:

	    :td=/tftpboot:hd=/bootfiles:bf=bootimage:

       If your bootfiles are located directly in /tftpboot, use:

	    :td=/tftpboot:hd=/:bf=bootimage:

       The  sa	tag  may be used to specify the IP address of the particular TFTP server you wish
       the client to use.  In the absence of this tag, bootpd will tell  the  client  to  perform
       TFTP to the same machine bootpd is running on.

       The  time  offset  to  may be either a signed decimal integer specifying the client's time
       zone offset in seconds from UTC, or the keyword auto which uses	the  server's  time  zone
       offset.	 Specifying  the to symbol as a boolean has the same effect as specifying auto as
       its value.

       The bootfile size bs may be either a decimal, octal, or hexadecimal integer specifying the
       size  of  the bootfile in 512-octet blocks, or the keyword auto which causes the server to
       automatically calculate the bootfile size at each request.  As with the time offset, spec-
       ifying the bs symbol as a boolean has the same effect as specifying auto as its value.

       The vendor magic cookie selector (the vm tag) may take one of the following keywords: auto
       (indicating that vendor information is determined by the  client's  request),  rfc1048  or
       rfc1084	(which	always forces an RFC1084-style reply), or cmu (which always forces a CMU-
       style reply).

       The hn tag is strictly a boolean tag; it does not take the usual  equals-sign  and  value.
       It's  presence  indicates  that	the  hostname  should be sent to RFC1084 clients.  Bootpd
       attempts to send the entire hostname as it is specified in the configuration file; if this
       will  not  fit  into the reply packet, the name is shortened to just the host field (up to
       the first period, if present) and then tried.  In  no  case  is	an  arbitrarily-truncated
       hostname sent (if nothing reasonable will fit, nothing is sent).

       Often,  many  host  entries  share  common  values for certain tags (such as name servers,
       etc.).  Rather than repeatedly specifying these tags, a full specification can  be  listed
       for one host entry and shared by others via the tc (table continuation) mechanism.  Often,
       the template entry is a dummy host which doesn't actually  exist  and  never  sends  bootp
       requests.   This feature is similar to the tc feature of termcap(5) for similar terminals.
       Note that bootpd allows the tc tag symbol to appear anywhere in	the  host  entry,  unlike
       termcap which requires it to be the last tag.  Information explicitly specified for a host
       always overrides information implied by a tc tag symbol, regardless of its location within
       the  entry.   The  value of the tc tag may be the hostname or IP address of any host entry
       previously listed in the configuration file.

       Sometimes it is necessary to delete a specific tag after it  has  been  inferred  via  tc.
       This  can  be done using the construction tag@ which removes the effect of tag as in term-
       cap(5).	For example, to completely undo an IEN-116 name server specification, use ":ns@:"
       at an appropriate place in the configuration entry.  After removal with @, a tag is eligi-
       ble to be set again through the tc mechanism.

       Blank lines and lines beginning with "#" are ignored  in  the  configuration  file.   Host
       entries	are  separated	from one another by newlines; a single host entry may be extended
       over multiple lines if the lines end with a backslash (\).   It	is  also  acceptable  for
       lines  to  be longer than 80 characters.  Tags may appear in any order, with the following
       exceptions:  the hostname must be the very first field in an entry, and the hardware  type
       must precede the hardware address.

       An example /etc/bootptab file follows:

	    # Sample bootptab file (domain=andrew.cmu.edu)

	    .default:\
		 :hd=/usr/boot:bf=null:\
		 :ds=netserver, lancaster:\
		 :ns=pcs2, pcs1:\
		 :ts=pcs2, pcs1:\
		 :sm=255.255.255.0:\
		 :gw=gw.cs.cmu.edu:\
		 :hn:to=-18000:

	    carnegie:ht=6:ha=7FF8100000AF:tc=.default:
	    baldwin:ht=1:ha=0800200159C3:tc=.default:
	    wylie:ht=1:ha=00DD00CADF00:tc=.default:
	    arnold:ht=1:ha=0800200102AD:tc=.default:
	    bairdford:ht=1:ha=08002B02A2F9:tc=.default:
	    bakerstown:ht=1:ha=08002B0287C8:tc=.default:

	    # Special domain name server and option tags for next host
	    butlerjct:ha=08002001560D:ds=128.2.13.42:\
		 :T37=0x12345927AD3BCF:\
		 :T99="Special ASCII string":\
		 :tc=.default:

	    gastonville:ht=6:ha=7FFF81000A47:tc=.default:
	    hahntown:ht=6:ha=7FFF81000434:tc=.default:
	    hickman:ht=6:ha=7FFF810001BA:tc=.default:
	    lowber:ht=1:ha=00DD00CAF000:tc=.default:
	    mtoliver:ht=1:ha=00DD00FE1600:tc=.default:

FILES
       /etc/bootptab

SEE ALSO
       bootpd(8), tftpd(8),
       DARPA Internet Request For Comments RFC951, RFC1048, RFC1084, Assigned Numbers

4.3 Berkeley Distribution		 October 31, 1991			      BOOTPTAB(5)
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