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ALTQ.CONF(5)			     BSD File Formats Manual			     ALTQ.CONF(5)

NAME
     altq.conf -- ALTQ configuration file

DESCRIPTION
     The altq.conf file contains a number of lines specifying the behavior of queueing disci-
     plines.  Comments start with a # and extend to the end of the line.

     The altqd(8) program reads /etc/altq.conf at startup and sets up queueing disciplines.
     BLUE, CBQ (Class-Based Queueing), FIFOQ (First-In First-Out Queue), HFSC (Hierarchical Fair
     Service Curve), PRIQ (Priority Queueing), RED (Random Early Detection), RIO (RED with
     IN/OUT), WFQ (Weighted Fair Queueing), JoBS (Joint Buffer Management and Scheduling) and
     CDNR (Diffserv Traffic Conditioner) can be configured in this file.

   Interface Commands
	   interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type]
		      [discipline-specific-options]

     The interface command specifies a network interface to be under control of ALTQ.  One inter-
     face specification is provided for each network interface under control of ALTQ.  A system
     configured as a router may have multiple interface specifications.

	   if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

	   bandwidth
		     specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.  This is the maximum
		     rate that the queueing discipline will allow on this interface.

	   tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in bytes.  When
		     tbrsize is omitted, the system automatically sets the bucket size using
		     heuristics.  The token rate is set to the interface bandwidth specified by
		     the interface command.

	   sched_type
		     Type of a queueing discipline.  It must be either blue, cbq, fifoq, hfsc,
		     jobs, priq, red, rio, or wfq.  If the interface has only traffic condition-
		     ers and no queueing discipline, sched_type can be omitted.

   Class Command
	   class  sched_type if_name class_name parent_name [red|rio] [ecn] [cleardscp]
		  [discipline-specific-options]

     The class command specifies a packet scheduling class for CBQ, HFSC, JoBS or PRIQ.  A class
     specifier must be provided for each packet scheduling class.

	   sched_type
		     Type of queueing discipline.  Must correspond to the discipline name in
		     interface specification.

	   if_name   Interface name.  Must correspond to name in interface specification.

	   class_name
		     Arbitrary name for this class.  Must be unique for this interface.

	   parent_name
		     The name of the parent class for this class (for CBQ or HFSC).  Parent class
		     must have been previously defined.  PRIQ and JoBS do not have class hierar-
		     chy and parent_name must be NULL for PRIQ and JoBS classes.

	   red	     Use RED (Random Early Detection) on this class queue.  RED drops packets
		     with the probability proportional to the average queue length.

	   rio	     Use RIO (RED with In/Out bit) on this class queue.  RIO runs triple RED
		     algorithms at the same time.

	   ecn	     Use RED/ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) on this class queue (experi-
		     mental implementation).  ECN implies RED.

	   cleardscp
		     Clear diffserv codepoint in the IP header.

   Filter Commands
	   filter  if_name class_name [name fltr_name] [ruleno num] filter_values

     The filter command specifies a filter to classify packets into a scheduling class.  A filter
     specifier determines any statically-defined packet classification rules.

	   if_name     Name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

	   class_name  Name of a class or a conditioner to which matching packets are directed.

	   name        Add an arbitrary name to the filter for a future reference.

	   ruleno      Specifies explicit order of filter matching.  Filter matching is performed
		       from a filter with a larger ruleno.  Default is 0.

     filter_values should be in the following format:

	   filter_values:
		   dst_addr [netmask mask] dport src_addr [netmask mask] sport proto [tos value
		   [tosmask value]] [gpi value]

     Here dst_addr and src_addr are dotted-decimal addresses of the destination and the source
     respectively.  An address may be followed by netmask keyword.  dport and sport are port num-
     bers of the destination and the source respectively.  proto is a protocol number defined for
     IP packets (e.g. 6 for TCP).  tos keyword can be used to specify the type of service field
     value.  gpi keyword can be used to specify the Security Parameter Index value for IPsec.

     When filter value 0 is used, it is taken as a wildcard.

	   filter6  if_name class_name [name fltr_name] [ruleno num] filter6_values

     The filter6 command is for IPv6.  filter6_value should be in the following format:

	   filter6_values:
		    dst_addr[/prefix_len] dport src_addr[/prefix_len] sport proto [flowlabel
		    value] [tclass value [tclassmask value]] [gpi value]

     Here dst_addr and src_addr are IPv6 addresses of the destination and the source respec-
     tively.  An address may be followed by an optional address prefix length.	dport and sport
     are port numbers of the destination and the source respectively.  proto is a protocol number
     defined for IPv6 packets (e.g. 6 for TCP).  flowlabel keyword can be used to specify the
     flowlabel field value.  tclass keyword can be used to specify the traffic class field value.
     gpi keyword can be used to specify the Security Parameter Index value for IPsec.

     When filter value 0 is used, it is taken as a wildcard.

   CBQ Commands
     CBQ (Class Based Queueing) achieves both partitioning and sharing of link bandwidth by hier-
     archically structured classes.  Each class has its own queue and is assigned its share of
     bandwidth.  A child class can borrow bandwidth from its parent class as long as excess band-
     width is available.

	   interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type] [efficient]

	   if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

	   bandwidth
		     specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

	   tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in bytes.

	   sched_type
		     must be either cbq, cbq-wrr (weighted-round robin) or cbq-prr (packet-by-
		     packet round robin).  cbq is equivalent to cbq-wrr.

	   efficient
		     Enables CBQ's link efficiency mode.  This means that the scheduler will send
		     a packet from the first overlimit class it encounters of all classes of the
		     link-sharing structure when all classes are overlimit.  This will also cause
		     the scheduler to use greater than its assigned bandwidth, if the link is
		     capable of more than the assigned bandwidth.  By default, this mode is
		     turned off.  By adding the keyword efficient to the interface specification
		     line, enables this mode.

	   class  sched_type if_name class_name parent_name [admission cntlload|none] [priority
		  pri] [pbandwidth percent] [exactbandwidth bps] [borrow] [default] [control]
		  [maxburst count] [minburst count] [maxdelay msec] [packetsize bytes]
		  [maxpacketsize bytes] [red|rio] [ecn] [flowvalve] [cleardscp]

     The class command specifies a CBQ class.  The classes are organized as a hierarchy, and
     every class, except for the root class, has a parent.

	   sched_type
		     must be cbq for a CBQ class.

	   if_name   Interface name.  Must correspond to name in interface specification.

	   class_name
		     Arbitrary name for this class.  Must be unique within the class hierarchy
		     for this interface.  The name ctl_class is a reserved class name.

	   parent_name
		     The name of the parent class for this class or NULL if this is the root
		     class.  Parent class must have been previously defined.

	   admission
		     The type of admission control and QoS type.  cntlload is controlled load
		     service for RSVP, otherwise, it should be none.  The default is none.

	   priority  High numbers are higher priority.	Max value is 7 and Min value is 0.
		     Default is 1.

	   pbandwidth
		     The percentage of the interface bandwidth allocated to this class.  Gener-
		     ally should add up to 100 percent at each level of the class hierarchy,
		     although other amounts can be specified for purposes of experimentation.

	   exactbandwidth
		     Specify the bandwidth in bits-per-second instead of pbandwidth.  Note that
		     the bandwidth allocation of CBQ is not so precise but this is just a way to
		     pass a parameter to CBQ; the user is supposed to know the detailed internals
		     of CBQ.  pbandwidth is a preferred way to specify the bandwidth of a class.

	   borrow    The class can borrow bandwidth from its parent class when this class is
		     overlimit.  If this keyword is not present, then no borrowing is done, and
		     the packet is delayed or dropped when the class is overlimit.

	   default   Specify the default class.  When this keyword is present, all packets that
		     do not match some classification criteria are assigned to this class.  Must
		     be exactly one class on each interface defined as the default class.

	   control   Specify the control class.  When this keyword is present, the predefined
		     control class packets (RSVP, IGMP, and ICMP) are assigned to this class.
		     Note that when the control class is not specified by the time the default
		     class is created, one is automatically created with default parameters.
		     Thus, if the control class is specified, it must be listed before the
		     default class.  Must be exactly one class on each interface defined as the
		     control class.

	   maxburst  The maximum burst of back-to-back packets allowed in this class.  Default is
		     16 but the default value is automatically reduced to 4 when the class band-
		     width is small (about less than 1Mbps).

	   minburst  The minimum burst is used to obtain the steady state burst size.  It's the
		     parameter to help compute offtime for the class.  Offtime is the amount of
		     time a class is to wait between packets.  Default is 2.

	   maxdelay  The maxdelay is specified in milliseconds and used to obtain the max queue
		     size of the class.  If not specified, the default max queue size (30 pack-
		     ets) is used.

	   packetsize
		     The average packet size in bytes to be used in CBQ over-/under-limit compu-
		     tations.  Default value is MTU of the interface.

	   maxpacketsize
		     The maximum packet size in bytes for the class.  Default value is MTU of the
		     interface.

	   red	     enables RED on this class queue.

	   rio	     enables RIO on this class queue.

	   ecn	     enables RED/ECN on this class queue.

	   flowvalve
		     enables RED/flow-valve (a.k.a. red-penalty-box) on this class queue.

	   cleardscp
		     clears diffserv codepoint in the IP header.

   HFSC Commands
     HFSC (Hierarchical Fair Service Curve) supports both link-sharing and guaranteed real-time
     services.	H-FSC employs a service curve based QoS model, and its unique feature is an abil-
     ity to decouple delay and bandwidth allocation.  HFSC has 2 independent scheduling mecha-
     nisms.  Real-time scheduling is used to guarantee the delay and the bandwidth allocation at
     the same time.  Hierarchical link-sharing is used to distribute the excess bandwidth.  When
     dequeueing a packet, HFSC always tries real-time scheduling first.  If no packet is eligible
     for real-time scheduling, link-sharing scheduling is performed.  HFSC does not use class
     hierarchy for real-time scheduling.  Additionally, an upper-limit service curve can be spec-
     ified for link-sharing to set the upper limit allowed for the class.

	   interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type]

	   if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

	   bandwidth
		     specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

	   tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in bytes.

	   sched_type
		     must be hfsc for HFSC.

	   class  sched_type if_name class_name parent_name [admission cntlload|none] [[sc m1 d
		  m2]] [[rt m1 d m2]] [[ls m1 d m2]] [[ul m1 d m2]] [pshare percent] [grate bps]
		  [bandwidth bps] [ulimit bps] [default] [qlimit count] [red|rio] [ecn]
		  [cleardscp]

     The class command specifies a HFSC class.	The classes are organized as a hierarchy, and
     every class, except for the root class, has a parent.

     Each HFSC class has 2 service curves, the real-time service curve and the link-sharing ser-
     vice curve.  Service curves are specified by [type m1 d m2].  type should be either sc, rt,
     ls, or ul.  sc (service curve) is used to set the same values to both real-time and link-
     sharing service curves.  rt (real-time) is used to specify the real-time service curve.  ls
     (link-sharing) is used to specify the link-sharing service curve.	ul (upper-limit) is used
     to specify the upper-limit service curve for link-sharing.  m1 is the slope of the first
     segment specified in bits-per-second.  d is the x-projection of the intersection point of
     the 2 segments specified in milliseconds.	m2 is the slope of the second segment specified
     in bits-per-second.

	   sched_type
		     must be hfsc for a HFSC class.

	   if_name   Interface name.  Must correspond to name in interface specification.

	   class_name
		     Arbitrary name for this class.  Must be unique within the class hierarchy
		     for this interface.  The name root is a reserved class name for the root
		     class.  The root class for the interface is automatically created by the
		     interface command.

	   parent_name
		     The name of the parent class for this class.  Keyword root is used when the
		     parent is the root class.	Parent class must have been previously defined.

	   admission
		     The type of admission control and QoS type.  cntlload is controlled load
		     service for RSVP, otherwise, it should be none.  The default is none.

	   pshare    Percent of the link share.  This specifies a linear link-sharing service
		     curve as a fraction of the link bandwidth.  It is a short hand of [ls 0 0
		     (link-bandwidth * percent / 100)].

	   grate     Guaranteed rate.  This specifies a linear real-time service curve.  It is a
		     short hand of [rt 0 0 bps].

	   bandwidth
		     This is a short hand of [sc 0 0 bps].

	   ulimit    Upper limit rate.	This specifies a upper-limit service curve.  It is a
		     short hand of [ul 0 0 bps].

	   default   Specify the default class.  When this keyword is present, all packets that
		     do not match some classification criteria are assigned to this class.  Must
		     be exactly one class on each interface defined as the default class.

	   qlimit    The maximum queue size in number of packets.  Default value is 50.

	   red	     enables RED on this class queue.

	   rio	     enables RIO on this class queue.

	   ecn	     enables RED/ECN on this class queue.

	   cleardscp
		     clears diffserv codepoint in the IP header.

   PRIQ Commands
     PRIQ (Priority Queueing) implements a simple priority-based queueing.  A higher priority
     class is always served first.  Up to 16 priorities can be used with PRIQ.

	   interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type]

	   if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

	   bandwidth
		     specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

	   tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in bytes.

	   sched_type
		     must be priq for PRIQ.

	   class  sched_type if_name class_name parent_name [priority pri] [default] [qlimit
		  count] [red|rio] [ecn] [cleardscp]

	   sched_type
		     must be priq for a PRIQ class.

	   if_name   Interface name.  Must correspond to name in interface specification.

	   class_name
		     Arbitrary name for this class.  Must be unique for this interface.

	   parent_name
		     Parent class must be NULL for PRIQ.

	   priority  High numbers are higher priority.	Max value is 15 and Min value is 0.
		     Default is 0.  A higher priority class is always served first in PRIQ.  Pri-
		     ority must be unique for the interface.

	   default   Specify the default class.  When this keyword is present, all packets that
		     do not match some classification criteria are assigned to this class.  Must
		     be exactly one class on each interface defined as the default class.

	   qlimit    The maximum queue size in number of packets.  Default value is 50.

	   red	     enables RED on this class queue.

	   rio	     enables RIO on this class queue.

	   ecn	     enables RED/ECN on this class queue.

	   cleardscp
		     clears diffserv codepoint in the IP header.

   WFQ Commands
     WFQ (Weighted Fair Queueing) implements a weighted-round robin scheduler for a set of queue.
     A weight can be assigned to each queue to give a different proportion of the link capacity.
     A hash function is used to map a flow to one of a set of queues, and thus, it is possible
     for two different flows to be mapped into the same queue.

	   interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type] [nqueues count] [qsize
		      bytes] [hash policy]

	   if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

	   bandwidth
		     specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

	   tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in bytes.

	   sched_type
		     must be wfq for WFQ.

	   nqueues   The number of queues in WFQ.  Default value is 256.

	   qsize     The size of each queue in number of bytes.  Default value is 64K bytes.

	   hash      Type of hash policy to select a queue.  dstaddr specifies a hashing policy
		     by IP destination address.  full specifies a hashing policy by IP addresses
		     and ports.  srcport specifies a hashing policy by IP source port number.
		     srcaddr specifies a hashing policy by IP source address.  Default is dstaddr

   FIFOQ Commands
     FIFOQ (First-In First-Out Queueing) is a simple tail-drop FIFO queue.  FIFOQ is the simplest
     possible implementation of a queueing discipline in ALTQ, and can be used to compare with
     other queueing disciplines.  FIFOQ can be also used as a template for those who want to
     write their own queueing disciplines.

	   interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type] [qlimit count]

	   if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

	   bandwidth
		     specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

	   tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in bytes.

	   sched_type
		     must be fifoq for FIFOQ.

	   qlimit    The maximum queue size in number of packets.  Default value is 50.

   RED Commands
     RED (Random Early Detection) is an implicit congestion notification mechanism that exercises
     packet dropping or packet marking stochastically according to the average queue length.  RED
     can be viewed as a buffer management mechanism and can be integrated into other packet
     scheduling schemes.

	   red	min_th max_th inv_pmax

     The red command sets the default RED parameters.  min_th and max_th are the minimum and the
     maximum threshold values.	inv_pmax is the inverse (reciprocal) of the maximum drop proba-
     bility.  For example, 10 means the maximum drop probability of 1/10.

	   interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type] [qlimit count]
		      [packetsize bytes] [weight n] [thmin n] [thmax n] [invpmax n] [ecn]
		      [flowvalve]

	   if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

	   bandwidth
		     specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

	   tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in bytes.

	   sched_type
		     must be red for RED.

	   qlimit    The maximum queue size in number of packets.  Default value is 60.

	   packetsize
		     The average packet size in number of bytes.  This parameter is used to cali-
		     brate the idle period.  Default value is 1000.

	   weight    The inverse of the weight of EWMA (exponentially weighted moving average).

	   thmin     The minimum threshold.

	   thmax     The maximum threshold.

	   invpmax   The inverse of the maximum drop probability.

	   ecn	     enables ECN.

	   flowvalve
		     enables flowvalve.

   RIO Commands
     ALTQ/RIO has 3 drop precedence levels defined for the Assured Forwarding of DiffServ
     (RFC2597).  Since adaptive flows are likely to stay under the medium drop precedence level
     under congestion, the medium drop precedence would protect adaptive flows from unadaptive
     flows.

     The original RIO has 2 sets of RED parameters; one for in-profile packets and the other for
     out-of-profile packets.  At the ingress of the network, profile meters tag packets as IN or
     OUT based on contracted profiles for customers.  Inside the network, IN packets receive
     preferential treatment by the RIO dropper.  It is possible to provision the network not to
     drop IN packets at all by providing enough capacity for the total volume of IN packets.
     Thus, RIO can be used to provide a service that statistically assures capacity allocated for
     users.  This mechanism can be extended to support an arbitrary number of drop precedence
     levels.  ALTQ supports 3 drop precedence levels.

	   rio	low_min_th low_max_th low_inv_pmax medium_min_th medium_max_th medium_inv_pmax
		high_min_th high_max_th high_inv_pmax

     The rio command sets the default RIO parameters.  The parameters are RED parameters for 3
     (low, medium, high) drop precedence.

	   interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type] [qlimit count]
		      [packetsize bytes] [weight n] [lo_thmin n] [lo_thmax n] [lo_invpmax n]
		      [med_thmin n] [med_thmax n] [med_invpmax n] [hi_thmin n] [hi_thmax n]
		      [hi_invpmax n] [ecn]

	   if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

	   bandwidth
		     specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

	   tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in bytes.

	   sched_type
		     must be rio for RIO.

	   qlimit    The maximum queue size in number of packets.  Default value is 60.

	   packetsize
		     The average packet size in number of bytes.  This parameter is used to cali-
		     brate the idle period.  Default value is 1000.

	   weight    The inverse of the weight of EWMA (exponentially weighted moving average).

	   lo_thmin  The minimum threshold for low drop precedence.

	   lo_thmax  The maximum threshold for low drop precedence.

	   lo_invpmax
		     The inverse of the maximum drop probability for low drop precedence.

	   med_thmin
		     The minimum threshold for medium drop precedence.

	   med_thmax
		     The maximum threshold for medium drop precedence.

	   med_invpmax
		     The inverse of the maximum drop probability for medium drop precedence.

	   hi_thmin  The minimum threshold for high drop precedence.

	   hi_thmax  The maximum threshold for high drop precedence.

	   hi_invpmax
		     The inverse of the maximum drop probability for high drop precedence.

	   ecn	     enables ECN.

   BLUE Commands
	   interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes] [sched_type] [qlimit count]
		      [packetsize bytes] [maxpmark n] [holdtime usec] [ecn]

	   if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

	   bandwidth
		     specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

	   tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in bytes.

	   sched_type
		     must be blue for BLUE.

	   qlimit    The maximum queue size in number of packets.  Default value is 60.

	   packetsize
		     The average packet size in number of bytes.  Default value is 1000.

	   maxpmark  specifies the precision of marking probability.

	   holdtime  specifies the hold time in usec.

	   ecn	     enables ECN.

   CDNR Commands
     The conditioner command specifies a diffserv traffic conditioner.	A traffic conditioner is
     not a queueing discipline but a component to meter, mark or drop incoming packets according
     to some rules.

     As opposed to a queueing discipline, a traffic conditioner handles incoming packets at an
     input interface.  If no queueing discipline (e.g., CBQ) is used for the interface, a null
     interface command should be used to specify an input network interface.

	   interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [tbrsize bytes]

     The conditioner command has the following syntax.

	   conditioner	if_name cdnr_name <action>

	   if_name     Interface name.	Must correspond to name in interface specification.

	   cdnr_name   Arbitrary name for this conditioner.  Must be unique for this interface.

	   action      Action of the conditioner.

     An action can be a recursively defined action.  The following actions are defined.

	   pass

		       pass allows the packet to go through without any modification to the
		       packet.

	   drop

		       drop rejects the packet.  The packet is immediately discarded.

	   mark  value

		       mark sets the specified value to the ds field in the IP header.	Then, the
		       packet is allowed to go through.

	   tbmeter  rate depth <in_action> <out_action>

			  tbmeter is a token bucket meter configured with rate and depth parame-
			  ters.  Rate is token rate in bits-per-second.  Depth is bucket depth in
			  KB.  When an incoming packet is in profile (available token is more
			  than the packet size), tbmeter takes in_action.  Otherwise, tbmeter
			  takes out_action.

	   trtcm  cmtd_rate cmtd_depth peak_rate peak_depth <green_action> <yellow_action>
		  <red_action> [coloraware|colorblind]

			trtcm is a 2-rate 3 color marker for Assured Forwarding.  A trtcm con-
			sists of 2 token buckets, one for a committed rate and the other for a
			peak rate.  When an incoming packet is in the committed profile, trtcm
			takes green_action.  When the packet is out of the committed profile but
			in the peak profile, trtcm takes yellow_action.  Otherwise, tbtcm takes
			red_action.  A trtcm is either color-aware or color-blind.  A color-aware
			trtcm do not raise the color (ds field value), that is, a yellow packet
			can be yellow or red but can not be blue.  Default is color-blind.

	   tswtcm  cmtd_rate peak_rate avg_interval <green_action> <yellow_action> <red_action>

			 tswtcm is a time sliding window 3 color marker for Assured Forwarding.
			 A tswtcm differs from trtcm in that a tswtcm probabilistically marks
			 packets.  A tswtcm consists of 2 rates, one for a committed rate and the
			 other for a peak rate.  When an incoming packet is in the committed pro-
			 file, tswtcm takes green_action.  When the packet is out of the commit-
			 ted profile but in the peak profile, tswtcm takes yellow_action.  Other-
			 wise, tswtcm takes red_action.  cmtd_rate and peak_rate are specified in
			 bits per second.  avg_interval provides the size of time window for
			 averaging incoming rate, and is specified in milliseconds.  500 msec is
			 ok for normal settings.

   JoBS Commands
     JoBS (Joint Buffer Management and Scheduling) is a queuing discipline that can enforce any
     feasible mix of absolute and proportional guarantees on packet losses, packet delays, and
     throughput, for classes of traffic, on a per-hop basis.  No admission control is performed,
     thus if the set of service guarantees becomes infeasible, some service guarantees may be
     relaxed.

	   interface  if_name [bandwidth bps] [qlimit count] [separate] [tbrsize bytes]
		      [sched_type]

	   if_name   specifies the name of a network interface (e.g., fxp0).

	   bandwidth
		     specifies the interface bandwidth in bits per second.

	   qlimit    specifies the maximum queue size in number of packets.

	   separate  specifies that classes have independent buffers.  The default is to have a
		     shared buffer for all classes.  If this option is specified, qlimit applies
		     to each independent buffer.

	   tbrsize   specifies the bucket size of a token bucket regulator in bytes.

	   sched_type
		     must be jobs for JoBS.

	   class  sched_type if_name class_name parent_name [priority pri] [default] [adc
		  microsecs] [alc fraction] [arc bps] [rdc prop] [rlc prop]

	   sched_type
		     must be jobs for a JoBS class.

	   if_name   Interface name.  Must correspond to name in interface specification.

	   class_name
		     Arbitrary name for this class.  Must be unique for this interface.

	   parent_name
		     Parent class must be NULL for JoBS.

	   priority  Priority index used for proportional differentiation.  Max value is 15 and
		     Min value is 0.  Default is 0.  Priority must be unique for the interface.

	   default   Specify the default class.  When this keyword is present, all packets that
		     do not match some classification criteria are assigned to this class.  Must
		     be exactly one class on each interface defined as the default class.

	   adc	     Specifies an upper bound on delays for that class (in microseconds).  A
		     value of -1 will indicate the absence of delay bound.  By default, no delay
		     bound is offered.

	   alc	     Specifies a upper bound on loss rate for that class (in fraction of 1, for
		     instance a 1% loss rate bound will be expressed as 0.01).	A value of -1
		     will indicate the absence of loss rate bound.  By default, no loss rate
		     bound is offered.

	   arc	     Specifies a lower bound on the throughput received by that class (in bits
		     per second).  A value of -1 will indicate the absence of throughput bound.
		     By default, no throughput bound is offered.

	   rdc	     Specifies a proportional delay differentiation factor between that class and
		     the class with the successive priority index.  For instance, for priority 1,
		     an rdc of 2 specifies that the delays of packets marked as class 2 will
		     roughly be twice the delays of packets marked as class 1.	A value of -1
		     indicates the absence of proportional differentiation on that class.  Note
		     that class N if N is the maximum priority should have a dummy coefficient
		     different from -1 if proportional delay differentiation is desired on Class
		     N.  By default, no proportional delay differentiation is offered.

	   rlc	     Specifies a proportional loss differentiation factor between that class and
		     the class with the successive priority index.  For instance, for priority 1,
		     an rlc of 2 specifies that the loss rate of packets marked as class 2 will
		     roughly be twice the loss rate of packets marked as class 1.  A value of -1
		     indicates the absence of proportional differentiation on that class.  Note
		     that class N if N is the maximum priority should have a dummy coefficient
		     different from -1 if proportional loss differentiation is desired on Class
		     N.  By default, no proportional loss differentiation is offered.

EXAMPLES
   CBQ Example
     #
     # cbq configuration for vx0 (10Mbps ether)
     # give at least 40% to TCP
     # limit HTTP from network 133.138.1.0 up to 10%, use RED.
     # other traffic goes into default class
     #
     interface vx0 bandwidth 10M cbq
     #
     class cbq vx0 root_class NULL priority 0 pbandwidth 100
     class cbq vx0 def_class root_class borrow pbandwidth 95 default
     class cbq vx0 tcp_class def_class borrow pbandwidth  40
	     filter vx0 tcp_class 0 0 0 0 6
     class cbq vx0 csl_class tcp_class pbandwidth  10	red
	     filter vx0 csl_class 0 0 133.138.1.0 netmask 0xffffff00 80 6
	     filter vx0 csl_class 133.138.1.0 netmask 0xffffff00 0 0 80 6
     #
     # sample filter6 command
     #
		     filter6 vx0 csl_class ::0 0 d000:a:0:123::/64 80 6

   HFSC Example
     #
     # hfsc configuration for hierarchical sharing
     #
     interface pvc0 bandwidth 45M hfsc
     #
     # (10% of the bandwidth share goes to the default class)
     class hfsc pvc0 def_class root pshare 10 default
     #
     #		bandwidth share    guaranteed rate
     #	  CMU:	     45%	     15Mbps
     #	  PITT:      45%	     15Mbps
     #
     class hfsc pvc0 cmu  root pshare 45 grate 15M
     class hfsc pvc0 pitt root pshare 45 grate 15M
     #
     # CMU	bandwidth share    guaranteed rate
     #	  CS:	     20%	     10Mbps
     #	  other:     20%	      5Mbps
     #
     class hfsc pvc0 cmu_other cmu  pshare 20 grate 10M
	     filter pvc0 cmu_other   0 0 128.2.0.0   netmask 0xffff0000 0 0
     class hfsc pvc0 cmu_cs    cmu  pshare 20 grate  5M
	     filter pvc0 cmu_cs      0 0 128.2.242.0 netmask 0xffffff00 0 0
     #
     # PITT	bandwidth share    guaranteed rate
     #	  CS:	     20%	     10Mbps
     #	  other:     20%	      5Mbps
     #
     class hfsc pvc0 pitt_other pitt  pshare 20 grate 10M
	     filter pvc0 pitt_other  0 0 136.142.0.0  netmask 0xffff0000 0 0
     class hfsc pvc0 pitt_cs	pitt  pshare 20 grate  5M
	     filter pvc0 pitt_cs     0 0 136.142.79.0 netmask 0xffffff00 0 0

   HFSC Example (simpler one with ulimit)
     #
     interface fxp0 bandwidth 90M hfsc
     # reserve 20% for default class
     class hfsc fxp0 def_class root pshare 20 default
     # shared class for TCP and UDP
     class hfsc fxp0 shared_class root bandwidth 72M
     # shared class for all TCP
     class hfsc fxp0 tcp_shared shared_class bandwidth 40M ulimit 60M
     # generic tcp
     class hfsc fxp0 tcp_class tcp_shared bandwidth 15M ulimit 50M
	     filter fxp0 tcp_class 0 0 0 0 6
     # http
     class hfsc fxp0 http_class tcp_shared bandwidth 25M ulimit 40M
	     filter fxp0 http_class 0 80 0 0 6
	     filter fxp0 http_class 0 0 0 80 6
     # udp
     class hfsc fxp0 udp_class shared_class bandwidth 15M ulimit 20M
	     filter fxp0 udp_class 0 0 0 0 17

   PRIQ Example
     #
     # priq configuration for fxp0 (100Mbps ether)
     #	   icmp: high priority
     #	   tcp:  medium priority
     #	   others: low priority
     #
     interface fxp0 bandwidth 100M priq
     #
     class priq fxp0 high_class NULL priority 2
	     filter fxp0 high_class 0 0 0 0 1
     class priq fxp0 med_class NULL priority 1
	     filter fxp0 med_class 0 0 0 0 6
     class priq fxp0 low_class NULL priority 0 default

   WFQ Example
     interface pvc0 bandwidth 134000000 wfq

   FIFOQ Example
     interface rl0 bandwidth 10M fifoq

   Conditioner Example
     #
     interface fxp0
     #
     # a simple dropper
     # discard all packets from 192.168.0.83
     #
     conditioner fxp0 dropper <drop>
	     filter fxp0 dropper 0 0 192.168.0.83 0 0

     #
     # EF conditioner
     # mark EF to all packets from 192.168.0.117
     #
     conditioner pvc1 ef_cdnr <tbmeter 6M 64K <mark 0xb8><drop>>
	     filter fxp0 ef_cdnr 0 0 192.168.0.117 0 0

     #
     # AF1x conditioner
     # mark AF1x to packets from 192.168.0.178
     #	     AF11 (low drop precedence):    less than 3Mbps
     #	     AF12 (medium drop precedence): more than 3Mbps and less than 10Mbps
     #	     AF13 (high drop precedence):   more than 10Mbps
     #
     conditioner fxp0 af1x_cdnr <trtcm 3M 32K 10M 64K <mark 0x28><mark 0x30><mark 0x38>>
	     filter fxp0 af1x_cdnr 0 0 192.168.0.178 0 0

SEE ALSO
     altqd(8)

BUGS
     This man page is incomplete.  For more information read the source.

BSD					September 10, 2008				      BSD
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