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unix(4) [netbsd man page]

UNIX(4) 						   BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual 						   UNIX(4)

unix -- UNIX-domain protocol family SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/un.h> DESCRIPTION
The UNIX-domain protocol family is a collection of protocols that provides local (on-machine) interprocess communication through the normal socket(2) mechanisms. The UNIX-domain family supports the SOCK_STREAM, SOCK_SEQPACKET, and SOCK_DGRAM socket types and uses filesystem path- names for addressing. ADDRESSING
UNIX-domain addresses are variable-length filesystem pathnames of at most 104 characters. The include file <sys/un.h> defines this address: struct sockaddr_un { u_char sun_len; u_char sun_family; char sun_path[104]; }; Binding a name to a UNIX-domain socket with bind(2) causes a socket file to be created in the filesystem. This file is not removed when the socket is closed--unlink(2) must be used to remove the file. The length of UNIX-domain address, required by bind(2) and connect(2), can be calculated by the macro SUN_LEN() defined in <sys/un.h>. The sun_path field must be terminated by a NUL character to be used with SUN_LEN(), but the terminating NUL is not part of the address. The NetBSD kernel ignores any user-set value in the sun_len member of the structure. The UNIX-domain protocol family does not support broadcast addressing or any form of ``wildcard'' matching on incoming messages. All addresses are absolute- or relative-pathnames of other UNIX-domain sockets. Normal filesystem access-control mechanisms are also applied when referencing pathnames; e.g., the destination of a connect(2) or sendto(2) must be writable. PROTOCOLS
The UNIX-domain protocol family comprises simple transport protocols that support the SOCK_STREAM, SOCK_SEQPACKET, and SOCK_DGRAM abstrac- tions. SOCK_STREAM and SOCK_SEQPACKET sockets also support the communication of UNIX file descriptors through the use of the msg_control field in the msg argument to sendmsg(2) and recvmsg(2). Any valid descriptor may be sent in a message. The file descriptor(s) to be passed are described using a struct cmsghdr that is defined in the include file <sys/socket.h>. The type of the message is SCM_RIGHTS, and the data portion of the messages is an array of integers repre- senting the file descriptors to be passed. The number of descriptors being passed is defined by the length field of the message; the length field is the sum of the size of the header plus the size of the array of file descriptors. The received descriptor is a duplicate of the sender's descriptor, as if it were created with a call to dup(2). Per-process descriptor flags, set with fcntl(2), are not passed to a receiver. Descriptors that are awaiting delivery, or that are purposely not received, are automatically closed by the system when the destination socket is closed. A UNIX-domain socket supports two socket-level options for use with setsockopt(2) and getsockopt(2): The LOCAL_CREDS option may be enabled on a SOCK_DGRAM, SOCK_SEQPACKET, or a SOCK_STREAM socket. This option provides a mechanism for the receiver to receive the credentials of the process as a recvmsg(2) control message. The msg_control field in the msghdr structure points to a buffer that contains a cmsghdr structure followed by a variable length sockcred structure, defined in <sys/socket.h> as follows: struct sockcred { uid_t sc_uid; /* real user id */ uid_t sc_euid; /* effective user id */ gid_t sc_gid; /* real group id */ gid_t sc_egid; /* effective group id */ int sc_ngroups; /* number of supplemental groups */ gid_t sc_groups[1]; /* variable length */ }; The LOCAL_PEEREID option may be used with getsockopt(2) to get the PID and effective user and group IDs of a SOCK_STREAM or SOCK_SEQPACKET peer when it did connect(2) or bind(2). The returned structure is struct unpcbid { pid_t unp_pid; /* process id */ uid_t unp_euid; /* effective user id */ gid_t unp_egid; /* effective group id */ }; as defined in <sys/un.h>. The SOCKCREDSIZE() macro computes the size of the sockcred structure for a specified number of groups. The cmsghdr fields have the following values: cmsg_len = CMSG_LEN(SOCKCREDSIZE(ngroups)) cmsg_level = SOL_SOCKET cmsg_type = SCM_CREDS EXAMPLES
The following code fragment shows how to bind a socket to pathname: const char *pathname = "/path/to/socket"; struct sockaddr_un addr; int ret; memset(&addr, 0, sizeof(addr)); addr.sun_family = AF_LOCAL; if (strlen(pathname) >= sizeof(addr.sun_path)) goto too_long; strncpy(addr.sun_path, pathname, sizeof(addr.sun_path)); ret = bind(s, (const struct sockaddr *)&addr, SUN_LEN(&addr)); if (ret != 0) goto bind_failed; ... COMPATIBILITY
The sun_len field exists only in system derived from 4.4BSD. On systems which don't have the SUN_LEN() macro, the following definition is recommended: #ifndef SUN_LEN #define SUN_LEN(su) sizeof(struct(sockaddr_un)) #endif SEE ALSO
socket(2), CMSG_DATA(3), intro(4) Stuart Sechrest, An Introductory 4.4BSD Interprocess Communication Tutorial. (see /usr/share/doc/psd/20.ipctut) Samuel J. Leffler, Robert S. Fabry, William N. Joy, Phil Lapsley, Steve Miller, and Chris Torek, Advanced 4.4BSD IPC Tutorial. (see /usr/share/doc/psd/21.ipc) BSD
May 29, 2011 BSD
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