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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for spkr (netbsd section 4)

SPEAKER(4)			   BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual 		       SPEAKER(4)

NAME
     speaker -- console speaker audio device driver

SYNOPSIS
     spkr0     at pcppi?
     #include <machine/spkr.h>
     /dev/speaker

DESCRIPTION
     The speaker device driver allows applications to control the console speaker on machines
     with a PC-like 8253 timer implementation.

     Only one process may have this device open at any given time; open() and close() are used to
     lock and relinquish it. An attempt to open() when another process has the device locked will
     return -1 with an EBUSY error indication. Writes to the device are interpreted as 'play
     strings' in a simple ASCII melody notation. An ioctl() for tone generation at arbitrary fre-
     quencies is also supported.

     Sound-generation does not monopolize the processor; in fact, the driver spends most of its
     time sleeping while the PC hardware is emitting tones. Other processes may emit beeps while
     the driver is running.

     Applications may call ioctl() on a speaker file descriptor to control the speaker driver
     directly; definitions for the ioctl() interface are in <machine/spkr.h>.  The tone_t struc-
     ture used in these calls has two fields, specifying a frequency (in hz) and a duration (in
     1/100ths of a second).  A frequency of zero is interpreted as a rest.

     At present there are two such ioctls. SPKRTONE accepts a pointer to a single tone structure
     as third argument and plays it. SPKRTUNE accepts a pointer to the first of an array of tone
     structures and plays them in continuous sequence; this array must be terminated by a final
     member with a zero duration.

     The play-string language is modelled on the PLAY statement conventions of IBM BASIC 2.0. The
     MB, MF and X primitives of PLAY are not useful in a UNIX environment and are omitted. The
     `octave-tracking' feature is also new.

     There are 84 accessible notes numbered 1-83 in 7 octaves, each running from C to B, numbered
     0-6; the scale is equal-tempered A440 and octave 3 starts with middle C. By default, the
     play function emits half-second notes with the last 1/16th second being `rest time'.

     Play strings are interpreted left to right as a series of play command groups; letter case
     is ignored. Play command groups are as follows:

     CDEFGAB -- letters A through G cause the corresponding note to be played in the current
     octave. A note letter may optionally be followed by an accidental sign, one of # + or -; the
     first two of these cause it to be sharped one half-tone, the last causes it to be flatted
     one half-tone. It may also be followed by a time value number and by sustain dots (see
     below). Time values are interpreted as for the L command below;.

     O <n> -- if <n> is numeric, this sets the current octave. <n> may also be one of 'L' or 'N'
     to enable or disable octave-tracking (it is disabled by default).	When octave-tracking is
     on, interpretation of a pair of letter notes will change octaves if necessary in order to
     make the smallest possible jump between notes. Thus "olbc" will be played as "olb>c", and
     "olcb" as "olc<b". Octave locking is disabled for one letter note following by >, < and
     O[0123456].

     > -- bump the current octave up one.

     < -- drop the current octave down one.

     N <n> -- play note n, n being 1 to 84 or 0 for a rest of current time value.  May be fol-
     lowed by sustain dots.

     L <n> -- sets the current time value for notes. The default is L4, quarter notes. The lowest
     possible value is 1; values up to 64 are accepted. L1 sets whole notes, L2 sets half notes,
     L4 sets quarter notes, etc..

     P <n> -- pause (rest), with <n> interpreted as for L. May be followed by sustain dots. May
     also be written '~'.

     T <n> -- Sets the number of quarter notes per minute; default is 120. Musical names for com-
     mon tempi are:

			  Tempo 	 Beats per Minute
	   very slow	  Larghissimo
			  Largo 	 40-60
			  Larghetto	 60-66
			  Grave
			  Lento
			  Adagio	 66-76
	   slow 	  Adagietto
			  Andante	 76-108
	   medium	  Andantino
			  Moderato	 108-120
	   fast 	  Allegretto
			  Allegro	 120-168
			  Vivace
			  Veloce
			  Presto	 168-208
	   very fast	  Prestissimo

     M[LNS] -- set articulation. MN (N for normal) is the default; the last 1/8th of the note's
     value is rest time. You can set ML for legato (no rest space) or MS (staccato) 1/4 rest
     space.

     Notes (that is, CDEFGAB or N command character groups) may be followed by sustain dots. Each
     dot causes the note's value to be lengthened by one-half for each one. Thus, a note dotted
     once is held for 3/2 of its undotted value; dotted twice, it is held 9/4, and three times
     would give 27/8.

     Whitespace in play strings is simply skipped and may be used to separate melody sections.

FILES
     /dev/speaker

SEE ALSO
     pcppi(4)

AUTHORS
     Eric S. Raymond <esr@snark.thyrsus.com>

BUGS
     Due to roundoff in the pitch tables and slop in the tone-generation and timer hardware (nei-
     ther of which was designed for precision), neither pitch accuracy nor timings will be mathe-
     matically exact.

     There is no volume control.

     In play strings which are very long (longer than your system's physical I/O blocks) note
     suffixes or numbers may occasionally be parsed incorrectly due to crossing a block boundary.

BSD					  August 6, 1993				      BSD


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