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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for setpassent (netbsd section 3)

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GETPWENT(3)			   BSD Library Functions Manual 		      GETPWENT(3)

NAME
     getpwent, getpwent_r, getpwnam, getpwnam_r, getpwuid, getpwuid_r, setpassent, setpwent,
     endpwent -- password database operations

LIBRARY
     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <pwd.h>

     struct passwd *
     getpwent(void);

     int
     getpwent_r(struct passwd *pw, char *buffer, size_t buflen, struct passwd **result);

     struct passwd *
     getpwnam(const char *name);

     int
     getpwnam_r(const char *name, struct passwd *pw, char *buffer, size_t buflen,
	 struct passwd **result);

     struct passwd *
     getpwuid(uid_t uid);

     int
     getpwuid_r(uid_t uid, struct passwd *pw, char *buffer, size_t buflen,
	 struct passwd **result);

     int
     setpassent(int stayopen);

     void
     setpwent(void);

     void
     endpwent(void);

DESCRIPTION
     These functions operate on the password database which is described in passwd(5).	Each
     entry in the database is defined by the structure passwd found in the include file <pwd.h>:

	   struct passwd {
		   char    *pw_name;	   /* user name */
		   char    *pw_passwd;	   /* encrypted password */
		   uid_t   pw_uid;	   /* user uid */
		   gid_t   pw_gid;	   /* user gid */
		   time_t  pw_change;	   /* password change time */
		   char    *pw_class;	   /* user login class */
		   char    *pw_gecos;	   /* general information */
		   char    *pw_dir;	   /* home directory */
		   char    *pw_shell;	   /* default shell */
		   time_t  pw_expire;	   /* account expiration */
	   };

     The functions getpwnam() and getpwuid() search the password database for the given user name
     pointed to by name or user id pointed to by uid respectively, always returning the first one
     encountered.  Identical user names or user ids may result in undefined behavior.

     The getpwent() function sequentially reads the password database and is intended for pro-
     grams that wish to process the complete list of users.

     The functions getpwnam_r(), getpwuid_r(), and getpwent_r() act like their non re-entrant
     counterparts, updating the contents of pw and storing a pointer to that in result, and
     returning 0.  Storage used by pw is allocated from buffer, which is buflen bytes in size.
     If the requested entry cannot be found, result will point to NULL and 0 will be returned.
     If an error occurs, a non-zero error number will be returned and result will point to NULL.
     Calling getpwent_r() from multiple threads will result in each thread reading a disjoint
     portion of the password database.

     The setpassent() function accomplishes two purposes.  First, it causes getpwent() to
     ``rewind'' to the beginning of the database.  Additionally, if stayopen is non-zero, file
     descriptors are left open, significantly speeding up subsequent accesses for all of the
     functions.  (This latter functionality is unnecessary for getpwent() as it doesn't close its
     file descriptors by default.)

     It is dangerous for long-running programs to keep the file descriptors open as the database
     will become out of date if it is updated while the program is running.

     The setpwent() function is equivalent to setpassent() with an argument of zero.

     The endpwent() function closes any open files.

     These functions have been written to ``shadow'' the password file, e.g. allow only certain
     programs to have access to the encrypted password.  If the process which calls them has an
     effective uid of 0, the encrypted password will be returned, otherwise, the password field
     of the returned structure will point to the string '*'.

RETURN VALUES
     The functions getpwent(), getpwnam(), and getpwuid(), return a valid pointer to a passwd
     structure on success and a NULL pointer if the entry was not found or an error occured.  If
     an error occured, the global variable errno is set to indicate the nature of the failure.
     The setpassent() function returns 0 on failure, setting the global variable errno to indi-
     cate the nature of the failure, and 1 on success.	The endpwent() and setpwent() functions
     have no return value.  The functions getpwnam_r(), getpwuid_r(), and getpwent_r() return 0
     on success or entry not found, and non-zero on failure, setting the global variable errno to
     indicate the nature of the failure.

FILES
     /etc/pwd.db	 The insecure password database file
     /etc/spwd.db	 The secure password database file
     /etc/master.passwd  The current password file
     /etc/passwd	 A Version 7 format password file

COMPATIBILITY
     The historic function setpwfile() which allowed the specification of alternative password
     databases, has been deprecated and is no longer available.

ERRORS
     The following error codes may be set in errno for getpwent, getpwent_r, getpwnam,
     getpwnam_r, getpwuid, getpwuid_r, and setpassent:

     [EINTR]		A signal was caught during the database search.

     [EIO]		An I/O error has occurred.

     [EMFILE]		The limit on open files for this process has been reached.

     [ENFILE]		The system limit on open files has been reached.

     The following error code may be set in errno for getpwent_r, getpwnam_r, and getpwuid_r:

     [ERANGE]		The resulting struct passwd does not fit in the space defined by buffer
			and buflen

     Other errno values may be set depending on the specific database backends.

SEE ALSO
     getlogin(2), getgrent(3), nsswitch.conf(5), passwd(5), passwd.conf(5), pwd_mkdb(8), vipw(8)

STANDARDS
     The getpwnam() and getpwuid(), functions conform to ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 (``POSIX.1'').  The
     getpwnam_r() and getpwuid_r() functions conform to IEEE Std 1003.1c-1995 (``POSIX.1'').  The
     endpwent(), getpwent(), and setpwent() functions conform to X/Open Portability Guide
     Issue 4, Version 2 (``XPG4.2'') and IEEE Std 1003.1-2004 (``POSIX.1'') (XSI extension).

HISTORY
     The getpwent, getpwnam, getpwuid, setpwent, and endpwent functions appeared in Version 7
     AT&T UNIX.  The setpassent function appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno.  The functions getpwnam_r() and
     getpwuid_r() appeared in NetBSD 3.0.

BUGS
     The functions getpwent(), getpwnam(), and getpwuid(), leave their results in an internal
     static object and return a pointer to that object.  Subsequent calls to any of these func-
     tions will modify the same object.

     The functions getpwent(), endpwent(), setpassent(), and setpwent() are fairly useless in a
     networked environment and should be avoided, if possible.	getpwent() makes no attempt to
     suppress duplicate information if multiple sources are specified in nsswitch.conf(5).

BSD					  April 30, 2008				      BSD
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